M. arch research seminar


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Abstract: Schools are designed generally focusing the classroom, guided by the idea “learning occurs only in classroom”. Usually the outdoor environment is ignored during the design process of school in the context of Bangladesh. However, research shows that students learn better while the lesson incorporates the outdoor environment (Lieberman and Hoody 1998). Learning in natural environment helps in improving children's cognitive competency, their social, moral and physical development (Huq, M N and Janan, M. 1999). In many cases, especially in Dhaka city, residences are converted into schools without any concern of the necessity of outdoor spaces. Schools in the rural areas of Bangladesh usually have outdoor areas for children to roam around and play. But in most cases large open spaces dedicated to physical activities does not have a proportional number of users and intensity of use in relation to the distribution of children (Malone, K and Tranter, P. 2003). L iterature shows that children are fond of –places with sufficient variety in the environment, and with natural elements such as grass, trees, gardens and parks (Andel V J, 1990.& Broda H.W., 2007) . Children benefit from interaction with ature in all aspects of their development: physical, mental, moral, and emotional ( Tai, L et al, 2006). Quality-Based Curriculum Implementation Programme by the NCTB aims at making the students' learning processes easy, delightful and attractive through the practice of multiple activities in the classrooms, but the classrooms in the primary schools are not designed for holding these multiple activities. A study of eleven Florida high schools specifi cally focused on the effects of environment-based education on students' achievement reveals that students in the classrooms that used the environment as an integrating context (EIC) groups had significantly higher achievement motivation (Place-Based Education Evaluation Collaborative, 2006).There are theoretical standards, theories and emerging concepts concerning the learning of children in classrooms but very few researches are carried on the outdoor learning spaces in the context of developing nations. With this background this thesis aims to explore the role of outdoor environment of school in students' learning. The outdoor environment of one school will be intervened to investigate how the intervention impacts students' learning process.
Keywords: Children, Outdoor environment, Learning process, cognitive competency, intervention

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M. arch research seminar

  1. 1. Outdoor as Learning Environment for Children at a Primary School of Bangladesh Presented by Matluba Khan 0409012014
  2. 2. KEYWORD DEFINITIONS Outdoor as Learning Environment for Children at Primary Schools of BangladeshChildren refers to the school aged children living in Bangladesh i.e. from 7 to 11 years old.Outdoor Environment refers to the spaces in the school premise excluding the schoolbuilding in the ownership of school authority.Learning is only the acquisition at cognitive domain(knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation) andaffective domain (receiving, responding, valuing, organizing andconceptualizing, characterizing by value or value concept) (Bloom 1956)
  3. 3. Only HOME is The perimeterthe environment of the(0-5 year) environment SCHOOL gradually Second increases - Home the school, the peers, teache rs, the way to SCHOOL, the play area…. Each educates and influences the child. In this plastic and ever-changing shape the child enters school – the first formal social institution that proposes to assist him in becoming the person that he potentially can be.
  4. 4. PRESENT SCENARIO CONTENTSource: Primary Education 2007 (DPE: 2008) Research Problem: Present Scenario Objective of the Research Scope of the Research Conceptual Framework Research Question Research Methods Conclusion
  5. 5. PRESENT SCENARIO CONTENT The average dropout rate was more than 10% in each grade Research Problem: except grade 5. (DPE: 2008) Present Scenario Objective of the Research Scope of the Research Conceptual Framework Research Question Research Methods Conclusion
  6. 6. RESEARCH PROBLEM CONTENTThe School Attractiveness Programme: DPE Research Problem: Present Scenario Objective of the Research Scope of the Research Conceptual Framework Research Question Research Methods ConclusionQuality-Based Curriculum Implementation Programme by theNCTB: aims at making the students learning processeseasy, delightful and attractive through the practice of multipleactivities in the classrooms.
