Album of the American Colonies<br />By Yaney Langson<br />
Portugal <br />International Slave Trade to Brazil<br />The Dutch and the Portuguese<br />Sources<br />By Yaney Langson<br />
International Slave Trade to Brazil <br /><ul><li>In June 1852, Brazil's Minister of Justice, Jose Ildefonso de Sousa Ramos, ended the international slave trade.
Sailing ships carried between 3.6 million and 5 million slaves to Brazil over the course of more than three centuries (1525-1851).
During the first half of the nineteenth century, the importation reached some of its highest annual and decadal levels.
To satisfy demand for workers on expanding coffee estates south of Bahia, ships disembarked African slaves in unprecedented numbers.
Treaties between Great Britain and Portugal in 1815 and 1817 placed various legal restrictions on slave traders. Ratification of the 1826 treaty stipulated that the slave trade to Brazil would become illegal.
In Rio de Janeiro, slaves constituted an estimated 38.3 percent of the population by 1849. The presence of nearly 8o,ooo slaves made Rio de Janeiro by far the city with the largest slave population in the America </li></li></ul><li>The Dutch and the Portuguese<br />The Dutch supplanted the Portuguese as the primary carriers of the valuable spice and silk trade from Asia to Europe.<br />During the early and middle seventeenth century, the Dutch stole the Portuguese’s two primacies, which were the export of sugar from American plantations and the transportation of slaves from West Africa.<br />In 1637, the Dutch captured Elmina Castle, the principal Portuguese fortified trading post on the west of Africa.<br />The Dutch victories dismayed the Portuguese, who lost confidence in the protection of their Spanish king.<br />Fed up with Spanish rule, the Portuguese rebelled, reasserting their independence in 1640.<br />
Sources<br /> An Act "Even of Public Security": Slave Resistance, Social Tensions, and the End of the International Slave Trade to Brazil, 1835-1856. Dalet Graden. The Hispanic American Historical Review. Vol. 76, No. 2 (May,1996), pp. 249-282. Published by: Duke University press<br />“Middle Colonies.”“The Dutch Empire.” American Colonies. Chapter 12<br />
Slavery<br />During the eighteen century, the British colonies imported 1.5 million slaves.<br />The slave traders provided de labor essential to the plantations producing the commodities – sugar, tobbaco, and rice.<br />The British seized a commanding lead in the transatlantic slave trade, carrying about 2.5 millions slaves.<br />Slavery varied considerably by region.<br />Northern slaves were disproportionately urban. Boston was home to one-sixth of the blacks in Massachusetts, and New York City held at least a fifth of the slaves in the colony of New York.<br />Urban slaves belonged to wealthy families.<br />
Slavery<br />Thomas Peters was kidnapped by African slave traders and marched to the coast. He was sold to the captain of a French slave ship, the Henri Quatre. <br />He tried to escape 3 times from his owner who called him chattel property. Peters was whipped severely, branded, and put into heavy shackles. <br />Joseph Rachell was born in slavery. <br />He was manumitted before the age of ten, and by the time of his death he had become a Bridgetown merchant with extensive business.<br />Francesca was anIndian Slave who was stripped from her homeland, an area in Venezuela known today as the city of Manaus. <br /> She first won her case to be freed but then was forced to remain a slave after her case was lost during an appeal.<br />
Sources<br />“Francesca.” “Indian Slave.” Struggle and Survival. Chapter 15<br />“Joseph Rachell.” “Tavern Keeper.” Struggle and Survival. Chapter 21<br />“The Atlantic, 1700-80.” “Africans.” American Colonies. Chapter 14<br />“Thomas Peters.” “Millwright and Deliverer” Struggle and Survival. Chapter 4 <br />
The Dutch<br />Sss<br />222<br />By Yaney Langson<br />
The Dutch Empire<br />The Dutch colony on the Hudson River was a wealthy enterprise.<br />They Dominated the carrying trade of northern and western Europe, The North Seas fisheries, and Arctic whaling.<br />The Great Dutch city of Amsterdam became the preeminent shipping, banking, insurance, printing, and textile manufacturing center.<br />In 1614, Dutch traders established a year-round presence on the upper Hudson by founding Fort Nassau. <br />In 1625, The Dutch founded the fortified town of New Amsterdam on Manhattan island. It served as the colony’s largest town, major seaport, and government headquarters. <br />
Sources<br />“Middle Colonies”. “New Netherland.” American Colonies. Chapter 12<br />“Middle Colonies”. “The Dutch Empire.” American Colonies. Chapter 12<br />
The English<br /><ul><li>In May 1607 a band of 105 Englishmen established an invasion beachhead on the lands of Indian Virginia. 40 years later they had grown to be a settlement of 15,000.
