Early Adolescent DevelopmentPresentation Transcript
Early Adolescent Development Sara Marcus, Ph.D. NyakaNiiLampti, Ph.D. Licensed Psychologists Southeast Psych 28 October 2009
Today’s Agenda Identification and discussion of the developmental tasks of middle school students Review of various developmental theories as applied to early adolescent development Identification and discussion of classroom strategies to increase effectiveness with middle school students Questions, comments, personal observations
Why Middle School Students?
Characteristics of Middle School Students Roughly between the ages of 10-14 Developmental overlap between middle childhood and early adolescence Beginning to assert independence Focus on self and how they are perceived by others Academics can often be secondary Want to know that they are loved and accepted and need constant affirmation
Questions Middle School Students Are Struggling with Who am I? Who am I in relationship to others? Where do my parents really belong? What’s going on with my body? What do others think of me? What do I do well?
Early Adolescent Development
Physical Development Onset of puberty Generally about two years earlier for girls than boys Can observe the emergence of physical changes during late childhood Hormones Heightened emotionality Acne/other skin breakouts Increase in concern about physical appearance Increase in weight and height Many middle school students feel awkward or strange about their developing bodies
Cognitive development Overlap between concrete operational and formal operational thinking (Piaget) Increase abstract thinking and problem solving abilities Inquisitive Short attention span Orientation to the present Prefer active over passive learning experiences Need relevance in learning Moving towards abstract thinking, with projections to thoughts about the future, ability to set goals, and metacognitive awareness.
Social Development Erikson’s industry vs. inferiority (6-12) and identity vs. role confusion (12-18) Increasing desire for independence but a return to dependence on parental values Increase in sensitivity to peer pressure “Imaginary audience”; self-consciousness “Trying on” of new behaviors and attitudes Frequently changing social relationships
Moral Development Pre-conventional and conventional level (Kohlberg) Punishment and reward Social norms and the expectations of others Right and wrong is determined by rewards and punishments Seek approval from others in their choices Begin to ask questions about “fairness” Often idealistic Begin to be reflective and analytical of their thoughts and feelings
Implications for Classroom Teachers Try to avoid “labeling” Design more learning experiences with opportunities for active learning and development of abstract thinking Present educationally and environmentally relevant issues Peers and media are powerful influences- incorporate these voices in your lessons and assignments Encourage students to “have a voice” Provide opportunities for students to have positive relations with adults and experience leadership
The End! Questions? Comments? Cases to problem solve? For further information, please contact us at: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 704-552-0116 Thank you!