  7. 7. PRESENT SCENARIOPrimary School Quality Indicators: DPE, 2006
  8. 8. PRESENT SCENARIO CONTENT Research Problem: Present Scenario Objective of the Research Scope of the Research Conceptual Framework Learning Occurs only in Classroom!! Research Question Research Methods Conclusion
  9. 9. RESEARCH PROBLEMFor more than 50 students a classroom of 507 sft (26’x19’6”) is in the Primary Schools of Bangladeshwhereas they require at least 1250 sft (@25 sft per pupil as per standard (Perkins L B. & Cocking WD 1957, Design Referance Manual 2011 ). According to Texas Safety Standards 2006, the scienceclassroom should be 700 sqft and for only 22 children that is 45 sq ft per person.This classroom is covered up with benches and there is no space for learning by multiple activities, orany sort of experimentation or exploration for science classes.
  10. 10. CONTENT•Places children are fond of – 1. Places full of activity, 2. Places where Research Problem:interaction can take place, 3. Places with sufficient variety in the Present Scenarioenvironment, 4. Places with natural elements such asgrass, trees, gardens and parks and 5. Safe, intimate, enclosed and Objective of the Researchhidden places. (Andel V J, 1990) Scope of the Research Conceptual Framework•Australian school grounds have reduced childrens opportunities forcreative and diverse play. The most serious of these include: the Research Questionreduction in the time for play or unregulated recreation during theschool day (lunch and other recess periods have been shortened and Research Methodsin some cases not provided at all) (Malone, K & Tranter, P. 2003) Conclusion•From a survey in 3 schools in Dhaka City, it is found that the mostfavourite places of 100% students are outdoor. They come to schoolas they can play in outdoor and meet with peers. (Field Survey, 2011by Khan M)
  11. 11. RESEARCH PROBLEM CONTENT Herman Gmeiner School Students Interviewed: 10 Boy: 6 Girl: 4 Favourite Places Places children like while raining Places children don’t like
  12. 12. RESEARCH PROBLEM CONTENT University Laboratory School Students Interviewed: 10 Boy: 5, Girl: 5 Favourite Places Places children like while raining Places children don’t like
  13. 13. RESEARCH PROBLEM CONTENT St Joseph School Students Interviewed: 10 Boy: 10 Favourite Places Places children like while raining Places children don’t like
  14. 14. RESEARCH PROBLEM No proper classroom Then why not outdoor? Children love to be in outdoor
  15. 15. WHY OUTDOOR LEARNING? Literature Survey Consequences ReferencesLearning in outdoor Promotion of questioning, exploratory stance of the child Malone, K & Tranter, P. 2003 Physical/motor skill development of the child Malone, K & Tranter, P. 2003 Cognitive competency of the child Huq, M N & Janan, M. 1999 Social development of the child Malone, K & Tranter, P. 2003 Creative development of the child The Early Years Foundation Stage 2007 Environmental knowledge of the child Risotto & Tonucci 2002 Sense of ownership, pride and belonging in the child Malone, K & Tranter, P. 2003 Improvement of Academic Performance NEETF 2000 The capability to experience new challenges, assess risk and develop The Early Years Foundation the skills to manage difficult situations Stage 2007 Communication of local community with children Moore,R & Wong, H. 1997 What school environments will look like in the future Adams, E 1993
  16. 16. WHY OUTDOOR LEARNING? Literature Survey The capability Promotion of to experience questioning, e new xploratory challenges stance Improvement Physical/motor of Academic skill Performance development Sense of Outdoor Learning Cognitive ownership, pri competency de and belonging Communication Social with local development Environmental community knowledge
  17. 17. WHY OUTDOOR LEARNING? Literature SurveyName of Spaces (Khan, M 2009) Types of Whether occurs development in outdoor? Cognitive developmentInteractive Space √ Socio-EmotionalPassive Places √ developmentPersonalized Spaces √ PhysicalBuilding as an Image of Culture and √ developmentTraditionSpace for Playing √Space for Exploration and √ExperimentActive Spaces √Space for Large Group Activities √Space for Group LearningSpaces having Connection with √NatureRich-Stimulating Environment √
  18. 18. CHILDREN’S RIGHTSCRC (Convention on the Right of the Child, UN, 1989)Article 29 States the education of the child shall be directed to “the development of the childspersonality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential” and “thedevelopment of respect for the natural environment”.Article 31 recognizes the right of children “to engage in play and recreational activities”and Article 12 supports their right to participate in making decisions about “the things thataffect their lives”.Bangladesh is one of the earliest of nations to sign the CRC
  19. 19. CHILDREN’S RIGHTSNational Plan of Action (NPA II) 2003-2015All children enrolled in basic and primary education level institutions have access toactivities, which ensure a healthy learning and living environment for better life.National Education Policy 2010Knowledge of science shall be started from very early stage. The science teaching shall beimparted making the students acquainted with nature, environment and surroundingincidents in stead of making full with lots of information.National Children Policy 2011Article 6.13 Children’s participation and giving opinionChildren’s participation and opinion will be prioritized in all programmes regarding theconfirmation of children’s development in every institute related with children’s right anddevelopment.
