• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content







Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    presentation presentation Document Transcript

    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 SECTION 9 - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Part A D = nominal diameter of prestressing steel (Articles General Requirements and Materials 9.17 and 9.28) + d = distance from extreme compressive fiber to cen­9.1 APPLICATION troid of the prestressing force, or to centroid of negative moment reinforcing for precast girder9.1.1 General bridges made continuous dt = distance from the extreme compressive fiber to The specifications of this section are intended for the centroid of the non-prestressed tension rein­design of prestressed concrete bridge members. Mem­ forcement (Articles 9.7 and 9.17-9.19)bers designed as reinforced concrete, except for a per­ ES = loss of prestress due to elastic shortening (Articlecentage of tensile steel stressed to improve service behav­ 9.16)ior, shall conform to the applicable specifications ofSection 8. e = base of Naperian logarithms (Article 9.16) Exceptionally long span or unusual structures require fcds = average concrete compressive stress at the c.g. ofdetailed consideration of effects which under this Section the prestressing steel under full dead load (Articlemay have been assigned arbitrary values. 9.16) fcir = average concrete stress at the c.g. of the prestress­9.1.2 Notations ing steel at time of release (Article 9.16) f c = compressive strength of concrete at 28 daysAs = area of non-prestressed tension reinforcement (Articles 9.7 and 9.19) f ci = compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress (Article 9.15)As = area of compression reinforcement (Article 9.19) fct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweightA*s = area of prestressing steel (Article 9.17) aggregate concrete, psiAsf = steel area required to develop the compressive fd = stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme strength of the overhanging portions of the flange fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by (Article 9.17) externally applied loads (Article 9.20)Asr = steel area required to develop the compressive fpc = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance strength of the web of a flanged section (Articles for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section 9.17-9.19) resisting externally applied loads or at junction ofAv = area of web reinforcement (Article 9.20) web and flange when the centroid lies within theb = width of flange of flanged member or width of flange (In a composite member, fpc is resultant rectangular member compressive stress at centroid of composite sec­bv = width of cross section at the contact surface being tion, or at junction of web and flange when the investigated for horizontal shear (Article 9.20) centroid lies within the flange, due to both pre­ stress and moments resisted by precast memberb = width of a web of a flanged member acting alone.) (Article 9.20)CRc = loss of prestress due to creep of concrete (Article fpe = compressive stress in concrete due to effective 9.16) prestress forces only (after allowance for all pre­CRs = loss of prestress due to relaxation of prestressing stress losses) at extreme fiber of section where steel (Article 9.16) tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads (Article 9.20) SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-1
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000fps = guaranteed ultimate tensile strength of the pre­ p = As /bd, ratio of compression reinforcement (Ar­ stressing steel, A*sf s ticle 9.19)fr = the modulus of rupture of concrete, as defined in Pu = factored tendon force Article (Article 9.18) Q = statical moment of cross-sectional area, above or∆fs = total prestress loss, excluding friction (Article below the level being investigated for shear, about 9.16) the centroid (Article 9.20)fse = effective steel prestress after losses SH = loss of prestress due to concrete shrinkage (Ar­f*su = average stress in prestressing steel at ultimate ticle 9.16) load s = longitudinal spacing of the web reinforcementf s = ultimate stress of prestressing steel (Articles 9.15 (Article 9.20) and 9.17) Sb = non-composite section modulus for the extremefsy = yield stress of non-prestressed conventional rein­ fiber of section where the tensile stress is caused forcement in tension (Article 9.19 and 9.20) by externally applied loads (Article 9.18)f y = yield stress of non-prestressed conventional rein­ Sc = composite section modulus for the extreme fiber forcement in compression (Article 9.19) of section where the tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads (Article 9.18)f*y = yield stress of prestressing steel (Article 9.15) t = average thickness of the flange of a flanged mem­ = 0.90 f s for low-relaxation wire or strand ber (Articles 9.17 and 9.18) = 0.85 f s for stress-relieved wire or strand To = steel stress at jacking end (Article 9.16) = 0.85 f s for Type I (smooth) high-strength bar Tx = steel stress at any point x (Article 9.16) = 0.80 f s for Type II (deformed) high-strength bar v = permissible horizontal shear stress (Article 9.20)h = overall depth of member (Article 9.20) Vc = nominal shear strength provided by concrete (Ar­I = moment of inertia about the centroid of the cross ticle 9.20) section (Article 9.20) Vci = nominal shear strength provided by concrete whenK = friction wobble coefficient per foot of prestress­ diagonal cracking results from combined shear ing steel (Article 9.16) and moment (Article 9.20)L = length of prestressing steel element from jack end Vcw = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when to point x (Article 9.16) diagonal cracking results from excessive princi­Mcr = moment causing flexural cracking at section due pal tensile stress in web (Article 9.20) to externally applied loads (Article 9.20) Vd = shear force at section due to unfactored dead loadM*cr = cracking moment (Article 9.18) (Article 9.20)Md/c = composite dead load moment at the section (Com­ Vi = factored shear force at section due to externally mentary to Article 9.18) applied loads occurring simultaneously with MmaxMd/nc = non-composite dead load moment at the section (Article 9.20) (Article 9.18) Vnh = nominal horizontal shear strength (Article 9.20)Mmax = maximum factored moment at section due to Vp = vertical component of effective prestress force at externally applied loads (Article 9.20) section (Article 9.20)Mn = nominal moment strength of a section Vs = nominal shear strength provided by shear rein­Mu = factored moment at section ≤ Mn (Articles 9.17 forcement (Article 9.20) and 9.18) Vu = factored shear force at section (Article 9.20)p = As /bdt, ratio of non-prestressed tension reinforce­ Yt = distance from centroidal axis of gross section, ment (Articles 9.7 and 9.17-9.19) neglecting reinforcement, to extreme fiber in ten­ sion (Article 9.20)p* = A*s /bd, ratio of prestressing steel (Articles 9.17 µ = friction curvature coefficient (Article 9.16) and 9.19)9-2 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 = total angular change of prestressing steel profile Diaphragm—Transverse stiffener in girders to main­ in radians from jacking end to point x (Article tain section geometry. 9.16) Duct—Hole or void formed in prestressed member to accommodate tendon for post-tensioning. = factor for concrete strength, as defined in Article Edge Distance—Distance from the center of the an­ (Articles 9.17-9.19) chorage device to the edge of the concrete member. γ* = factor for type of prestressing steel (Article 9.17) Effective Prestress—Stress remaining in concrete due to prestressing after all calculated losses have been de­ = 0.28 for low-relaxation steel ducted, excluding effects of superimposed loads and = 0.40 for stress-relieved steel weight of member; stress remaining in prestressing ten­ = 0.55 for bars dons after all losses have occurred excluding effects of dead load and superimposed load. 9.1.3 Definitions Elastic Shortening of Concrete—Shortening of mem­ ber caused by application of forces induced by prestress­ The following terms are defined for general use. ing. Specialized definitions appear in individual articles. End Anchorage—Length of reinforcement, or me­ chanical anchor, or hook, or combination thereof, be­ Anchorage device—The hardware assembly used for yond point of zero stress in reinforcement. transferring a post-tensioning force from the tendon End Block—Enlarged end section of member designed wires, strands or bars to the concrete. to reduce anchorage stresses. Anchorage Seating—Deformation of anchorage or seat­ Friction (post-tensioning)—Surface resistance between ing of tendons in anchorage device when prestressing tendon and duct in contact during stressing. force is transferred from jack to anchorage device. General Zone—Region within which the concentrated Anchorage Spacing—Center-to-center spacing of an­ prestressing force spreads out to a more linear stressαβ 1 chorage devices. distribution over the cross section of the member (Saint Anchorage Zone—The portion of the structure in which Venant Region) (Article the concentrated prestressing force is transferred from Grout Opening or Vent—Inlet, outlet, vent, or drain in the anchorage device into the concrete (Local Zone), and post-tensioning duct for grout, water, or air. then distributed more widely into the structure (General Intermediate Anchorage—Anchorage not located at Zone) (Article 9.21.1). the end surface of a member or segment; usually in the Basic Anchorage Device—Anchorage device meeting form of embedded anchors, blisters, ribs, or recess pock­ the restricted bearing stress and minimum plate stiffness ets. requirements of Articles through; Jacking Force—Temporary force exerted by device no acceptance test is required for Basic Anchorage De­ that introduces tension into prestressing tendons. vices. Local Zone—The volume of concrete surrounding and Bonded Tendon—Prestressing tendon that is bonded to immediately ahead of the anchorage device, subjected to concrete either directly or through grouting. high local bearing stresses (Article Coating—Material used to protect prestressing ten­ Loss of Prestress—Reduction in prestressing force dons against corrosion, to reduce friction between tendon resulting from combined effects of strains in concrete and and duct, or to debond prestressing tendons. steel, including effects of elastic shortening, creep and Couplers (Couplings)—Means by which prestressing shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of steel stress, and for force is transmitted from one partial-length prestressing post-tensioned members, friction and anchorage seating. tendon to another. Post-Tensioning—Method of prestressing in which Creep of Concrete—Time-dependent deformation of tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened. concrete under sustained load. Precompressed Zone—Portion of flexural member Curvature Friction—Friction resulting from bends or cross-section compressed by prestressing force. curves in the specified prestressing tendon profile. Prestressed Concrete—Reinforced concrete in which Debonding (blanketing)—Wrapping, sheathing, or internal stresses have been introduced to reduce potential coating prestressing strand to prevent bond between tensile stresses in concrete resulting from loads. strand and surrounding concrete. Pretensioning—Method of prestressing in which ten­ dons are tensioned before concrete is placed. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-3
