Russia at the Crossroads
Political <ul><li>Autocratic monarchy with support of Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember:  Moscow = “3rd Rome”...
Attempted Political Reforms <ul><li>1861 Czar Alexander II abolishes serfdom (reaction to Crimean War) </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Attempted Political Reforms <ul><li>1864 :  Reform of courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More “Western” feel: </li></ul></ul><ul...
Heavy-Handed Political Enforcement <ul><li>Censorship of media </li></ul><ul><li>Use of gov’t spies to infiltrate dissenti...
Economic <ul><li>SERFS!  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technically not slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But, could not leave ...
Economic Reforms <ul><li>Attempts at Reform: </li></ul><ul><li>By 1850s, Russia woefully behind rest of Europe </li></ul><...
Economic Reforms <ul><li>Count Sergei Witte, 1892-1903 (Czar’s Finance Minister): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railway constructi...
Problems with Economic Reforms <ul><li>Workers Exploited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serfs had difficulties adjusting to factory...
Religious <ul><li>Russian Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 of Russians belonged to it </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of We...
Social <ul><li>Land-based inequality of feudalism replaced with wealth-based inequality of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Tech...
Intellectual <ul><li>Czarist reforms not intended to give more rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop industrialization to ...
Intellectual Reactions <ul><li>Serfs consistently denied rights, privileges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RADICALISM! </li></ul></...
Near Geographic - Humiliating Defeats <ul><li>Crimean War (1853-1856): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition of British, Ottoman...
Near Geographic <ul><li>World’s largest country  – 17,075,000 sq. km (6,592,819 sq. mi.). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost twi...
Near Geographic <ul><li>Moscow to Vladivostok is 9,332 km (5000 mi.) and it would take seven days and nights on the Trans-...
Questions to Consider: <ul><li>Russia’s Parallels to French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s Attempts to learn lesso...
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Ch31 Russia Crossroads

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Transcript of "Ch31 Russia Crossroads"

  1. 1. Russia at the Crossroads
  2. 2. Political <ul><li>Autocratic monarchy with support of Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember: Moscow = “3rd Rome” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanov Family rules! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foundation of rule : control of land by nobles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of serfs seen as foundation to social order </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Attempted Political Reforms <ul><li>1861 Czar Alexander II abolishes serfdom (reaction to Crimean War) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles compensated for loss of serfs and land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former serfs had to pay tax for land they got (couldn’t afford) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did little to increase ag. Production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made serfs angry, some went to more radical beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1864- Zemstvos (elected district assemblies) formed- “lip service” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Attempted Political Reforms <ul><li>1864 : Reform of courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More “Western” feel: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent judges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate courts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial by Jury for minor offenses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to emergence of attorney class, lowered corruption </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Heavy-Handed Political Enforcement <ul><li>Censorship of media </li></ul><ul><li>Use of gov’t spies to infiltrate dissenting groups </li></ul><ul><li>Russification in Baltic region and Siberia </li></ul><ul><li>Pogroms targeted Jews </li></ul>
  6. 6. Economic <ul><li>SERFS! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technically not slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But, could not leave w/o permission, and could be bought and sold by nobles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were taxed by nobles, gov’t, and church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NOBLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exempt from taxes and military service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any similarities here? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Economic Reforms <ul><li>Attempts at Reform: </li></ul><ul><li>By 1850s, Russia woefully behind rest of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>1864 Emancipation of Serfs set to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Ag. Prod. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create mobile labor force for Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about Industrialization in England </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Economic Reforms <ul><li>Count Sergei Witte, 1892-1903 (Czar’s Finance Minister): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railway construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonization/Exploitation of Siberia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-Siberian Railway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective Tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance on foreign loans to develop Ind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French/Belgium: Steel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain: Petroleum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Problems with Economic Reforms <ul><li>Workers Exploited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serfs had difficulties adjusting to factory work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brutal living and working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1897 - max. work day = 11.5 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade unions/Strikes outlawed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businessmen did very well for selves, did not seek political ambitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disillusioned workers leaned toward radicalism </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Religious <ul><li>Russian Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 of Russians belonged to it </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of Western Russia, many other religions practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Islam in what would become the “stans” </li></ul><ul><li>Animism in Siberia </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social <ul><li>Land-based inequality of feudalism replaced with wealth-based inequality of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Tech. developments DO NOT equal political/social improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Use of repression to put down dissent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret Police </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism: Frequent Pogroms </li></ul>
  12. 12. Intellectual <ul><li>Czarist reforms not intended to give more rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop industrialization to catch up with West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop presence and military capabilities to move south into weak Ottoman Empire, kind of unsettled Afghanistan/India; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>east into weakened China; east to deal with up-and-coming Japan and increased Euro presence in China </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Intellectual Reactions <ul><li>Serfs consistently denied rights, privileges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RADICALISM! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary propaganda to disgruntled industrial workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land And Freedom Party : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USE OF TERROR </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1879 - attempted assassination of Alexander II </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1881- People’s Will faction accomplished it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1905- Bloody Sunday : workers marched on Czar Nicholas II Winter Palace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t troops opened fire on them, killed 130 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radicals called for unions, strikes, creation of soviets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Czar gave in a little and created Duma (Russia’s first Parliamentary body) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Near Geographic - Humiliating Defeats <ul><li>Crimean War (1853-1856): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition of British, Ottoman, French, Sardinians defeated Russians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed Russians could not fight with the strong countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to reform of emancipating serfs and industrializing to catch up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friction btwn Russians and Japanese over Korea and Manchuria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese sneak-attack on Port Arthur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Baltic Fleet defeated by Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humiliating loss for Russians, spelled beginning of end for Nicholas II </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Near Geographic <ul><li>World’s largest country – 17,075,000 sq. km (6,592,819 sq. mi.). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost twice as large as Canada, the second largest country. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Westernmost point near Kaliningrad (formerly K ö nigsberg, 20 º31’E ) in the Baltic Sea; Easternmost point at Cape Dezhnev (170 º W) on the Bering Straits. </li></ul><ul><li>These points are separated by approximately 170 º of longitude , nearly halfway around the world, and crossing 11 time zones. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Near Geographic <ul><li>Moscow to Vladivostok is 9,332 km (5000 mi.) and it would take seven days and nights on the Trans-Siberian Railway to make the trip. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Questions to Consider: <ul><li>Russia’s Parallels to French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s Attempts to learn lesson from British Industrialization? </li></ul><ul><li>Pros and Cons of such a large amount of territory? </li></ul><ul><li>How is Russia similar/different to weakening Ottoman, Qing? </li></ul>

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