In December 1607, Opechancanough was dispatched to capture Captain John Smith, the leader at Jamestown.
Indian Alliance attacked the English settlements along the entire length of the James River.
In 1664 Jacob was eclipsed by a power much greater than his own when an English fleet suddenly appeared to conquer New Netherland.
the English had secured a place on the North American continent. Virginia and Maryland consumed from English manufactures and imported their own agricultural goods.
The Puritans were people from all ranks of English society. In 1630 a “Great Migration” of Puritans to New England began under the leadership of John Winthrop.
In 1664, English instigated the second war by sending an expedition to conquer New Netherland.
King Charles II and the Duke of York wanted to strengthen crown control over all English colonies.
English Quakers colonized West Jersey, while East Jersey became multiethnic.
The English conquest only compound the region’s ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity created the new colonies of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, which attracted more non-English emigrants. </li></li></ul><li>Sources<br />“Jacob Young.” “Indian Trader & Interpreter”. Struggle & Survival. Chapter 19<br />“Opechancanough.” “Indian Resistance Leader.” Struggle & Survival. Chapter 1<br /> “Middle Colonies.” “Conquest.” American Colonies. Chapter 12<br />“Middle Colonies.” “New Jersey.” American Colonies. Chapter 12<br />“Middle Colonies.” “Diversity.” American Colonies. Chapter 12<br />“Virginia.” American Colonies. Chapter 6<br />
France<br />French America<br />The Colonization of New France.<br />Sources<br />By YaneyLangson<br />
French America <br /><ul><li>Until 1663, Canada belonged to the fur-trading Company of New France.
The French learned to late that they needed more colonists to defend Quebec from their English rivals. In 1627, after almost 20 years of colonization, Quebec still had only 85 French colonists. They were then taken over by English privateers 2 years later, until in 1632 when a peace treaty was signed.
During the 1660s army forces in Canada received grants of seigneurie. By 1675, seventy seigneuries divided the land between Quebec and Montreal.
New France grew slowly from 700 colonists in 1650 to 3,000 in 1663. Compared to 58,000 colonists in New England and the Chesapeake by 1660.
The officials of the French crown worried that they were losing the race to colonize North America.
At first the crown stimulated emigration by paying for transatlantic passages, but New France failed to develop a self-sustaining and self-financing chain migration as relatives and friends followed the first emigrants in growing numbers.