  20. 20. WHY DESIGNING OUTDOOR CLASSROOM? The most successful developments are those which have been linked with curriculum use.(Adams, E. 1993) The ways in which children can learn- especially through play- is strongly influenced by the nature, the design and the policies informing the use of schoolgrounds (Moore 1989; Titman 1994; Moore and Wong 1997) Use of schoolgrounds: formal curriculum. Pupils at the Park Primary School involved in aechaeological dig. Photo: Ron Corso
  21. 21. WHY DESIGNING OUTDOOR CLASSROOM?Large open spaces dedicated to physical activities did not have a proportional number of users and intensity ofuse in relation to the distribution of children. (Adams, E. 1993)After his study of 850 primary age children in 21 schools in South England, Harvey (1989, 10) noted that therewas evidence of “…higher general as well as specific botanical knowledge among students from schoolgroundscharacterized by more vegetation and more complex landscape features.”Gillespie Primary School. A class of nine years olds workedwith their teacher and an artist to create painted markingson the playground to extend the range of activities. Photo:Adams
  22. 22. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY CONTENT Research Problem: Present Scenario Objective of the Study Scope of the Study To identify the relationship between outdoor Conceptual Framework environment / nature and children’s learning Research Question Research Methods Conclusion
  23. 23. SCOPE OF THE STUDY CONTENT Research Problem:Only physical outdoor environment in relationship with Present Scenariochildren’s learning is researched here. Teacher-studentrelationship, policy etc are not within the scope of the Objective of the Studythesis because of time constraint and other issues. Scope of the Study Conceptual Framework Research Question Research Methods Conclusion
  24. 24. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK CONTENT Conceptual Level Research Problem: Child Present Scenario Environment Behavior Objective of the Study Scope of the Study Operational Level Conceptual Framework Built Children’s Environment: Research Question Outdoor learning: class Science Research Methods Conclusion cognitive affective domain domain receiving, knowledge, responding, comprehension, valuing, application, organizing and analysis, conceptualizing, synthesis and characterizing evaluation
  25. 25. Demographic Pedagogical Factors Factors Environmental Children’s Factors Learning Psychological FactorsPsychological factors neutralized (sample assignment)Pedagogical factors neutralized (same class, teacher etc.)Demographic factors neutralized (sample age group, sex, number of siblings etc.)Four categories of factors that can influence children’s learning
  26. 26. RESEARCH QUESTION CONTENT Research Problem: Present Scenario Objective of the Study Scope of the StudyIs there any significant difference in learning Conceptual Frameworkbetween indoor and outdoor classrooms? Research Question Research Methods Conclusion
  27. 27. RESEARCH METHODS CONTENT Research Problem: Present ScenarioResearch Strategy: Quasi-Experimental Research Objective of the StudyUnit of Assignment: A school going child (age 7 – Scope of the Study11 years) of Narsingdi Conceptual Framework Research QuestionDependent Variable: The outcome of learning ofchildren. Research Methods Conclusion
  28. 28. RESEARCH METHODS CONTENTIndependent Variables Research Problem:•Outdoor Environment Present ScenarioDependent Variables: Learning of Children Objective of the Study Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Scope of the Studyknowledge, receiving, Conceptual Frameworkcomprehension, responding, Research Questionapplication, valuing,analysis, organizing and conceptualizing, Research Methodssynthesis characterizing ConclusionevaluationUnit of Assignment•A childInstrumentation•Questionnaire