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Relaxation of Tendon Stress—Time-dependent reduc­ 9.3.2 Non-Prestressed Reinforcementtion of stress in prestressing tendon at constant strain. Shear Lag—Non-uniform distribution of bending stress Non-prestressed reinforcement shall conform to theover the cross section. requirements in Article 8.3. Shrinkage of Concrete—Time-dependent deformationof concrete caused by drying and chemical changes(hydration process). Special Anchorage Device—Anchorage device whoseadequacy must be proven experimentally in the standard­ized acceptance tests of Division II, Section Tendon—Wire, strand, or bar, or bundle of such ele­ments, used to impart prestress to concrete. Transfer—Act of transferring stress in prestressingtendons from jacks or pretensioning bed to concretemember. Transfer Length—Length over which prestressing forceis transferred to concrete by bond in pretensioned mem­bers. Wobble Friction—Friction caused by unintended de­viation of prestressing sheath or duct from its specifiedprofile or alignment. Wrapping or Sheathing—Enclosure around a prestress­ing tendon to avoid temporary or permanent bond be­tween prestressing tendon and surrrounding concrete.9.2 CONCRETE The specified compressive strength, f c, of the con­crete for each part of the structure shall be shown on theplans.9.3 REINFORCEMENT9.3.1 Prestressing Steel Wire, strands, or bars shall conform to one of thefollowing specifications. “Uncoated Stress-Relieved Wire for Prestressed Con­ crete”, AASHTO M 204. “Uncoated Seven-Wire Stress-Relieved Strand for Pre­ stressed Concrete”, AASHTO M 203. “Uncoated High-Strength Steel Bar for Prestressing Concrete”, ASTM A 722. Wire, strands, and bars not specifically listed inAASHTO M 204, AASHTO M 203, or ASTM A 722 maybe used provided they conform to the minimum require­ments of these specifications.9-4 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Part B ments, the secondary moments or shears induced by Analysis prestressing (with a load factor of 1.0) shall be added algebraically to the moments and shears due to factored9.4 GENERAL or ultimate dead and live loads. Members shall be proportioned for adequate strength 9.7.2 Bridges Composed of Simple-Spanusing these specifications as minimum guidelines. Con­ Precast Prestressed Girders Madetinuous beams and other statically indeterminate struc­ Continuoustures shall be designed for adequate strength and satisfac­tory behavior. Behavior shall be determined by elastic Generalanalysis, taking into account the reactions, moments,shear, and axial forces produced by prestressing, the When structural continuity is assumed in calculatingeffects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, axial deforma­ live loads plus impact and composite dead load moments,tion, restraint of attached structural elements, and foun­ the effects of creep and shrinkage shall be considered indation settlement. the design of bridges incorporating simple span precast, prestressed girders and deck slabs continuous over two or9.5 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION more spans.9.5.1 In all bridges, provisions shall be made in the Positive Moment Connection atdesign to resist thermal stresses induced, or means shall Piersbe provided for movement caused by temperature changes. Provision shall be made in the design9.5.2 Movements not otherwise provided for, for the positive moments that may develop in the negativeincluding shortening during stressing, shall be provided moment region due to the combined effects of creep andfor by means of hinged columns, rockers, sliding plates, shrinkage in the girders and deck slab, and due to theelastomeric pads, or other devices. effects of live load plus impact in remote spans. Shrink­ age and elastic shortening of the pier shall be considered9.6 SPAN LENGTH when significant. The effective span lengths of simply supported beams Non-prestressed positive moment con­shall not exceed the clear span plus the depth of the beam. nection reinforcement at piers may be designed at aThe span length of continuous or restrained floor slabs working stress of 0.6 times the yield strength but not toand beams shall be the clear distance between faces of exceed 36 ksi.support. Where fillets making an angle of 45 degrees ormore with the axis of a continuous or restrained slab are Negative Momentsbuilt monolithic with the slab and support, the span shallbe measured from the section where the combined depth Negative moment reinforcement shallof the slab and the fillet is at least one and one-half times be proportioned by strength design with load factors inthe thickness of the slab. Maximum negative moments accordance with Article 9.14.are to be considered as existing at the ends of the span, asabove defined. No portion of the fillet shall be considered The ultimate negative resisting mo­as adding to the effective depth. ment shall be calculated using the compressive strength of the girder concrete regardless of the strength of the9.7 FRAMES AND CONTINUOUS diaphragm concrete. CONSTRUCTION 9.7.3 Segmental Box Girders9.7.1 Cast-in-Place Post-Tensioned Bridges General The effect of secondary moments due to prestressingshall be included in stress calculations at working load. In Elastic analysis and beam theory maycalculating ultimate strength moment and shear require­ be used in the design of segmental box girder structures. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-5
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 In the analysis of precast segmental 9.8.2 Box Girdersbox girder bridges, no tension shall be permitted acrossany joint between segments during any stage of erection For cast-in-place box girders with nor­or service loading. mal slab span and girder spacing, where the slabs are considered an integral part of the girder, the entire slab In addition to the usual substructure width shall be assumed to be effective in compression.design considerations, unbalanced cantilever momentsdue to segment weights and erection loads shall be For box girders of unusual proportions,accommodated in pier design or with auxiliary struts. including segmental box girders, methods of analysisErection equipment which can eliminate these unbal­ which consider shear lag shall be used to determineanced moments may be used. stresses in the cross-section due to longitudinal bending. Flexure Adequate fillets shall be provided at the intersections of all surfaces within the cell of a box girder, The transverse design of segmental box girders for except at the junction of web and bottom flange whereflexure shall consider the segments as rigid box frames. none are required.Top slabs shall be analyzed as variable depth sectionsconsidering the fillets between the top slab and webs. 9.8.3 Precast/Prestressed Concrete BeamsWheel loads shall be positioned to provide maximum with Wide Top Flangesmoments, and elastic analysis shall be used to determinethe effective longitudinal distribution of wheel loads for For composite prestressed concreteeach load location (see Article 3.11). Transverse pre­ where slabs or flanges are assumed to act integrally withstressing of top slabs is generally recommended. the precast beam, the effective web width of the precast beam shall be the lesser of (1) six times the maximum Torsion thickness of the flange (excluding fillets) on either side of the web plus the web and fillets, and (2) the total width of In the design of the cross section, consideration shall the top flange.be given to the increase in web shear resulting fromeccentric loading or geometry of structure. The effective flange width of the com­ posite section shall be the lesser of (1) one-fourth of the9.8 EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH span length of the girder, (2) six (6) times the thickness of the slab on each side of the effective web width as9.8.1 T-Beams determined by Article plus the effective web width, and (3) one-half the clear distance on each side of For composite prestressed construction the effective web width plus the effective web width.where slabs or flanges are assumed to act integrally withthe beam, the effective flange width shall conform to theprovisions for T-girder flanges in Article 8.10.1. 9.9 FLANGE AND WEB THICKNESS— BOX GIRDERS For monolithic prestressed construction,with normal slab span and girder spacing, the effective 9.9.1 Top Flangeflange width shall be the distance center-to-center ofbeams. For very short spans, or where girder spacing is The minimum top flange thickness for non-segmental +excessive, analytical investigations shall be made to box girders shall be 1/30th of the clear distance between +determine the anticipated width of flange acting with the fillets or webs but not less than 6 inches, except thebeam. minimum thickness may be reduced for factory produced precast, pretensioned elements to 51/2 inches. For monolithic prestressed design of iso­ The top flange thickness for segmental box girders +lated beams, the flange width shall not exceed 15 times shall be determined in accordance with Article +the web width and shall be adequate for all design loads.9-6 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 9.9.2 Bottom Flange For segmental box girders, diaphragms shall be placed within the box at span ends. Intermediate+ The minimum bottom flange thickness for non-seg­ diaphragms are not required for bridges with inside+ mental and segmental box girders shall be determined by radius of curvature of 800 feet or greater.+ maximum allowable unit stresses as specified in Article+ 9.15, but in no case shall be less than 1/30th of the clear For all types of prestressed boxes in distance between fillets or webs or 51/2 inches, except the bridges with inside radius of curvature less than 800 feet, minimum thickness may be reduced for factory produced intermediate diaphragms may be required and the spac­ precast, pretensioned elements to 5 inches. ing and strength of diaphragms shall be given special consideration in the design of the structure. 9.9.3 Web 9.11 DEFLECTIONS Changes in girder stem thickness shall be tapered for a minimum distance of 12 times the difference in web 9.11.1 General thickness. Deflection calculations shall consider dead load, live 9.10 DIAPHRAGMS load, prestressing, erection loads, concrete creep and shrinkage, and steel relaxation. 