After 1673 when the French crown stop supporting emigration expenses in order to save money, the emigration came to a halt.</li></li></ul><li>The Colonization of New France<br />When the Jesuits returned to previously explored Quebec in 1625, they made it their headquarters. Missionaries also followed the fur trade routes west to the land of the Hurons. The enterprise of the Jesuits was affected by a large pattern of relations between Indians and French.<br />The French only occupied a small territory in the St. Lawrence Valley. The waterways allowed trade with peoples living far to the west to be accomplished. It was and empire of multistranded commercial links between France and the different Indian nations.<br />The Jesuit missionaries were witnesses to many of the events of this time, even though they were not controlling them or even understanding them completely.<br />The Acadian expedition and the establishment at Quebec from 1625-1629 were two abortive beginnings to the Jesuit enterprise. Two Jesuits returned to Quebec after the French reasserted control in 1632.<br />
Sources<br />“French America.” American Colonies. Chapter 16<br />“The colonization of the New France.” The Jesuit Relations.Chapter 9<br />“The Canadian Missions.” The Jesuit Relations.Chapter 11<br />
NATIVES<br />Dental, genetic, and linguistic analysis reveals that most contemporary Native Americans are remarkably homogeneous and probably descend from a few hundred ancestors who came to North America.<br />North of central Mexico, most native people lived in smaller, more dispersed, and more mobile bands that placed less of a burden on their local nature.<br />When the Europeans invaded, the native North Americans discovered their technological and epidemiological disadvantages. <br />In 1625, the Jesuits arrived on the banks of the St. Lawrence River. They were entering a continent still very much under Indian control.<br />Dozens of independent native nations, each with its own distinctive culture, inhabited present-day eastern Canada and the northeastern United States.<br />
Natives Who Made History<br />Isabel Moctezuma was an Aztec princess daughter of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II. <br />She was the most prominent woman in colonial Mexico and a pioneer of Mestizage. <br />She was a symbol of great legal and sociological importance to the Hispanization and Christianization of Mexico.<br />Squanto was a native American and the last of the Patuxets. <br />He rescued the Pilgrims from wilderness by teaching them how to plant corn and introducing them to natives. <br />He brought the union of the European colonizers and the American land. <br />Opechancanough was an Indian resistance leader from Virginia. <br />He was an Indian of this land who was a kinsman of Pocahontas and Powhatan and the architect of the bloody Indian uprisings of 1622 and 1644. <br />
Sources<br />“Iroquoians and Algonquians.” The Jesuit Relations. Chapter 1<br />“Isabel Moctezuma.” “Pioner of Mestizaje.” Struggle and Survival. Chapter 11<br />“The Beginning of the Intermarriage.” The Aztecs. Chapter 5 <br />“Natives.” American Colonies. Chapter 1<br />“Opechancanough.” “Indian Resistance Leader.” Struggle and Survival. Chapter 1<br />“Squanto.” “Last of the Patuxets.” Struggle and Survival. Chapter 12<br />
Enrico Martinez<br />Enrico Martinez was an imigrant from Seville who came to Veracruz, Mexico in 1589.<br />He was a Pinter and Engineer.<br /> He was unique in his knowledge of Science and his European travels. Over the span of 43 years in Mexico City, he established himself as a scientist and a public official.<br />He struggled with his desire to find out the truth about natural phenomena.<br />He was briefly imprisoned in 1629 and the in 1631 when he retired to an apartment he was described by a commission inspector as being a man surrounded by books and hidden in his room.<br />His talent as a printer employed him and his scientific mind led him down a road of interesting adventures. He was innovative, but unfortunately failed at his efforts of social contribution such as his vision of an all valley flood program and the first building of a desague<br />
The Spanish frontier<br />Spanish expansion slowed beyond the core regions of central Mexico and Peru.<br />Hernan Cortes had penetrated a relatively impoverished coastal district to conquer the wealthy Aztec empire.<br />Cabeza de Vaca has been missing for eight years.<br />He and his companions had trekked across much of North America, from Florida to Texas and northern Mexico.<br />Cabeza de Vaca endured a searing of double transformation, first from conquistador to slave, and then from slave to sacred healer.<br />
The Spanish frontier<br />In 1536, Spanish expansion led the first expedition to Florida and through what is now American southeast.<br />Francisco Vasquez de Coronado marched the second expedition from Mexico into across the American southwest to the Great Plains.<br />The Soto expedition introduced violence, destruction and diseases that decimated the natives. <br />Death and misery spread throughout the great valley as Indian travelers, traders, and refugees.<br />The southeastern forest of the eighteenth century was wrought by the destructive power of a sixteenth-century European expedition. <br />
Sources<br />“Enrico Martinez.” “Printer and Engineer.” Struggle & Survival. Chapter 18<br />“The Spanish frontier.” American Colonies. Chapter 4<br />