Sources, Methods andTriangulation in Needs Analysis:A Critical Perspective in a Case Study of Waikiki Hotel Maids         ...
The paper includes• Comparison of methods and sources  in NA (case studies and corpora)• Findings of research in NA carrie...
What            WhereWhy            HowFindings           Conclusion
What Needs analysis research for language teaching through qualitative techniques:• participant observation• unstructured...
Where• A hotel from an important chain in Waikiki, a  neighbourhood in Honolulu, Hawai.
Why• Growing emphasis on NA for occupation  specific ESP courses.• Criticism to institutional ESP curriculum.• To find out...
NA for the workplace / institutional NA:               Criticism• Institutions have clearly defined expectations of  what ...
NA for the workplace / institutional NA:              Criticism   ESP channels immigrants into marginal  occupations that ...
NA for the workplace / institutional            NA: CriticismSolution (Goldstein):• NA beyond the workplace, so as to prov...
Remember   An obvious yet important        goal of ESP        should be forstudents to really benefit from            Engl...
How /Solution to the problem of Institutional                  NA • Use of multiple sources • Triangulation of sources and...
Institutions                   Students               TRIANGULATION
Sources & Techniquesused by Long, Svendsen & Krebs, and Cumaranatunge• Language teachers with prior experience.• People no...
Sources & Techniquesused by Long, Svendsen & Krebs, and Cumaranatunge• Published NA corpora.• Interviews (structured & inf...
The sources used in the case study            in Waikiki •   Three housekeepers (day and evening shifts) •   Various super...
Methods• Participant observations (tape-recording  and note taking)• Unstructured interviews• Questionnaires (given to hou...
Findings• The language needed for the hotel tasks the  maids must perform is very limited• The lack of English language sk...
Conclusion• The use of qualitative techniques, multiple  sources and triangulation allowed for the  inclusion of learners’...
Conclusion• The use of multiple sources shows that  different actors have different perceptions of  similar situations, wh...
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Presentation on Rebeca Gasso Aguilar's "Sources, Methods and Triangulation in Needs Analysis: A Critical Perspective in a Case Study of Waikiki Hotel Maids"

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This is the Powerpoint presentation a classmate and I prepared for an oral presentation on Rebeca Gasso Aguilar's "Sources, Methods and Triangulation in Needs Analysis: A Critical Perspective in a Case Study of Waikiki Hotel Maids" paper. It is relevant for newcomers to the realm of ESP.

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Presentation on Rebeca Gasso Aguilar's "Sources, Methods and Triangulation in Needs Analysis: A Critical Perspective in a Case Study of Waikiki Hotel Maids"

  1. 1. Sources, Methods andTriangulation in Needs Analysis:A Critical Perspective in a Case Study of Waikiki Hotel Maids Rebeca Jasso-Aguilar _______________________________________________ Didáctica Especial II y Observación y Práctica de la Enseñanza II Argüello Pitt, Matías Tisera, Melisa Gabriela April 24th, 2012
  2. 2. The paper includes• Comparison of methods and sources in NA (case studies and corpora)• Findings of research in NA carried out in a hotel in Waikiki
  3. 3. What WhereWhy HowFindings Conclusion
  4. 4. What Needs analysis research for language teaching through qualitative techniques:• participant observation• unstructured interviews• questionnaires
  5. 5. Where• A hotel from an important chain in Waikiki, a neighbourhood in Honolulu, Hawai.
  6. 6. Why• Growing emphasis on NA for occupation specific ESP courses.• Criticism to institutional ESP curriculum.• To find out if participants were aware of their language needs
  7. 7. NA for the workplace / institutional NA: Criticism• Institutions have clearly defined expectations of what they want workers to do. Institutions provide outsiders with that info.Result: a curriculum leading to marginalization, as it socializes students into passive acceptance of subservient roles. (Auerbach)
  8. 8. NA for the workplace / institutional NA: Criticism ESP channels immigrants into marginal occupations that offer no opportunity to gain additional language or job skills ensuring that they will have enough English to perform adequately in minimum-wage jobs (…) yet not enough to move beyond this level of employment.
  9. 9. NA for the workplace / institutional NA: CriticismSolution (Goldstein):• NA beyond the workplace, so as to provide language training that helps students function not just as cheap labor force but as functional members of English-speaking societies.• What is important to employees should be considered together with what is important to employers.
  10. 10. Remember An obvious yet important goal of ESP should be forstudents to really benefit from English.
  11. 11. How /Solution to the problem of Institutional NA • Use of multiple sources • Triangulation of sources and methods (comparison & combination of sources, methods, findings, etc)
  12. 12. Institutions Students TRIANGULATION
  13. 13. Sources & Techniquesused by Long, Svendsen & Krebs, and Cumaranatunge• Language teachers with prior experience.• People now undergoing or who have completed the education program.• Those already employed in the occupation.• Current or future subject area teachers or employers.• Documents such as job descriptions and course reading lists.
  14. 14. Sources & Techniquesused by Long, Svendsen & Krebs, and Cumaranatunge• Published NA corpora.• Interviews (structured & informal).• Shadowing workers.• Participant observation.• Questionnaires.
  15. 15. The sources used in the case study in Waikiki • Three housekeepers (day and evening shifts) • Various supervisors • The executive housekeeper • Human resources people • Task force meetings • Morning briefings • Housekeeping room • Documents (job decriptions, procedures)
  16. 16. Methods• Participant observations (tape-recording and note taking)• Unstructured interviews• Questionnaires (given to housekeepers and coworkers)
  17. 17. Findings• The language needed for the hotel tasks the maids must perform is very limited• The lack of English language skills does not affect their performance• Institutional representatives perceive a need for housekeepers to develop better language skills• Housekeepers identified a variety of language needs
  18. 18. Conclusion• The use of qualitative techniques, multiple sources and triangulation allowed for the inclusion of learners’ voices in expressing their needs.• Participant observation was crucial for identifying reliable sources.
  19. 19. Conclusion• The use of multiple sources shows that different actors have different perceptions of similar situations, which leads them to different objectives and felt needs.• This study helped prove the reliability of insiders and the frequent unreliability of outsiders.
  20. 20. Thank you!

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