9.10.1 General 9.11.2 Segmental Box Girders Diaphragms shall be provided in accordance with Article 9.10.2 and 9.10.3 except that diaphragms may be Deflections shall be calculated prior to casting of omitted where tests or structural analysis show adequate segments and they shall be based on the anticipated strength. casting and erection schedules. Calculated deflections shall be used as a guide against which actual deflection 9.10.2 T-Beams, Precast I and Bulb-tee measurements are checked. Girders 9.11.3 Superstructure Deflection Diaphragms or other means shall be used at span ends Limitations to strengthen the free edge of the slab and to transmit lateral forces to the substructure. Intermediate dia­ When making deflection computations, the following phragms shall be placed between the beams at the points criteria are recommended. of maximum moment for spans over 40 feet. Members having simple or continuous 9.10.3 Box Girders spans preferably should be designed so that the deflection due to service live load plus impact shall not exceed 1/800 For spread box beams, diaphragms shall of the span, except on bridges in urban areas used in part be placed within the box and between boxes at span ends by pedestrians whereon the ratio preferably shall not and at the points of maximum moment for spans over 80 exceed 1/1000. feet. The deflection of cantilever arms due to For precast box multi-beam bridges, dia­ service live load plus impact preferably should be limited phragms are required only if necessary for slab-end to 1/300 of the cantilever arm except for the case including support or to contain or resist transverse tension ties. pedestrian use, where the ratio preferably should be 1/375. For cast-in-place box girders, dia­ 9.12 DECK PANELS phragms or other means shall be used at span ends to resist lateral forces and maintain section geometry. Inter­ 9.12.1 General mediate diaphragms are not required for bridges with inside radius of curvature of 800 feet or greater. Precast prestressed deck panels used as permanent forms spanning between stringers may be SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-7
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000designed compositely with the cast-in-place portion ofthe slabs to support additional dead loads and live loads. The panels shall be analyzed assumingthey support their self-weight, any construction loads,and the weight of the cast-in-place concrete, and shall beanalyzed assuming they act compositely with the cast-in­place concrete to support moments due to additional deadloads and live loads.9.12.2 Bending Moment Live load moments shall be computed inaccordance with Article 3.24.3. In calculating stresses in the deck paneldue to negative moment near the stringer, no compres­sion due to prestressing shall be assumed to exist.9-8 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Part C ments respond to superimposed loads as a unit shall Design conform to the provisions of Articles through,, and the following. 9.13 GENERAL Where an entire member is assumed to 9.13.1 Design Theory and General resist the vertical shear, the design shall be in accordance Considerations with the requirements of Articles 9.20.1 through 9.20.3. Members shall meet the strength require­ The design shall provide for full transfer ments specified herein. of horizontal shear forces at contact surfaces of intercon­ nected elements. Design for horizontal shear shall be in Design shall be based on strength (Load accordance with the requirements of Article 9.20.4. Factor Design) and on behavior at service conditions (Allowable Stress Design) at all load stages that may be In structures with a cast-in-place slab on critical during the life of the structure from the time the precast beams, the differential shrinkage tends to cause prestressing is first applied. tensile stresses in the slab and in the bottom of the beams. Because the tensile shrinkage develops over an extended + The prestressing force and required concrete strength time period, the effect on the beams is reduced by creep. + shall be determined by allowable stress design using Differential shrinkage may influence the cracking load + elastic theory for loads at the service level considering and the beam deflection profile. When these factors are + HS loads. particularly significant, the effect of differential shrink­ + The ultimate moment capacity and the shear design age should be added to the effect of loads. + shall be based on load factor design with factored HS or + P loads. 9.14 LOAD FACTORSφ Stress concentrations due to the pre­ The computed strength capacity shall not be less than stressing shall be considered in the design. the largest value from load factor design in Article 3.22. For the design of post-tensioned anchorage zones a load The effects of temperature and shrink­ factor of 1.2 shall be applied to the maximum tendon age shall be considered. jacking force. The following strength capactity reduction factors 9.13.2 Basic Assumptions shall be used: The following assumptions are made for design pur­ For factory produced precast prestressed concrete mem­ poses for monolithic members. bers φ = 1.0 Strains vary linearly over the depth of For post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete members the member throughout the entire load range. = 0.95 For shear = 0.90 Before cracking, stress is linearly pro­ portional to strain. For anchorage zones = 0.85 for normal weight concrete and = 0.70 for lightweight concrete. After cracking, tension in the concrete is neglected. 9.15 ALLOWABLE STRESSES 9.13.3 Composite Flexural Members The design of precast prestressed members ordinarily shall be based on f c = 5,000 psi. An increase to 6,000 psi Composite flexural members consisting of precast is permissible where, in the Engineer’s judgment, it is and/or cast-in-place concrete elements constructed in reasonable to expect that this strength will be obtained separate placements but so interconnected that all ele­ consistently. Still higher concrete strengths may be SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-9
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 considered on an individual area basis. In such cases, the Where the calculated tensile stress exceeds Engineer shall satisfy himself completely that the con­ this value, bonded reinforcement shall be trols over materials and fabrication procedures will pro­ provided to resist the total tension force vide the required strengths. The provisions of this Section in the concrete computed on the assump­ are equally applicable to prestressed concrete structures tion of an uncracked section. The maxi­ and components designed with lower concrete strengths. mum tensile stress shall not In Environmental Area III use f c = 5,000 psi maxi­ exceed .................................................... 7.5 ′ f ci mum because of required air entrainment. 9.15.1 Prestressing Steel Stress at Service Load After Losses Have Occurred Pretensioned members: Stress immediately prior to transfer— Compression: Low-relaxation strands ............................... 0.75 f s Stress-relieved strands ................................ 0.70 f s (a) The compressive stresses under all load combina­ Post-tensioned members: tions, except as stated in (b) and (c), shall not Stress immediately after seating— exceed 0.60f c. At anchorage ............................................ 0.70 f s (b) The compressive stresses due to effective pre­ At the end of the seating loss zone.......... 0.83 f*y stress plus permanent (dead) loads shall not ex­+ Maximum jacking stress .............................. 0.75 f s ceed 0.40f c.+ For longer frame structures, tensioning to (c) The compressive stress due to live loads plus one­ 0.90 f*y for short periods of time prior to half of the sum of compressive stresses due to seating may be permitted to offset seating prestress and permanent (dead) loads shall not and friction losses provided the stress at exceed 0.40f c. the anchorage does not exceed the above value. Tension in the precompressed tensile zone: Stress at service load after losses ................ 0.80 f*y Service load consists of all loads con­ Service Load Condition: tained in Article 3.2 but does not include (a) For members with bonded reinforcement, overload provisions. including bonded prestressed strands .. 6 f c′ (b) For Environmental Area III and Marine + 9.15.2 Concrete Environment......................................... 3 f c′ + Temporary Stresses Before (c) For members without bonded reinforcement .... 0 Losses Due to Creep and Shrinkage Dead and Additional Dead Load Condition: ........... 0 Compression: Tension in other areas is limited by allowable tempo­ Pretensioned members .................................0.60f ci rary stresses specified in Article Post-tensioned members .............................. 0.55f ci Tension: Cracking Stress (Refer to Article Precompressed tensile zone ............. No temporary 9.18) allowable stresses are specified. See Ar­ ticle for allowable stresses after Modulus of rupture from tests or if not available. losses. For normal weight concrete ......................... 7.5 f c′ Other areas: In tension areas with no bonded For sand-lightweight concrete ...................... 6.3 f c′ reinforcement............................200 psi or 3 For all other lightweight concrete ................ 5.5 f c′ 9-10 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Anchorage Bearing Stress Friction losses occur prior to anchoring but should be estimated for design and checked during stressing opera­ Post-tensioned anchorage at service load .... 3,000 psi tions. Rigid ducts shall have sufficient strength to main­ (but not to exceed 0.9 f ci) tain their correct alignment without visible wobble dur­ ing placement of concrete. Rigid ducts may be fabricated 9.16 LOSS OF PRESTRESS with either welded or interlocked seams. Galvanizing of the welded seam will not be required. 9.16.1 Friction Losses 9.16.2 Prestress Losses Friction losses in post-tensioned steel shall be based on experimentally determined wobble and curvature co­ General efficients, and shall be verified during stressing opera­ tions. The values of coefficients assumed for design, and Loss of prestress due to all causes, excluding friction, the acceptable ranges of jacking forces and steel elonga­ may be determined by the following method. The method tions shall be shown on the plans. These friction losses is based on normal weight concrete and one of the shall be calculated as follows: following types of prestressing steel: 250 or 270 ksi, seven-wire, stress-relieved or low-relaxation strand; 240 To = Tx e( KL+ µα ) (9-1) ksi stress-relieved wires; or 145 to 160 ksi smooth or deformed bars. Refer to documented tests for data regard­ ing the properties and the effects of lightweight aggregate When (KL + µα ) is not greater than 0.3, the following concrete on prestress losses. equation may be used: Should more exact prestressed losses be desired, data representing the materials to be used, the methods ofµ∆f s = SH + ES + CRc + CRs To = Tx (1+ KL + µα ) (9-2) curing, the ambient service condition and any pertinent structural details should be determined for use in accor­ dance with a method of calculating prestress losses that is The following values for K and µ may be used when supported by appropriate research data. See also FHWA experimental data for the materials used are not available: Report FHWA/RD 85/045, Criteria for Designing Light- weight Concrete Bridges. + Type of Steel Type of Duct K/ft. ∗∗ Wire or strand Rigid and semi­ TOTAL LOSS rigid galvanized metal sheathing + (9-3) Tendon Length: + 0 - 600 feet 0.0002 0.15 + 600 - 900 feet 0.0002 0.20 where: + 900 - 1200 feet 0.0002 0.25 + >1200 feet 0.0002 0.25* ∆fs = total loss excluding friction in pounds per square Polyethylene 0.0002 0.23 inch; SH = loss due to concrete shrinkage in pounds per Rigid steel pipe 0.0002 0.25* square inch; High-strength Galvanized metal ES = loss due to elastic shortening in pounds per bars sheathing 0.0002 0.15 square inch; *Lubrication will probably be required. CRc = loss due to creep of concrete in pounds per + **Add effect of horizontal curvature if any. square inch; CRs = loss due to relaxation of prestressing steel in pounds per square inch. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-11
