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ch14 ch14 Presentation Transcript

  • Islam: An Introduction
  • Islam
    • Islam = Peace or surrendering
    • Monotheistic
    • Prophets - Muhammad last prophet
    • Divine scriptures defining
    • Last Judgment “ The unbelievers among the People of the Book and the pagans shall burn for ever in the fire fire of Hell”
    • God’s will supreme
  • In the beginning…
    • Allah created earth in Genesis
    • Adam -> Noah -> Shem (Semite) ->
    • Abraham -> Sarah -> Isaac (Jewish faith)
    • Isaac stayed in Palestine
    • Abraham -> Hagar -> Ishmael (Islam faith)
    View slide
  • In the beginning…
    • Ishmael went to where Mecca was to rise
      • Hagar and Ishmael were banished after Isaac was born
    View slide
  • Muhammad
    • 610 A.D. Angel Gabriel speaks to him
    • “ You are the appointed one”
    • The final prophet, the “seal of the prophets”
    • Received Qur’an
      • Considered his miracle
  • From Refugee…
    • 610 C.E. Fled to Medina, converted town
    • “ City of the prophet”
    • Migration = Hijra
    • Muslim calendar
    • First community connected by faith
  • … To Conqueror
    • Masterful politician
    • Ideal blend of justice and mercy
    • Made peace for five tribes (including three Jewish)
    • Returned to Mecca 8 years later as conqueror
    • Died 632 A. D. (10 A.H. After the Hijra)
  • Texts/Laws
    • Sharia - Islamic law, draws no distinction between religious and secular life
    • Qur’an - Words of God as told by Muhammad. Fixed impurities in other docs (i.e. Bible)
    • Hadith - Sayings, teachings, and accounts of Muhammad
  • The Five Pillars
    • The Shahadah - “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His Prophet.”
    • Prayer- Five times a day
    • Charity/Alms
    • Ramadan - Islam’s holy month
    • Pilgrimage to Mecca - At least once during lifetime
  • Jihad
    • Sometimes called sixth pillar
    • More than “holy war”
    • A struggle to achieve the ways of Allah
    • Modern extremists use concept to rationalize and legitimize acts
  • General Divisions
    • Sunnis
    • About 85% of Muslims
    • Leaders chosen through consensus
    • The sharia was codified and closed by 10th century
    • Shi’ites/Shia/Shii
    • About 15% of Muslims
    • Islam’s leader should be a descendent of Mohammad
    • Religious leaders have authority to interpret sharia
  • Significance?
    • Youngest universal faith
    • 8th century to Renaissance, Arabic the language of mathematics and science
    • Through political authority of dar-al-Islam and the sharia, Islam developed into a way of life derived from religious principles.
  • Big Question
    • How was the Islam religion able to spread to far and so quickly?
  • Big Question
    • Zeal of new converts
    • Attacked weakened Byzantine and Sasanid territories
    • Overtaxed peasants and oppressed ethnic minorities in empires wished for change
    • All equal before Allah