Ch19 temperature

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Ch19 temperature

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Ch19 temperature

  1. 1. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 2 ‫ﺘﻭﺜﻴــﻕ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎن‬ Physics for Scientists and Engineers By Raymond A. Serway & John W. Jewett 6th Edition ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮارﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺪﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰء‬‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫د‬/.‫ﺳﻜﯿﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺰﯾﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬ 8-4-2009 ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫م‬‫اﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬ 1‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‬Physics for Scientists and Engineers Raymond A. Serway & John W. Jewett 2‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬ 3‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ 4‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺟﻌﺔ‬ 5‫اﻟﻠﻐﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺟﻌﺔ‬ 6‫اﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻒ‬ 7‫اﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ 11‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺦ‬
  2. 2. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 3 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬thermodynamics‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﻬﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ،‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬.‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﻨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬.‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺍﻡ‬1829‫ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬.‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﺜﺒﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬1827،‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻅ‬Robert Brown‫ﺤﺒﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺡ‬‫ﻷﺨﺭ‬‫ﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺇﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬‫ﻹﺜﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬1905، Albert‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ Brownian motion.‫ﺒﺎﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻴﻨﺸﺘﺎﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺜﺒﺕ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﺎﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬‫ﻤﺘﻌﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬.‫ﻫﺫ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻫﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮب‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻂ‬ ‫أﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬Tazlina‫ﻓﻲ‬Alaska.‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﯾﺴﺨﻦ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫طﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ذوﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬.‫اﻷﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻟﻮاح‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﻨﺒﺩﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﺤﺎﻟﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﻨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬. ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺃﻟﺒﺭﺕ‬‫ﺍﻴﻨﺸﺘﻴﻥ‬EinsteinAlbert ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬Brownian motion ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﺎﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻫﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬.‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬. Alyeska‫ھﻮ‬‫ﻧﮭﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮب‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻂ‬ ‫أﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫طﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ذوﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬
  3. 3. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 4 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ؟‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺠﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺪد‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻘﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ؟‬ ‫ﻏﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎذا‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮات‬ ‫ﺣﺪوث‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫واﻻﻧﻜﻤﺎش‬.‫اﻟﺠﺰء‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺪرس‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮاري؟‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺪد‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ؟‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺠﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬. ‫اﻟﺘﻤﺪد‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻘﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ؟‬ ‫ﻏﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎذا‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮات‬ ‫ﺣﺪوث‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫واﻻﻧﻜﻤﺎش‬
  4. 4. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 5 ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ Temperature and zeroth law of thermodynamics ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ Temperature and the Celsius temperature scale ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻱ‬ The constant-volume gas thermometer and the absolute temperature scale ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ Thermal expansion of solids and liquids ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ Macroscopic description of an ideal gas ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬
  5. 5. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 6 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺄﺴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﻔﺱ‬temperature‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬heat ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ zeroth law‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﻨﺎﻗﺵ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬.‫ﺴﺒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻴل‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺘﺴﺨﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬macroscopic‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻨﺭﻜﺯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻠﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻫﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ،microscopic‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺄﺴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬internal energy.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬zeroth law ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﻨﺎﻗﺵ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺘﺴﺨﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺩﺭﺱ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻫﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺠ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬21‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻫﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬
  6. 6. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 7 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬Temperate and the zeroth law of thermodynamics ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺭﺒﻁ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﻠﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺩﺓ‬.‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﺇﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺍﺴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﻨﺎ‬.‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ،‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺩﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﺒﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺩﺓ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬. ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺒﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻤﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴل‬‫ﺃﺴﺭﻉ‬‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ﺃﺴﺭﻉ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬‫ﻟﻸﺠﺴﺎﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻁﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺎﺀ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴﻠﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﻓﺈﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﻼﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻨﺨﻠﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com 1.19‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ zeroth law of thermodynamics ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺃﻏﻠﺏ‬‫ﺍﻷﺤﻴﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﺨﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺭﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺍﺴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺩﻋﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬.،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺸﻌﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺭﺩ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ‬‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺒﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻤﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻙ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻴﺩ‬.‫ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬‫ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬.‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬thermometer‫ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴﻠﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬.،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
  7. 7. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 8 ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬.‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻐﻠﻲ‬. ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻨﻌﺭﻑ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬:‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬thermal equilibrium.‫ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺯﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻴل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬‫ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬.‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل‬‫ﺍﻷﺠﺴﺎﻡ‬‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﺍﺭﺓ‬. ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬1.19‫اﻟﺤﺮارﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﻜﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ‬. )a(‫و‬)b(‫إذا‬‫اﻟﺘﺮﻣﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬)‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬C(‫ﺣﺮارﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬A‫واﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬B‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫وﯾﻌﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻼ‬A‫و‬B‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬.)c(‫اﻧ‬ ‫أي‬‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮاري‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬A‫و‬B‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺮاري‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﮭﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻐﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻔﻬﻡ‬‫ﻟﻤﻔﻴﺩ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل‬thermal contact‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺯﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻴل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬.‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬