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Shrinkage of the concrete and tendon friction for post­ tensioned members. The reductions to initial Pretensioned Members: tendon stress due to these factors can be esti­ mated, or the reduced tendon stress can be taken SH = 17,000 – 150RH (9-4) as 0.63 f s for stress relieved strand or 0.69 f s for low relaxation strand in typical pretensioned Post-tensioned Members: members.) SH = 0.80(17,000 – 150RH) (9-5) Creep of Concrete where RH = mean annual ambient relative humidity in Pretensioned and post-tensioned members percent (see Figure CRc = 12fcir – 7fcds (9-9) Elastic Shortening where: Pretensioned Members fcds = concrete stress at the center of gravity of the Es prestressing steel due to all dead loads except ES = fcir (9-6) the dead load present at the time the prestressing Eci force is applied. Post-tensioned Members (certain tensioning proce­ Relaxation of Prestressing Steeldures may alter the elastic shortening losses). The relaxation losses are based on an initial stress equal to the stress at anchorages allowed by Article Es 9.15.1. ES = 0.5 f cir (9-7) Eci Pretensioned Memberswhere: 250 to 270 ksi Strand Es = modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel strand, CRs = 20,000 – 0.4 ES – 0.2 (SH + CRc) which can be assumed to be 28 x 106 psi; for stress relieved strand (9-10) Eci = modulus of elasticity of concrete in psi at trans­ fer of stress, which can be calculated from: CRs = 5,000 – 0.10 ES – 0.05 (SH + CRc) for low relaxation strand (9-10A) ′ Eci = 33w3/ 2 f ci (9-8) Post-tensioned Members in which w is the concrete unit weight in pounds 250 to 270 ksi Strand ′ per cubic foot and f ci is in pounds per square inch; CRs = 20,000 – 0.3 FR – 0.4 ES – 0.2 (SH + CRc) f cir = concrete stress at the center of gravity of the for stress relieved strand (9-11) prestressing steel due to prestressing force and dead load of beam immediately after transfer; CRs = 5,000 – 0.07FR – 0.1 ES – 0.05 (SH + CRc) fcir shall be computed at the section or sections of for low relaxation strand (9-11A) maximum moment. (At this stage, the initial stress in the tendon has been reduced by elastic 240 ksi Wire shortening of the concrete and tendon relaxation during placing and curing the concrete for CRs = 18,000 – 0.3 FR – 0.4 ES – 0.2 (SH + CRc) pretensioned members, or by elastic shortening (9-12)9-12 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • Mean Annual Relative Humidity {%) BRIDGE D ESIGN S PECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000SECTION 9PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Based on 1:30 a.m. & p.m. and 7:30 a.m. & p.m., e.s.t. observations for 20 years or more through 1964. A A A HAWAII9-13 Figure Mean Annual Relative Humidity
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 145 to 160 ksi Bars 9.17 FLEXURAL STRENGTH CRs = 3,000 9.17.1 General where: Prestressed concrete members may be assumed to act as uncracked members subjected to combined axial and FR = friction loss stress reduction in psi below bending stresses within specified service loads. In calcu­ the level of 0.70f s at the point under con­ lations of section properties, the transformed area of sideration, computed according to Article bonded reinforcement may be included in pretensioned 9.16.1; members and in post-tensioned members after grouting; ES, SH, prior to bonding of tendons, areas of the open ducts shall and CRc = appropriate values as determined for either be deducted. and CRc pre-tensioned or post-tensioned members. 9.17.2 Rectangular Sections Estimated Losses For rectangular or flanged sections having prestress­ ing steel only, which the depth of the equivalent rectan­ In lieu of the preceding method, the following esti­ gular stress block, defined as (A*s f*su)/(0.85f cb), is not mates of total losses may be used for prestressed mem­ greater than the compression flange thickness “t”, and bers or structures of usual design. These loss values are which satisfy Eq. (9-20), the design flexural strength based on use of normal weight concrete, normal prestress shall be assumed as: levels, and average exposure conditions. For exception­ ally long spans, or for unusual designs, the method in Article or a more exact method shall be used. [ p* f su ]] * φM n = φ [ As f su d [ − 0.6 * * 1 ] [ [ f c ]] ′ (9-13) TABLE Estimate of Prestress Losses Total Loss Type of For rectangular or flanged sections with non-pre­+ Normal Weight Light Weight Prestressing Steel stressed tension reinforcement included, in which the+ Aggregate Aggregate+ Concrete Concrete depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, defined as (A*s f*su + As fsy)/(0.85 f cb), is not greater than the+ Pretensioning: compression flange thickness “t”, and which satisfy Eq.+ Normal Relaxation+ (9-24), the design flexural strength shall be assumed as: Strand 45,000 psi 50,000 psi+ Low Relaxation+ Strand 35,000 psi 40,000 psi { * * [ p* f * d pf sy ]+ Post-Tensioning*: φM n = φ As f su d [1 − 0.6[ su + t ]]+ Normal Relaxation { [ [ f c′ d f c ]] ′ + Strand or wires 32,000 psi 40,000 psi+ Low Relaxation [ d p* f * pf ] {+ Strand 20,000 psi 30,000 psi + A f sy dt [1 − 0.6[ s su + sy ]]+ Bars 22,000 psi [ [ dt fc′ fc′ ]] { (9-13a) * Losses due to friction are excluded. Friction losses should be computed according to Article 9.16.1. 9-14 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 9.17.3 Flanged Sections 9.17.4 Steel Stress For sections having prestressing steel only, in which Unless the value of f*su can be more the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, accurately known from detailed analysis, the following defined as (Asr f*su)/(0.85 f cb) is greater than the com­ values may be used: pression flange thickness “t”, and which satisfy Eq. (9­ 21), the design flexural strength shall be assumed as: Bonded members ........ with prestressing only (as defined); { [A f* ] φMn =φ Asr f su d [1 −0.6[ sr su * ]] γ* p * f s′ { [ [ b′df c′ ] ] f su = f s′ 1 − * β1 f c′ (9-17) + 0.85 fc (b − b′)(t )(d − 0.5t ) ′ (9-14) with non-prestressed tension reinforcement included; For sections with non-prestressed tension reinforce­ ment included, in which the depth of the equivalent γ * p* f s′ d t pf sy rectangular stress block, defined as (Asr f*su)/(0.85 f cb) f su = f s′ 1 − * + (9-17a) is greater than the compression flange thickness “t”, and β1 f c ′ d f c′ which satisfy Eq. (9-25), the design flexural strength shall be assumed as: Unbonded members ..... { [A f* ] * f su = f se + 900((d − yu ) / I e ) (9-18) φMn =φ Asr f su d [1 −0.6[ sr su * ]] +A f ( −d ) s sy d t { [ [ b′df c ′ ]] but shall not exceed f*y. where: + 0.85 fc (b − b′) (t )(d − 0.5t ) ′ (9-14a) yu = distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis assuming the tendon prestressing where: steel has yielded. le = li/(1 + 0.5Ns); effective tendon length. Asr = A*s – Asf in Eq. (9-14); (9-15) li = tendon length between anchorages (in.). Ns = number of support hinges crossed by the ten­ Asr = A*s + (As fsy /f*su) - Asf in Eq. (9-14a) (9-15a) don between anchorages or discretely bonded points.+ Asr = the steel area required to develop the ultimate+ compressive strength of the web of a flanged provided that:+ section. (1) The stress-strain properties of the prestressing Asf = 0.85 f c (b – b)t/f*su; (9-16) steel approximate those specified in Division II, Article Asf = the steel area required to develop the ultimate (2) The effective prestress after losses is not less than compressive strength of the overhanging por­ 0.5 f s. tions of the flange. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-15
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 At ultimate load, the stress in the pre­ For flanged sections:stressing steel of precast deck panels shall be limited to: * j 2 f su = x + f se D 3 (9-19) [( ) φM n = φ 0.36 β1 − 0.08 β1 fc′b′d 2 + 2 but shall not be greater than f*su as given by the equations 0.85 fc (b − b′) t (d − 0.5t )] ′ (9-23)in Article In the above equation: 9.18.2 Minimum Steel D = nominal diameter of strand in inches; f = effective stress in prestressing strand after losses The total amount of prestressed and non­ se in kips per square inch; prestressed reinforcement shall be adequate to develop f x = distance from end of prestressing strand to an ultimate moment at the critical section at least 1.2 center of panel in inches. * times the cracking moment M cr .9.18 DUCTILITY LIMITS9.18.1 Maximum Prestressing Steel φM n ≥ 1.2M cr * Prestressed concrete members shall be designed so where:that the steel is yielding as ultimate capacity is ap­ ( )proached. In general, the reinforcement index shall besuch that: M cr = f r + f pe S c − M d / nc (Sc / Sb −1) * f* Appropriate values for Md/nc and Sb shall be used for p * su (for rectangular sections) (9-20) f′ any intermediate composite sections. Where beams are designed to be noncomposite, substitute Sb for Sc in the * above equation for the calculation of M cr .and * The requirements of Article may Asr f su (for flanged sections) (9-21) be waived if the area of prestressed and non-prestressed b′df c ′ reinforcement provided at a section is at least one-third greater than that required by analysis based on the load­ ing combinations specified in Article 3.22.does not exceed 0.36 β 1. (See Article 9.19 for reinforce­ment indices of sections with non-prestressed reinforce­ The minimum amount of non-prestressedment.). longitudinal reinforcement provided in the cast-in-place portion of slabs utilizing precast prestressed deck panels For members with reinforcement indices greater than shall be 0.25 square inch per foot of slab width.0.36 β 1, the design flexural strength shall be assumed notgreater than: 9.19 NON-PRESTRESSED For rectangular sections: REINFORCEMENT ( 2 ) φM n = φ 0.36 β1 − 0.08 β1 f c′bd 2 (9-22) Non-prestressed reinforcement may be considered as contributing to the tensile strength of the beam at ultimate strength in an amount equal to its area times its yield point, provided that9-16 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 For rectangular sections: where Vu is the factored shear force at the section consid­ ered, Vc is the nominal shear strength provided by con­ crete and Vs is the nominal shear strength provided by web reinforcement. pf sy dt p* f su * p′f y′ + − ≤ 0.36β1 ′ fc d fc′ ′ fc (9-24) When the reaction to the applied loads introduces compression into the end regions of the mem­ ber, sections located at a distance less than h/2 from the For flanged sections: face of the support may be designed for the same shear Vu as that computed at a distance h/2. As f sy A f* ′ ′ As f y Reinforced keys shall be provided in the + sr su − ≤ 0.36β1 b′dfc b′dfc b′df c ′ ′ ′ (9-25) webs of precast segmental box girders to transfer erection shear. Possible reverse shearing stresses in the shear keys shall be investigated, particularly in segments near a pier. Design flexural strength shall be calculated based on At time of erection, the shear stress carried by the shearEq. (9-13a) of Eq. (9-14a) if these values are met, and on key shall not exceed 2 f c′ .Eq. (9-22) or Eq. (9-23) if these values are exceeded. 