ch14

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  • ch14

    1. 1. Islam: An Introduction
    2. 2. Islam <ul><li>Islam = Peace or surrendering </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Prophets - Muhammad last prophet </li></ul><ul><li>Divine scriptures defining </li></ul><ul><li>Last Judgment “ The unbelievers among the People of the Book and the pagans shall burn for ever in the fire fire of Hell” </li></ul><ul><li>God’s will supreme </li></ul>
    3. 3. In the beginning… <ul><li>Allah created earth in Genesis </li></ul><ul><li>Adam -> Noah -> Shem (Semite) -> </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham -> Sarah -> Isaac (Jewish faith) </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac stayed in Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham -> Hagar -> Ishmael (Islam faith) </li></ul>
    4. 4. In the beginning… <ul><li>Ishmael went to where Mecca was to rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hagar and Ishmael were banished after Isaac was born </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Muhammad <ul><li>610 A.D. Angel Gabriel speaks to him </li></ul><ul><li>“ You are the appointed one” </li></ul><ul><li>The final prophet, the “seal of the prophets” </li></ul><ul><li>Received Qur’an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered his miracle </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. From Refugee… <ul><li>610 C.E. Fled to Medina, converted town </li></ul><ul><li>“ City of the prophet” </li></ul><ul><li>Migration = Hijra </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim calendar </li></ul><ul><li>First community connected by faith </li></ul>
    7. 7. … To Conqueror <ul><li>Masterful politician </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal blend of justice and mercy </li></ul><ul><li>Made peace for five tribes (including three Jewish) </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to Mecca 8 years later as conqueror </li></ul><ul><li>Died 632 A. D. (10 A.H. After the Hijra) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Texts/Laws <ul><li>Sharia - Islamic law, draws no distinction between religious and secular life </li></ul><ul><li>Qur’an - Words of God as told by Muhammad. Fixed impurities in other docs (i.e. Bible) </li></ul><ul><li>Hadith - Sayings, teachings, and accounts of Muhammad </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Five Pillars <ul><li>The Shahadah - “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His Prophet.” </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer- Five times a day </li></ul><ul><li>Charity/Alms </li></ul><ul><li>Ramadan - Islam’s holy month </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca - At least once during lifetime </li></ul>
    10. 10. Jihad <ul><li>Sometimes called sixth pillar </li></ul><ul><li>More than “holy war” </li></ul><ul><li>A struggle to achieve the ways of Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Modern extremists use concept to rationalize and legitimize acts </li></ul>
    11. 11. General Divisions <ul><li>Sunnis </li></ul><ul><li>About 85% of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders chosen through consensus </li></ul><ul><li>The sharia was codified and closed by 10th century </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’ites/Shia/Shii </li></ul><ul><li>About 15% of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Islam’s leader should be a descendent of Mohammad </li></ul><ul><li>Religious leaders have authority to interpret sharia </li></ul>
    12. 12. Significance? <ul><li>Youngest universal faith </li></ul><ul><li>8th century to Renaissance, Arabic the language of mathematics and science </li></ul><ul><li>Through political authority of dar-al-Islam and the sharia, Islam developed into a way of life derived from religious principles. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Big Question <ul><li>How was the Islam religion able to spread to far and so quickly? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Big Question <ul><li>Zeal of new converts </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked weakened Byzantine and Sasanid territories </li></ul><ul><li>Overtaxed peasants and oppressed ethnic minorities in empires wished for change </li></ul><ul><li>All equal before Allah </li></ul>

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