  8. 8. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 9 thermal equilubrium‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺼﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ‬ ،‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬C‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬A‫ﻭ‬B‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻡ‬.‫ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬،‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺒﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻨﺘﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﺩﻭﻥ‬‫ﺓ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬B ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺌﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺘﻴﻥ‬A‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬B ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴل‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬A‫ﻭ‬B‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺎ‬19.1c‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻠﺨﺹ‬zeroth law of thermodynamics thermal equilibrum law. zeroth law of thermodynamics ‫ﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬C‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،A‫ﻭ‬B‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬thermal equilubrium ‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ‬A‫ﻭ‬B‫ﺍﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ‬ ،‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ )‫ﺘ‬‫ﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬C(‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬A‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬19.1a.‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬19.1b.‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺌﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴل‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻠﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬thermal equilibrum law ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬zeroth law of thermodynamics ‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬A‫ﻭ‬B‫ﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‬.
  9. 9. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 10 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺴﺎﻁﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬.‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻌﺭﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻥ‬.‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬. ‫ﺍﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﻘل‬)a(‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬)c(‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺴﺎﻁﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻭﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻌﺭﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺅﺍل‬19.1 ‫ﺠﺴﻤ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬)b(،‫ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻜﺒﺭ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻗل‬.
  10. 10. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 11 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬Thermometers and Celsius ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬.‫ﻭﺘﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﺕ‬‫ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬.‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬. ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭ‬‫ﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬)‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺏ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com 2.19‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ temperature scale ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ )1(‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬. )2(‫ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬. )3(‫ﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬. )4(‫ﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬. )5(‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬ )6(‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺏ‬
  11. 11. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 12 ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬Celsius ‫ﻭﺘﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ،0o C‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬. ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺴﻪ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬،‫ﻨﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻨﺄﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬100o C‫ﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻴﻌﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺭﻀﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬100o C‫ﺩﺭﺠﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ‬100‫ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬.‫ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬5‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com 2.19.(‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻭﺒﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ scale‫ﻭﺘﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﻤﻘﺎﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻨﺄﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺇﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬.‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺭﻀﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬0‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ‬100‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬5‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬.
  12. 12. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 13 ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻘﻲ‬100o C‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭ‬‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺘ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬50o C‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 100o C‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ‬500o C ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭﻟﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﻩ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻵ‬‫ﺨﺭ‬‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻗﻠﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬. ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬C ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬
  13. 13. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 14 ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬2.19‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﺢ‬
  14. 14. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 15 ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻕ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻬﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻘﻲ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬-39o C‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭﻟﻲ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ،.،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺏ‬‫ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ‬‫ﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻓﻴ‬‫ﻪ‬.‫ﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬The constant- volume gas thermometer and the absolute temperature scale ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬3.19.‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬.‫ﺃﻭل‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻏﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬B‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻔﻀﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻓﻌﻪ‬A‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗل‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬85o C‫ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ، ‫ﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬. 3.19‫ﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬ volume gas thermometer and the absolute temperature scale ‫ﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺘﻲ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬3.19‫ﯾﻘﯿﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎز‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻐﻤﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺪورق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮض‬.‫ا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎز‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺎظ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬‫ﻟﺪورق‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮدع‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫طﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘ‬B ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻟﯿﻜﻮن‬Aً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘ‬. ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻐﻤﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺪورق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮض‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮدع‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫طﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻟﯿﻜﻮن‬