9.20.2 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete9.20 SHEAR The shear strength provided by con­ The method for design of web reinforcement pre­ crete, Vc, shall be taken as the lesser of the values Vci orsented in the 1979 Interim AASHTO Standard Specifica- Vcw.tions for Highway Bridges is an acceptable alternate. The shear strength, Vci, shall be com­9.20.1 General puted by: Prestressed concrete flexural members, VMexcept solid slabs and footings, shall be reinforced for Vci = 0.6 f c′ b′d +Vd + i cr (9-27)shear and diagonal tension stresses. Voided slabs shall be M maxinvestigated for shear, but shear reinforcement may beomitted if the factored shear force, Vu, is less than half theshear strength provided by the concrete φVc. but need not be less than 1.7 fc b′d and d need not be ′ taken less than 0.8h. Web reinforcement shall consist of stir­ The moment causing flexural cracking at the sectionrups perpendicular to the axis of the member or welded due to externally applied loads, Mcr, shall be computedwire fabric with wires located perpendicular to the axis of by:the member. Web reinforcement shall extend to a dis­tance d from the extreme compression fiber and shall becarried as close to the compression and tension surfacesof the member as cover requirements and the proximity M cr = I Yt ( 6 f c′ + f pe − f d ) (9-28)of other reinforcement permit. Web reinforcement shallbe anchored at both ends for its design yield strength inaccordance with the provisions of Article 8.27. The maximum factored moment and factored shear at the section due to externally applied loads, Mmax and Vi, Members subject to shear shall be de­ shall be computed from the load combination causingsigned so that maximum moment at the section. Vu ≤ φ (Vc +Vs ) (9-26) The shear strength, Vcw, shall be com­ puted by: SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-17
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 ( ) Vcw = 3.5 fc + 0.3 f pc b′d + V p ′ (9-29) ment shall be: The minimum area of web reinforce­but d need not be taken less than 0.8h. 50b′s Av = (9-31) f sy For a pretensioned member in which thesection at a distance h/2 from the face of support is closerto the end of the member than the transfer length of the where b and s are in inches and fsy is in psi.prestressing tendons, the reduced prestress shall be con­sidered when computing Vcw. The prestress force may be The design yield strength of web rein­assumed to vary linearly from zero at the end of the forcement, fsy, shall not exceed 60,000 psi.tendon to a maximum at a distance from the end of thetendon equal to the transfer length, assumed to be 50 9.20.4 Horizontal Shear Design—Compositediameters for strand and 100 diameters for single wire. Flexural Members The provisions for computing the shear In a composite member, full transfer ofstrength provided by concrete, Vci and Vcw, apply to horizontal shear forces shall be assured at contact sur­normal weight concrete. When lightweight aggregate faces of interconnected elements.concretes are used (see definition, concrete, structurallightweight, Article 8.1.3), one of the following modifi­ Design of cross sections subject to hori­cations shall apply: zontal shear may be in accordance with provisions of Article or, or any other shear transfer (a) When fct is specified, the shear strength, Vci and design method that results in prediction of strength in Vcw, shall be modified by substituting fct/6.7 for substantial agreement with results of comprehensive ′ f ci , but the value of fct/6.7 used shall not tests. exceed f c . ′ (b) When fct is not specified, Vci and Vcw shall be Design of cross sections subject to hori­ modified by multiplying each term containing zontal shear may be based on: ′ f c by 0.75 for “all lightweight” concrete, and 0.85 for “sand-lightweight” concrete. Linear Vu ≤ φVnh (9-31a) interpolation may be used when partial sand re­ placement is used. where Vu is factored shear force at a section considered,9.20.3 Shear Strength Provided by Web Vnh is nominal horizontal shear strength in accordance Reinforcement with the following, and where d is for the entire compos­ ite section. The shear strength provided by web re­inforcement shall be taken as: (a) When contact surface is clean, free of laitance, and intentionally roughened, shear strength Vnh Av f sy d shall not be taken greater than 80bvd, in pounds. Vs = (9-30) (b) When minimum ties are provided in accordance s with Article, and contact surface is clean and free of laitance, but not intentionally rough­where Av is the area of web reinforcement within a ened, shear strength Vnh shall not be taken greaterdistance s. Vs shall not be taken greater than 8 f c′ b ′d than 80bvd, in pounds. (c) When minimum ties are provided in accordanceand d need not be taken less than 0.8h. with Article, and contact surface is clean, free of laitance, and intentionally roughened to a The spacing of web reinforcing shall not full amplitude of approximately 1/4 in., shearexceed 0.75h or 24 inches. When Vs exceeds 4 f ci b′d , ′ strength Vnh shall not be taken greater than 350bvd,this maximum spacing shall be reduced by one-half. in pounds.9-18 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 (d) For each percent of tie reinforcement crossing the For multiple slab anchorages, both width contact surface in excess of the minimum re­ and length of the anchorage zone shall be taken as equal quired by article, shear strength Vnh may to the center-to-center spacing between stressed tendons, be increased by (160fy /40,000)bvd, in pounds. but not more than the length of the slab in the direction of the tendon axis. The thickness of the anchorage zone Horizontal shear may be investigated by shall be taken equal to the thickness of the slab.computing, in any segment not exceeding one-tenth ofthe span, the change in compressive or tensile force to be For design purposes, the anchorage zonetransferred, and provisions made to transfer that force as shall be considered as comprised of two regions; thehorizontal shear between interconnected elements. The general zone as defined in Article and the localfactored horizontal shear force shall not exceed horizon­ zone as defined in Article shear strength φVnh in accordance with Article,except that the length of segment considered shall be 9.21.2 General Zone and Local Zonesubstituted for d. General Zone Ties for Horizontal Shear The geometric extent of the general (a) When required, a minimum area of tie reinforce­ zone is identical to that of the overall anchorage zone as ment shall be provided between interconnected defined in Article 9.21.1 and includes the local zone. elements. Tie area shall not be less than 50bvs/fy, and tie spacing “s” shall not exceed four times the Design of general zones shall meet the least web width of support element, nor 24 inches. requirements of Articles 9.14 and 9.21.3. (b) Ties for horizontal shear may consist of single bars or wire, multiple leg stirrups, or vertical legs Local Zone of welded wire fabric. All ties shall be adequately anchored into interconnected elements by em­ The local zone is defined as the rectan­ bedment or hooks. gular prism (or equivalent rectangular prism for circular or oval anchorages) of concrete surrounding and imme­9.21 POST-TENSIONED ANCHORAGE diately ahead of the anchorage device and any integral ZONES confining reinforcement. The dimensions of the local zone are defined in Article Geometry of the Anchorage Zone Design of local zones shall meet the The anchorage zone is geometrically requirements of Articles 9.14 and 9.21.7 or shall be baseddefined as the volume of concrete through which the on the results of experimental tests required in Articleconcentrated prestressing force at the anchorage device and described in Article of Division II.spreads transversely to a linear stress distribution across Anchorage devices based on the acceptance test of Divi­the entire cross section. sion II, Article, are referred to as special anchor- age devices. For anchorage zones at the end of amember or segment, the transverse dimensions may be Responsibilitiestaken as the depth and width of the section. The longitu­dinal extent of the anchorage zone in the direction of the The engineer of record is responsibletendon (ahead of the anchorage) shall be taken as not less for the overall design and approval of working drawingsthan the larger transverse dimension but not more than for the general zone, including the specific location of the11/ 2 times that dimension. tendons and anchorage devices, general zone reinforce­ ment, and the specific stressing sequence. The engineer For intermediate anchorages in addition of record is also responsible for the design of local zonesto the length of Article the anchorage zone shall based on Article and for the approval of specialbe considered to also extend in the opposite direction for anchorage devices used under the provisions of Sectiona distance not less than the larger transverse dimension. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-19
