Expose the students to terrestrial –based recreation
activities within the tourism industry
Develop competencies in the overall operation and
management of terrestrial based recreational
Conduct the activities based on international safety
and risk management plan standards
STUDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO:-
1. The concept terrestrial based recreation and its
contribution to tourism industry
2. Tourism planning , technical operation
STUDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO:-
The operation and evaluation of terrestrial
recreational activities for tourist and customers
Effectives communication in explaining recreational
activities rule and safety procedures
Risk management plan in designing and conducting
terrestrial based recreational activities
WHAT IS RECREATION AND LEISURE?
WHAT IS RECREATION AND LEISURE?
Recreation is about activities, pastimes, and
experiences which are freely chosen. They are
usually undertaken in free time and produce
feelings of well being, fulfillment, enjoyment,
relaxation and satisfaction.
They are opportunities to express creativity,
achieve and master new things and feel good about
Community based recreation offers an opportunity
to meet people while enjoying a range of social,
cultural or physical activities. 10
2. SURFACE FACTORS
related to health (sport,
maintenance & preventive
health program, tension
Cultural motivators: desire to
learn more about culture,
architecture, food, art and
folklore other people.
Conformation and curiosity 25
Pull factors: tangible things
that draw visitors to a
destination. This include
people, places and activities
• Examples: friends, relatives,
celebrities, scenic areas,
recreational event, culture,
Push factors: intangible
things (forces) that come
within us. Needs, motivation
and way of thinking
• Examples: adventure,
challenge, escape, self
discover, prestige, rest and
4. RECREATION AND TOURISM PHASES
travel to site
TYPES AND NEED S OF RECREATION ACTIVITIES
Importance of Recreation??
Why is recreation and leisure
PHYSICOLOGY-Recreation is like a rain shower
during the days of scorching heat. It is like a ray of
moonlight in the dreadful darkness-Emotional balance
(balance between work and play)
PHYSICAL AND HEALTH MENTENANCE-Research
has shown that recreation on a daily basis reduces risks
of diabetes and hypertension, enhances physical and
mental health and improves the quality of life.
feel fresh and relaxed
Importance of Recreation??
Recreation brings you close to the nature.
enhancement of your interpersonal and intrapersonal
physical health and maintenance
IMPORTANCE OF RECREATION
WHEN USING THE ELEMENTS OF ADVENTURE, RISK AND
CHALLENGE OUTDOOR EDUCATORS NEED TO ENSURE THAT THEIR
PROGRAMS SATISFY 3 IMPORTANT CRITERIA:
Managing risk in outdoor education hinges on the reduction of the
degree of real risk to a level considered acceptable to everyday
exposure. Understandably, this aim may be an objective of any outdoor
program where risk of injury inherent. Safety, is a paramount
consideration, however, it cannot be guaranteed.
This because there are many factors over which little or no
control can be exerted (eg. Sudden rock fall, gear failure,
human error, or inclement weather.
Risk management planning is an attempt to identify
particular hazards of an injury or death to
participants (Ewert 1983).
The degree of risk and the probability of an incident
relates to the assessment of risk. to assess the level of
risk in an outdoor education program will require an
evaluation of the amount of risk identified and the like
hood of an incident or accident occurring (TOLC 1996).
The aim of risk reduction is to implement range of
strategies that will minimize risk to an acceptable
level in attempt to prevent incidents occurring.
A RANGE OF STRATEGIES APPROPRIATE FOR
REDUCING RISK IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION MAY
a) Safety policy guidelines-being familiar with any
workplace, health and safety guidelines….
b) Risk disclosure-by outlining the nature activity to
participant (and their parents/guardians if under 18 year of age)….
Knowing the participants-ice breakers trust
Staff training-qualified staff
Equipment selection, inspection and maintenance-
using approved gear…
YOUR RESPONSIBILITY AS A RISK
1. Establish Public Relations. Let people know about
your risk management effort. It is evidence of your
responsibility and accountability
2. Identify and correct hazardous condition. Area and
facilities should be analyzed on regular basis. If
possible, hazards should be correct! If not, warned
users about them or area or facility should be
3. Provide in service education & training. To enhance
skill and level of safe environment. CPR accident reporting,
agency policies understanding, emergency procedures
(What to do first)
4. Insist on Good & continuous Maintenance. Routine,
schedule records of maintenance and inspection
5. Establish accident policies. What procedure
you/staff required to perform in case and
accident? Policies and procedures should clearly
defined and accessible by all staff.