  30. 30. RESEARCH METHODS SAMPLING STRATEGY Convenient Sampling Age range 7 – 11years. 1. According to Piaget’s theory of children’s Stages of Cognitive Development, 7 – 11 years is the Concrete Operational Stage. (Piaget, 1948) 2. In this stage children deal with concrete information that they can perceive directly. Their mental operations work poorly when applied to abstract ideas. So their learning is more effective through the use of practical things. (Huq & Jahan, 1999). Class IV children Random selection of students will be done
  31. 31. RESEARCH METHODS MEASUREMENT STRATEGY Method Reference 1. Quality Test of children Technique previously used in EIC Based learning research by State Education & Environment Roundtable (based on the report by Lieberman, Gerald A. and Linda Hoody, 1998) 2. Questionnaire Survey Questionnaire of this research will be developed from the paper entitled “Childrens Environmental Learning and the Use, Design and Management of Schoolgrounds” by Malone, K & Tranter, P. (2003)
  35. 35. CONCLUSION CONTENTImportance of outdoor in the learning process will be known Research Problem:which in turn can guide future design of primary school of Present ScenarioBangladesh. Objective of the Study Scope of the Study Conceptual Framework“The child shapes the environment and in turn shaped by it” Research QuestionBjorklid, P. (1982) Research Methods Conclusion
  36. 36. REFERENCESMalone, K & Tranter, P. (2003) “Childrens Environmental Learning and the Use, Design and Management of Schoolgrounds”,Children, Youth and Environments, 13(2)Islam, Z. (2007) “Children and Urban Neighborhoods: Relationships between Outdoor Activities of Children and NeighborhoodPhysical Characteristics in Dhaka, Bangladesh” Unpublished PhD Dissertation, North Carolina State UniversityLieberman, Gerald A. and Linda Hoody, (1998). Closing the Achievement Gap: Using the Environment as an IntegratingContext for Learning. San Diego, Calif.: State Education and Environment Roundtable.Bjorklid, P. (1982). “Children’s Outdoor Environment: A study of Children’s Outdoor Activities on Two Housing Estates from thePerspective of Environmental and Development psychology” Stockholm Institute of Education.DPE (2008): School Survey Report 2007DPE (2006) : Baseline Report of PEDP II June 2006Perkins, L. B. & Cocking, W. D. (1957): Schools, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 49Adams, E (1993) : “School’s Out! New Initiatives for British School Grounds” ,Children, Youth and Environments, 10(2)Rissotto, Antonella and Francesco Tonucci (2002). “Freedom of Movement and Environmental Knowledge in ElementarySchool Children” Journal of Environmental Psychology, Special Issue 27: 171-189
  37. 37. REFERENCESHuq, M. N., Jahan, M. (1999), Shishur Gyan Bikasher Dhara: Piaget tatta (Children’s Cognitive Development: Piaget theory),BanglaAcademyNational Environmental Education and Training Foundation (2000). Environment-Based Education: Creating HighPerformance Schools and Students. Washington, D.C.: The National Environmental Education & Training Foundation.Piaget, J. (1948) The Child’s Conception of SpaceThe Early Years Foundation Stage (2007). Effective Practice: Outdoor learning, page-02Convention on the Rights of f theChild(1989) The United NationsNational Education Polidy 2010 (2010) Ministery of Education, The Governement of Peoples Republic of BangladeshAndel V.J. (1990), Places children Like, Dislike and Fear, Children’s Environments Quarterly, 7(4), 24-31Texas Safety Standards (2006) athttp://www.austinschools.org/curriculum/science/resources/safety/documents/01_Introduction.pdf on 30th July 2011Design Reference Manual, Design and Construction Services, The University of lowa onhttp://www.facilities.uiowa.edu/pdc/designstandards/ClassroomDesignStandards.pdf on 30th July 2011Bloom, 1956 at http://www.businessballs.com/bloomstaxonomyoflearningdomains.htm
  38. 38. Thank You