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 20009.21.7.3. All working drawings for the local zone must be Nominal Material Strengthsapproved by the engineer of record. The nominal tensile strength of bonded Anchorage device suppliers are respon­ reinforcement is limited to fsy for non-prestressed rein­sible for furnishing anchorage devices which satisfy the forcement and to fy for prestressed reinforcement. Theanchor efficiency requirements of Division II, Article nominal tensile strength of unbonded prestressed rein­10.3.2. In addition, if special anchorage devices are used, forcement is limited to fse + 15,000 psi.the anchorage device supplier is responsible for furnish­ing anchorage devices that satisfy the acceptance test The effective nominal compressiverequirements of Article and of Division II, strength of the concrete of the general zone, exclusive ofArticle This acceptance test and the anchor confined concrete, is limited to 0.7fc. The tensile strengthefficiency test shall be conducted by an independent of the concrete shall be neglected.testing agency acceptable to the engineer of record. Theanchorage device supplier shall provide records of the The compressive strength of concreteacceptance test in conformance with Division II, Article at transfer of prestressing shall be specified on the con­ to the engineer of record and to the construc­ struction drawings. If not otherwise specified, stresstor and shall specify auxiliary and confining reinforce­ shall not be transferred to concrete until the compressivement, minimum edge distance, minimum anchor spac­ strength of the concrete as indicated by test cylinders,ing, and minimum concrete strength at time of stressing cured by methods identical with the curing of the mem­required for proper performance of the local zone. ber, is at least 4,000 psi. The responsibilities of the constructor Use of Special Anchorage Devicesare specified in Division II, Article 10.4. Whenever special anchorage devices which do not9.21.3 General Zone and Local Zone meet the requirements of Article are to be used, reinforcement similar in configuration and at least equiva­ Design Methods lent in volumetric ratio to the supplementary skin rein­ forcement permitted under the provisions of Division II, The following methods may be used for the design of Article shall be furnished in the correspondinggeneral zones: regions of the anchorage zone. (1) Equilibrium based plasticity models (strut-and­ General Design Principles and tie models) (see Article 9.21.4) Detailing Requirements (2) Elastic stress analysis (finite element analysis or equivalent) (see Article 9.21.5) Good detailing and quality workmanship are essential (3) Approximate methods for determining the com­ for the satisfactory performance of anchorage zones. pression and tension forces, where applicable. Sizes and details for anchorage zones should respect the (See Article 9.21.6) need for tolerances on the bending, fabrication and place­ ment of reinforcement, the size of aggregate and the needRegardless of the design method used, all designs shall for placement and sound consolidation of the concrete.conform to the requirements of Article Compressive stresses in the concrete The effects of stressing sequence and three-dimen­ ahead of basic anchorage devices shall meet thesional effects shall be considered in the design. When requiremens of Article three dimensional effects appear significant, theymay be analyzed using three-dimensional analysis proce­ Compressive stresses in the concretedures or may be approximated by considering two or ahead of special anchorage devices shall be checked at amore planes. However, in these approximations the distance measured from the concrete-bearing surfaceinteraction of the planes’ models must be considered, and equal to the smaller of:the model loadings and results must be consistent.9-20 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 (1) The depth to the end of the local confinement Edge tension forces are tensile forces in reinforcement. the anchorage zone acting parallel and close to the (2) The smaller lateral dimension of the anchorage transverse edge and longitudinal edges of the member. device. The transverse edge is the surface loaded by the anchors. The tensile force along the transverse edge is referred toThese compressive stresses may be determined accord­ as spalling force. The tensile force along the longitudinaling to the strut-and-tie model procedures of Article 9.21.4, edge is referred to as longitudinal edge tension force.from an elastic stress analysis according to Article,or by the approximate method outlined in Article Spalling forces are induced in concen­These compressive stresses shall not exceed 0.7fci. trically loaded anchorage zones, eccentrically loaded anchorage zones, and anchorage zones for multiple an­ Compressive stresses shall also be chors. Longitudinal edge tension forces are inducedchecked where geometry or loading discontinuities within when the resultant of the anchorage forces consideredor ahead of the anchorage zone may cause stress concen­ causes eccentric loading of the anchorage zone. The edgetrations. tension forces can be determined from an elastic stress analysis, strut-and-tie models, or in accordance with the The bursting force is the tensile force approximate methods of Article the anchorage zone acting ahead of the anchoragedevice and transverse to the tendon axis. The magnitude In no case shall the spalling force beof the bursting force, Tburst, and it’s corresponding dis­ taken as less than 2 percent of the total factored tendontance from the loaded surface, dburst, can be determined force.using the strut-and-tie model procedures of Article 9.21.4,from an elastic stress analysis according to Article, Resistance to edge tension forces,or by the approximate method outlined in Article φAs f sy and/or φAs f y , shall be provided in the form of * *Three-dimensional effects shall be considered for thedetermination of the bursting reinforcement requirements. non-prestressed or prestressed reinforcement located close to the longitudinal and transverse edge of the concrete. Arrangement and anchorage of the edge tension rein­ Resistance to bursting forces, φAs f sy forcement shall satisfy the following:and/or φAs f y , shall be provided by non-prestressed or * *prestressed reinforcement, in the form of spirals, closedhoops, or well-anchored transverse ties. This reinforce­ (1) Minimum spalling reinforcement satisfying Ar­ment is to be proportioned to resist the total factored ticle shall extend over the full width ofbursting force. Arrangement and anchorage of bursting the member.reinforcement shall satisfy the following: (2) Spalling reinforcement between multiple anchor­ age devices shall effectively tie these anchorage devices together. (1) Bursting reinforcement shall extend over the full (3) Longitudinal edge tension reinforcement and width of the member and must be anchored as spalling reinforcement for eccentric anchorage close to the outer faces of the member as cover devices shall be continuous. The reinforcement permits. shall extend along the tension face over the full (2) Bursting reinforcement shall be distributed ahead length of the anchorage zone and shall extend of the loaded surface along both sides of the along the loaded face from the longitudinal edge tendon throughout a distance 2.5dburst for the to the other side of the eccentric anchorage device plane considered, but not to exceed 1.5 times the or group of anchorage devices. corresponding lateral dimension of the section. The centroid of the bursting reinforcement shall Intermediate Anchorages coincide with the distance dburst used for the design. Intermediate anchorages shall not be (3) Spacing of bursting reinforcement shall exceed used in regions where significant tension is generated neither 24 bar diameters nor 12 inches. behind the anchor from other loads. Whenever practical, SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-21
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000blisters shall be located in the corner between flange and flange or web and be developed by standard hooks bentwebs, or shall be extended over the full flange width or around transverse bars or equivalent. Spacing shall notweb height to form a continuous rib. If isolated blisters exceed the smallest of blister or rib height at anchor,must be used on a flange or web, local shear, bending and blister width, or 6 inches.direct force effects shall be considered in the design. Reinforcement shall be provided to Bonded reinforcement shall be pro­ resist local bending in blisters and ribs due to eccentricityvided to tie back at least 25 percent of the intermediate of the tendon force and to resist lateral bending in ribs dueanchorage unfactored stressing force into the concrete to tendon deviation forces.section behind the anchor. Stresses in this bonded rein­forcement are limited to a maximum of 0.6fsy or 36 ksi. Reinforcement required by ArticleThe amount of tie back reinforcement may be reduced through shall be provided to resistusing Equation (9-32), if permanent compressive stresses tensile forces due to transfer of the anchorage force fromare generated behind the anchor from other loads. the blister or rib into the overall structure. Diaphragms Tia = 0.25Ps − fcb Acb (9-32) For tendons anchored in diaphragms, where: concrete compressive stresses shall be limited within the diaphragm in accordance with Articles through Tia = the tie back tension force at the intermediate Compressive stresses shall also be checked at anchorage; the transition from the diaphragm to webs and flanges of Ps = the maximum unfactored anchorage stressing the member. force; fcb = the compressive stress in the region behind Reinforcement shall be provided to the anchor; ensure full transfer of diaphragm anchor loads into the Acb = the area of the continuing cross section within flanges and webs of the girder. The more general meth­ the extensions of the sides of the anchor plate ods of Article 9.21.4 or 9.21.5 shall be used to determine or blister. The area of the blister or rib shall this reinforcement. Reinforcement shall also be provided not be taken as part of the cross section. to tie back deviation forces due to tendon curvature. Tie back reinforcement satisfying Ar­ Multiple Slab Anchoragesticle shall be placed no further than one platewidth from the tendon axis. It shall be fully anchored so Minimum reinforcement meeting thethat the yield strength can be developed at a distance of requirements of Articles through plate width or half the length of the blister or rib ahead shall be provided unless a more detailed analysis is made.of the anchor as well as at the same distance behind theanchor. The centroid of this reinforcement shall coincide Reinforcement shall be provided forwith the tendon axis, where possible. For blisters and the bursting force in the direction of the thickness of theribs, the reinforcement shall be placed in the continuing slab and normal to the tendon axis in accordance withsection near that face of the flange or web from which the Articles and This reinforcementblister or rib is projecting. shall be anchored close to the faces of the slab with standard hooks bent around horizontal bars, or equiva­ Reinforcement shall be provided lent. Minimum reinforcement is two #3 bars per anchorthroughout blisters or ribs are required for shear friction, located at a distance equal to one-half the slab thicknesscorbel action, bursting forces, and deviation forces due to ahead of the anchor.tendon curvature. This reinforcement shall be in the formof ties or U-stirrups which encase the anchorage and tie Reinforcement in the plane of the slabit effectively into the adjacent web and flange. This and normal to the tendon axis shall be provided to resistreinforcement shall extend as far