6. Keep accident report.
Dua Pelajar Cedera Disengat Tebuan Ketika Menuruni
IPOH: Dua pelajar Sekolah Menengah Tunku Abdul
Rahman, Ipoh, cedera akibat disengat tebuan ketika
mereka dalam perjalanan pulang dari Gunung Korbu,
dekat Kuala Kangsar, kira-kira 60km dari sini, Sabtu.-
25 Jul 2011)
... Soleh Nasir berkata pasukan mencari dan menyelamat
menemui mayat Lee Jun Jie, 23, pada 9.50 pagi di dalam
sebuah lubuk di kawasan Air Terjun Stong, ...
RAIN- depression and interpersonal conflicts among
visitor, cold and illness
HEAT AND SUN-sunburn and dehydration
WINDS(HURRICANE)- high wind
REMBAU – “Saya tidak dengar bunyi petir, tetapi saya nampak cahaya
yang seribu kali lebih terang daripada cahaya kamera,” kata salah seorang
jurupandu Gunung Datuk yang hanya ingin dikenali sebagai Din, 30-an,
ketika ditemui di kaki Gunung Datuk, dekat sini, malam kelmarin.
TOXIC VEGETATION- rengas and others
BARRIERS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS- cactus,
fig, thorn will restrict visitors movement
TREE FAILURE MECHANICAL- shallow rooting-
damage the property
MECHANICAL TREE FAILURE- insect and trees
disease, high winds, soil condition
DROWNING-swimming is the most popular cause of
CURRENTS – oceans, lakes, stream and lakes-restrict
swimmer/boater to reach safety area, drown over
waterfall, forced against rock and pulled under the water
FLOODS AND WATER FLUCTUATION- based on drastic
rain downpour and seasonal changes
NATURAL OBSTACLE IN WATER- logs, slick rock
WATERFALL AND RAPIDS- undertows, whirlpools
hilang ketika mandi bersama rakan di
Pantai Teluk Bidara pagi kelmarin.-
sinar harian 16/12/2013
OTHER TYPE OF RISK PERSONNEL RISK
1. Human behavior-exploratory behavior, ego,
2. Employee termination-hasil ketidak
seimbangan akibat dibuang kerja
3. Sexual harassment-you are too cute!!
4. Discrimination- race, gender, marital status, disabilities
5. Employee safety and health aware with human needs
hierarchical and their exposure affect to outdoor
6. Seasonal and part time employees-contract, part
7. Disabilities act
High risk recreation should not be eliminated, but participants should
be warned of the danger
Benefit of high risk: increased self confident, leadership development,
teamwork, self esteem, overcoming failure, increased peer trust and group
problem solving, youth crime prevention programs, criminal rehabilitation.
Most popular is a rope activity which includes rope course,
rope ladder, suspended rope, swinging rope, slider web ropes,
climbing wall and balance beams. All rope activities are capable of
causing serious injuries.
Other high risk outdoor recreation activities and some
inherent danger of participation:
White water rafting, canoeing, kayaking and rafting: turbulent water
injuries, drowning, hypothermia
Mountain climbing-equipment failure, falling, land slides, dehydration,
falling rock and tree (branch)
Cave exploration-equipment failure, lost in cave, falling, lack of
Wilderness use (camping, expedition, trekking)-dehydration, lack of
medical aid and communication, animal attack, losing direction, falling, hit by
trees, broken legs.
High risk require extraordinary care, training and
specialized equipment. For examples. White water
canoeists must develop a higher level canoeing
skill, wear protective life jacket and know the
dynamics and hydraulic of fast flowing rivers
Avoid “home made and designed” equipment facilities.
All facilities must design, installed or check by
those expertise and experience in such matters
provider, seller and manufacturer.
Instructor should teach a student the proper way to handle
the risk in order to minimize the potential of
Give attention to the mental and psychological readiness of
participant must determine general health, cardiovascular
Warning should be clearly and
repeat in high risk situation. Always
give how to instruction before starting an activity. No
person should be forced or pressured into participation.