as possible into the edge tension forces, T1, between anchorages (Equation9-22 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000(9-33)) and bursting forces, T2, ahead of the anchorages anchorage zone. Other forces acting on the anchorage(Equation (9-34)). Edge tension reinforcement shall be zone, such as reaction forces, tendon deviation forces,placed immediately ahead of the anchors and shall effec­ and applied loads, shall be considered in the selection oftively tie adjacent anchors together. Bursting reinforce­ the strut-and-tie model. The forces at the end of thement shall be distributed over the length of the anchorage anchorage zone can be obtained from an axial-flexuralzones. (See Article beam analysis. Nodes a T1 = 0.10Pu 1 − (9-33) s Local zones which meet the provisions of Article 9.21.7 or Division II, Article are considered as properly detailed, adequate nodes. The other nodes in the a anchorage zone are adequate if the effective concrete T2 = 0.20 Pu 1 − (9-34) stresses in the struts meet the requirements of Article s and the tension ties are properly detailed to develop the full-yield strength of the reinforcement. where: Struts T1 = the edge tension force; T2 = the bursting force; The effective concrete compressive Pu = the factored tendon load on an individual an­ strength for the general zone shall usually be limited to chor; ′ 0.7φfci . In areas where the concrete may be extensively a = the anchor plate width; cracked at ultimate due to other load effects, or if large s = the anchorage spacing. plastic rotations are required, the effective compressive For slab anchors with an edge distance ′ strength shall be limited to 0.6φf ci .of less than two plate widths or one slab thickness, theedge tension reinforcement shall be proportioned to resist In anchorage zones the critical section25 percent of the factored tendon load. This reinforce­ for compression struts is ordinarily located at the inter­ment shall preferably be in the form of hairpins and shall face with the local zone node. If special anchoragebe distributed within one plate width ahead of the anchor. devices are used, the critical section of the strut can beThe legs of the hairpin bars shall extend from the edge of taken as that section whose extension intersects the axisthe slab past the adjacent anchor but not less than a of the tendon at a depth equal to the smaller of the depthdistance equal to five plate widths plus development of the local confinement reinforcement or the laterallength. dimension of the anchorage device.9.21.4 Application of Strut-and-Tie Models to the Design of Anchorage Zones For thin members with a ratio of mem­ ber thickness to anchorage width of no more than three, General the dimension of the strut in the direction of the thickness of the member can be approximated by assuming that the The flow of forces in the anchorage thickness of the compression strut varies linearly fromzone may be approximated by a series of straight com­ the transverse lateral dimension of the anchor at thepression members (struts) and straight-tension members surface of the concrete to the total thickness of the section(ties) that are connected at discrete points (nodes). Com­ at a depth equal to the thickness of the section.pression forces are carried by concrete compressionstruts and tension forces are carried by non-prestressed or The compression stresses can be as­prestressed reinforcement. sumed as acting parallel to the axis of the strut and as uniformly distributed over its cross section. The selected strut-and-tie model shallfollow a load path from the anchorages to the end of the SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-23
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Ties chorage zone. Anchorage devices can be treated as closely spaced if their center-to-center spacing Tension forces in the strut-and-tie model does not exceed 11/2 times the width of the an­shall be assumed to be carried completely by non-pre­ chorage devices in the direction considered.stressed or prestressed reinforcement. Tensile strength of (5) The angle of inclination of the tendon with re­the concrete shall be neglected. spect to the center line of the member is not larger than 20 degrees if the anchor force points toward Tension ties shall be properly detailed the centroid of the section and for concentricand shall extend beyond the nodes to develop the full anchors, and is not larger than 5 degrees if thetension tie force at the node. The reinforcement layout anchor force points away from the centroid of themust closely follow the directions of the ties in the strut­ section.and-tie model. Compressive Stresses9.21.5 Elastic Stress Analysis No additional check of concrete com­ Analyses based on assumed elastic ma­ pressive stresses is necessary for basic anchorage devicesterial properties, equilibrium, and compatibility of strains satisfying Article acceptable for analysis and design of anchoragezones. The concrete compressive stresses ahead of special anchorage devices at the interface be­ If the compressive stresses in the con­ tween local zone and general zone shall be approximatedcrete ahead of the anchorage device are determined from by Equations (9-35) and (9-36).a linear-elastic stress analysis, local stress maxima maybe averaged over an area equal to the bearing area of the 0.6Pu 1anchorage device. f ca = κ Ab 1 1 1+ �c − (9-35) Location and magnitude of the bursting beff tforce may be obtained by integration of the correspond­ing tensile bursting stresses along the tendon path. s n9.21.6 Approximate Methods κ =1+ 2 − 0.3 + for s < 2aeff (9-36) aeff 15 Limitations κ =1 for s 2aeff In the absence of a more accurate analysis, concretecompressive stresses ahead of the anchorage device, where:location and magnitude of the bursting force, and edgetension forces may be estimated by Equations (9-35) fca = the concrete compressive stress ahead ofthrough (9-38), provided that: the anchorage device; = a correction factor for closely spaced an­ (1) The member has a rectangular cross section and chorages; its longitudinal extent is at least equal to the Ab = an effective bearing area as defined in largest transverse dimension of the cross section. Article; (2) The member has no discontinuities within or aeff = the lateral dimension of the effective bear­ ahead of the anchorage zone. ing area measured parallel to the larger (3) The minimum edge distance of the anchorage in dimension of the cross section or in the the main plane of the member is at least 11/2 times direction of closely spaced anchors; the corresponding lateral dimension, a, of the beff = the lateral dimension of the effective bear­ anchorage device. ing area measured parallel to the smaller (4) Only one anchorage device or one group of closely dimension of the cross section; spaced anchorage devices is located in the an­ c = the longitudinal extent of confining rein­ forcement for the local zone, but not more9-24 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 than the larger of 1.15 aeff or 1.15 beff; e = The eccentricity (always taken as positive) of Pu = the factored tendon load; the anchorage device or group of devices with t = the thickness of the section; respect to the centroid of the cross section; s = the center-to-center spacing of multiple h = the lateral dimension of the cross section in anchorages; the direction considered; n = the number of anchorages in a row. α = the angle of inclination of the resultant of the tendon forces with respect to the center line of If a group of anchorages is closely spaced in two direc­ the member. tions, the product of the correction factors, , for each direction is used in Equation (9-36). Edge-Tension Forces Effective bearing area, Ab, in Equation For multiple anchorages with a center­ (9-35) shall be taken as the larger of the anchor bearing to-center spacing of less than 0.4 times the depth of the plate area, Aplate, or the bearing area of the confined section, the spalling forces shall be given by Article concrete in the local zone, Aconf, with the following For larger spacings, the spalling forces shall limitations: be determined from a more detailed analysis, such as strut-and-tie models or other analytical procedures. (1) If Aplate controls, Aplate shall not be taken larger than Aconf. If the centroid of all tendons consid­ ered is located outside of the kern of the section both (2) If Aconf controls, the maximum dimension of Aconf spalling forces and longitudinal edge tension forces are shall not be more than twice the maximum dimen­ induced. The longitudinal edge-tension force shall be sion of Aplate or three times the minimum dimen­ determined from an axial-flexural beam analysis at a sion of Aplate. If any of these limits is violated the section located at one-half the depth of the section awayκ / π4 effective bearing area, Ab, shall be based on Aplate. from the loaded surface. The spalling force shall be taken (3) Deductions shall be made for the area of the duct as equal to the longitudinal edge-tension force but not in the determination of Ab. less than specified in Article Bursting Forces 9.21.7 Design of the Local Zone Values for the magnitude of the bursting force, Tburst, Dimensions of the Local Zone and for its distance from the loaded surface, dburst, shall be estimated by Equations (9-37) and (9-38), respectively. When no independently verified In the application of Equations (9-37) and (9-38) the manufacturer’s edge-distance recommendations for a specified stressing sequence shall be considered if more particular anchorage device are available, the transverse than one tendon is present. dimensions of the local zone in each direction shall be taken as the larger of: a Tburst = 0.25 Pu 1 − + 0.5Pu sin α (9-37) (1) The corresponding bearing plate size plus twice h the minimum concrete cover required for the particular application and environment. dburst = 0.5 ( h − 2e ) + 5e sin α (9-38) (2) The outer dimension of any required confining reinforcement plus the required concrete cover over the confining reinforcing steel for the par­ where: ticular application and environment. ΣPu = the sum of the total factored tendon loads for When independently verified the stressing arrangement considered; manufacturer’s recommendations for minimum cover, a = the lateral dimension of the anchorage device spacing and edge distances for a particular anchorage or group of devices in the direction consid­ device are available, the transverse dimensions of the ered; SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-25
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000local zone in each direction shall be taken as the smaller f b = the maximum factored tendon load, Pu, dividedof: by the effective bearing area Ab; fci = the concrete compressive strength at stressing; (1) Twice the edge distance specified by the anchor­ A = the maximum area of the portion of the support­ age device supplier. ing surface that is geometrically similar to the (2) The center-to-center spacing specified by the loaded area and concentric with it; anchorage device supplier. Ag = the gross area of the bearing plate if the require­ ments of Article are met, or is the area The manufacturer’s recommendations for spacing calculated in accordance with Article;and edge distance of anchorages shall be considered Ab = the effective net area of the bearing plate calcu­minimum values. lated as the area Ag minus the area of openings in the bearing plate. The length of the local zone along thetendon axis shall be taken as the greater of: Equations (9-39) and (9-40) are only valid if general zone reinforcement satisfying Article is provided and (1) The maximum width of the local zone. if the extent of the concrete along the tendon axis ahead (2) The length of the anchorage device confining of the anchorage device is at least twice the length of the reinforcement. local zone as defined in Article (3) For anchorage devices with multiple-bearing sur­ faces, the distance from the loaded concrete sur­ The full bearing plate area may be used face to the bottom of each bearing surface plus the for Ag and the calculation of Ab if the anchorage device is maximum dimension of that bearing surface. sufficiently rigid. To be considered sufficiently rigid, the slenderness of the bearing plate (n/t) must not exceed theIn no case shall the length of the local zone be taken as value given in equation (9-41). The plate must also begreater than 11/2 times the width of the local zone. checked to ensure that the plate material does not yield. For closely spaced anchorages an en­larged local zone enclosing all individual anchorages n t ≤ 0.08 3 Eb fb (9-41)shall also be considered. Bearing Strength where: Anchorage devices may be either basic n = the largest distance from the outer edge of theanchorage devices meeting the bearing compressive wedge plate to the outer edge of the bearing plate.strength limits of Articles through For rectangular bearing plates this distance isor special anchorage devices meeting the requirements of measured parallel to the edges of the bearingSection plate. If the anchorage has no separate wedge plate, the size of the wedge plate shall be taken as The effective concrete bearing com­ the distance between the extreme wedge holes inpressive strength fb used for design shall not exceed that the corresponding direction.of Equations (9-39) or (9-40). t = the average thickness of the bearing plate. Eb = the modulus of elasticity of the bearing plate material. ′ fb ≤ 0.7 φ f ci A Ag (9-39) For bearing plates that do not meet the stiffness requirements of Article, the effectivebut, ′ fb ≤ 2.25 φ fci (9-40) gross-bearing area, Ag, shall be taken as the area geo­ metrically similar to the wedge plate (or to the outer perimeter of the wedge-hole pattern for plates withoutwhere: separate wedge plate) with dimensions increased by assuming load spreading at a 45-degree angle. A larger9-26 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000effective bearing area may be calculated by assuming an 9.24.2 Reinforcing bars, or equivalent mesh, shall beeffective area and checking the new fb and n/t values for placed in the panel transverse to the strands to provide atconformance with Articles and least 0.11 square inches per foot of panel. Deleted9.22 PRETENSIONED ANCHORAGE ZONES9.22.1 In pretensioned beams, vertical stirrups actingat a unit stress of 20,000 psi to resist at least 4 percent ofthe total prestressing force shall be placed within thedistance of d/4 of the end of the beam.9.22.2 For at least the distance d from the end of thebeam, nominal reinforcement shall be placed to enclosethe prestressing steel in the bottom flange.9.22.3 For box girders, transverse reinforcement shallbe provided and anchored by extending the leg into theweb of the girder.9.22.4 Unless otherwise specified, stress shall not betransferred to concrete until the compressive strength ofthe concrete as indicated by test cylinders, cured bymethods identical with the curing of the member, is atleast 4,000 psi.9.23 CONCRETE STRENGTH AT STRESS TRANSFER Unless otherwise specified, stress shall not be trans­ferred to concrete until the compressive strength of theconcrete as indicated by test cylinders, cured by methodsidentical with the curing of the members, is at least 4,000psi for pretensioned members (other than piles) and 3,500psi for post-tensioned members and pretensioned piles.9.24 DECK PANELS9.24.1 Deck panels shall be prestressed withpretensioned strands. The strands shall be in a directiontransverse to the stringers when the panels are placed onthe supporting stringers. The top surface of the panelsshall be roughened in such a manner as to ensure compositeaction between the precast and cast-in-place concrete. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-27
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 2000 Part D Prestressing strands in deck panels shall Detailing be spaced symmetrically and uniformly across the width of the panel. They shall not be spaced farther apart than 9.25 FLANGE REINFORCEMENT 11/2 times the total composite slab thickness or more than 18 inches. Bar reinforcement for cast-in-place T-beam and box girder flanges shall conform to the provisions in Articles 9.26.3 Bundling and except that the minimum reinforce­ ment in bottom flanges shall be 0.3 percent of the flange When post-tensioning steel is draped or section. deflected, post-tensioning ducts may be bundled in groups of three maximum, provided that the spacing specified in 9.26 COVER AND SPACING OF STEEL Article 9.26.2 is maintained in the end 3 feet of the member. 9.26.1 Minimum Cover Where pretensioning steel is bundled,+ The minimum cover for steel shall be in accordance all bundling shall be done in the middle third of the beam+ with Article 8.22. length and the deflection points shall be investigated for secondary stresses.+ Deleted 9.26.4 Size of Ducts+ Deleted For tendons made up of a number of+ Deleted wires, bars, or strands, duct area shall be at least twice the net area of the prestressing steel. When deicer chemicals are used, drain­ age details shall dispose of deicer solutions without For tendons made up of a single wire, constant contact with the prestressed girders. Where bar, or strand, the duct diameter shall be at least ¼ inch such contact cannot be avoided, or in locations where larger than the nominal diameter of the wire, bar, or members are exposed to salt water, salt spray, or chemical strand. vapor, additional cover should be provided. 9.27 POST-TENSIONING ANCHORAGES 9.26.2 Minimum Spacing AND COUPLERS The minimum clear spacing of prestress­ 9.27.1 Anchorages, couplers, and splices for bonded ing steel at the ends of beams shall be as follows: post-tensioned reinforcement shall develop at least 95 percent of the minimum specified ultimate strength of the+ Pretensioning steel: The clear distance between strands prestressing steel, tested in an unbonded state without+ shall not be less than 11/3 times the maximum size of the exceeding anticipated set. Bond transfer lengths between+ concrete aggregate. Also, the minimum spacing center­ anchorages and the zone where full prestressing force is+ to-center of strand shall be as follows: required under service and ultimate loads shall normally be sufficient to develop the minimum specified ultimate+ Strand Size Spacing strength of the prestressing steel. Couplers and splices+ 0.6 inch 2 inches shall be placed in areas approved by the Engineer and+ 9/ inch 16 17/8 inches enclosed in a housing long enough to permit the necessary+ 1/ inch 13/4 inches movements. When anchorages or couplers are located at 2+ 7/ inch critical sections under ultimate load, the ultimate strength 16 15/8 inches+ required of the bonded tendons shall not exceed the 3/ inch 11/2 inches+ 8 ultimate capacity of the tendon assembly, including the Post-tensioning steel: 11/2 inches or 11/2 times the anchorage or coupler, tested in an unbonded state. maximum size of the concrete aggregate, whichever is greater. 9-28 SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
    • BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS • APRIL 20009.27.2 The anchorages of unbonded tendons shall 9.27.5 Anchorages, end fittings, couplers, anddevelop at least 95 percent of the minimum specified exposed tendons shall be permanently protected againstultimate strength of the prestressing steel without corrosion.exceeding anticipated set. The total elongation underultimate load of the tendon shall not be less than 2 percentmeasured in a minimum gauge length of 10 feet. 9.28 EMBEDMENT OF PRESTRESSED STRAND9.27.3 For unbonded tendons, a dynamic test shall beperformed on a representative specimen and the tendon 9.28.1 Three or seven-wire pretensioning strand shallshall withstand, without failure, 500,000 cycles from 60 be bonded beyond the critical section for a developmentpercent to 66 percent of its minimum specified ultimate length in inches not less thanstrength, and also 50 cycles from 40 percent to 80 percentof its minimum specified ultimate strength. The period of 2 *each cycle involves the change from the lower stress level f su − f se D (9-32)to the upper stress level and back to the lower. The 3specimen used for the second dynamic test need not bethe same used for the first dynamic test. Systems utilizing where D is the nominal diameter in inches, f*su and fse aremultiple strands, wires, or bars may be tested utilizing a in kips per square inch, and the parenthetical expressiontest tendon of smaller capacity than the full size tendon. is considered to be without units.The test tendon shall duplicate the behavior of the fullsize tendon and generally shall not have less than 10 9.28.2 Investigations may be limited to those crosspercent of the capacity of the full size tendon. Dynamic sections nearest each end of the member which aretests are not required on bonded tendons, unless the required to develop their full ultimate capacity.anchorage is located or used in such manner that repeatedload applications can be expected on the anchorage. 9.28.3 Where strand is debonded at the end of a member and tension at service load is allowed in the9.27.4 Couplings of unbonded tendons shall be used precompressed tensile zone, the development lengthonly at locations specifically indicated and/or approved required above shall be doubled.by the Engineer. Couplings shall not be used at points ofsharp tendon curvature. All couplings shall develop at 9.29 BEARINGSleast 95 percent of the minimum specified ultimate strengthof the prestressing steel without exceeding anticipated Bearing devices for prestressed concrete structuresset. The coupling of tendons shall not reduce the elongation shall be designed in accordance with Article 10.29 andat rupture below the requirements of the tendon itself. Section 14.Couplings and/or coupling components shall be enclosedin housings long enough to permit the necessarymovements. All the coupling components shall becompletely protected with a coating material prior to finalencasement in concrete. SECTION 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 9-29