  15. 15. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 16 ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬19.3.‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬h‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺜل‬B ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،0o C. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻡ‬ ،‫ﻴﻐﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻏﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬B‫ﻀﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﻔﺱ‬‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬A‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬.‫ﻴﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻐﻤﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬.‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻀﺒﻁ‬B‫ﺃﻋﻁﺎﻨﺎ‬‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺴﻡ‬4.19.‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬.‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ‬ ،‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻀﺒﻁ‬B‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬.‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻓﻨﺎ‬4.19‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل‬. ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﺘﻴﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬)‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬5.19.(‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ‬A‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻉ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻡ‬ ،‫ﻴﻐﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻏﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﺩﻉ‬B‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻐﻤﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬100o C.‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ‬‫ﻷﻱ‬‫ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬A‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻓﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻨﺎ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬.‫ﺒﻴﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻴﺘﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬4.19‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬‫ﺗﺮﻣﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎز‬.‫ﺗﻤﺜﻼن‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮوﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎط‬)‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺨﺎر‬.( ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮوﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎط‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺨﺎر‬
  16. 16. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 17 ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺠﺎرب‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ودرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ‬‫أﺟﺮﯾﺖ‬‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎزات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻣﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬.‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬‫إن‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎزات‬‫إن‬‫اﻟﻐﺎزات‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬‫اﻟﻐﺎزات‬‫إﻟﻰ‬‫ﺣﺮا‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬‫رة‬-273.15o C. ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬5.19‫ﻤﺫﻫﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬-‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬-273.15o C!‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬5.19‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺠﺎرب‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ودرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﻮت‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬‫اﻟﺘﺮﻣﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫وﯾﺆول‬‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬
  17. 17. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 18 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻜﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬absolute temperature scale‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬absolute zero.‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬.‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬)1.19( TC = T -273.15 (19.1) ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬T‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬. ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻥ‬‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬triple point of water‫ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ، ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻻﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬0.01o C‫ﻴﻌﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻐﻁ‬4.58mm‫ﺯﺌﺒﻕ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬kelvin‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ،273.16،‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬.‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻜﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬-273.15o C‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ (19.1) ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬TC‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ‬1954 ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬.‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﺘﺏ‬273.16 K.‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬
  18. 18. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 19 Kelvin scale‫ﻜﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬SI، 1/273.16‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬. ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫وﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ‬.‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺬرات‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺰر‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎرب‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ،‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫اﻗﺘﺮب‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻏﺎرﺛﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺞ‬. ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬0 K)‫ﺘﺤﻭﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻡ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺼﻠﺏ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬21‫ﻨﺜﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺎ‬.‫ﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻘﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻠﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺜﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ،‫ﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬zero- ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ،. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬Kelvin scale ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬1/273.16 ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬6.19‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫وﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬)0K(‫ﻟﻠﺬرات‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺰر‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎرب‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ،‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺪرﺟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮا‬.‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬‫إن‬‫ﻟﻮﻏﺎرﺛﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ 5.19،‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺫﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻠﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻔل‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬.‫ﺘﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺘﺜﺒﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ point energy‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬6.19
  19. 19. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 20 ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﻨﻬﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬The Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‬TC‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺯﺍﺤﺔ‬T‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬273.15o .‫ﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻱ‬5o C‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬5 K.‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬.‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺎﺒل‬0.00o C‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ، 100.00o ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﻬﺭﻨﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬32o F‫ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﻬﺭﻨﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻲ‬ FTT o CF 325 9  (19.2) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬2.19‫ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﻨﻬﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﺯﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ Temperature Scales ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬1.19‫ﺘﻭﻀﺢ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬273.15 K‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺎﺒل‬ 373.15 K‫ﺩﺭﺠ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺎﻓﺊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ‬o C ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ Fahrenheit scale.‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ 212o F.‫ﻭﺍﻟ‬‫ﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ (19.2) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬1.19‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﻨﻬ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻕ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴﺘﻲ‬:
  20. 20. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 21 FTTC  5 9 (19.3) ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ،‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺜﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ‬T‫ﻓﻴﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭل‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬.‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻁﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬3.19‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬‫ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل‬. ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أي‬‫اﻷزواج‬‫ﺣﺮارﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫واﺣﺪة‬ ،‫ﻣﺎدﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺜﻞ‬‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮﺗﯿﻦ‬‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬‫؟‬)a( ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﺟﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﻛﻮب‬ ،50o C)b(‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﻐﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬100o C‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺜﺎن‬ ‫وﻛﺤﻮل‬ ، ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬-20o C‫وﻟﮭﺐ‬ ،‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬233o C)d(‫ﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارﺗﮫ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫زوج‬ ‫أي‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com (19.3) ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﺭﻴﺠ‬‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﻟﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ،‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺜﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬.‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬.،‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻨﻪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬T‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺅﺍل‬2.19 ‫اﻓﺘﺮض‬‫اﻷزواج‬‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬.‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﻐﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬100o C‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﺟﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﻛﻮب‬ ، ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬-50o C)c(‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارﺗﮫ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫زوج‬ ‫أي‬
  21. 21. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 22 ‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ؟‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ C TT o FC 10 )32(9 5   K TT C 283 15.273   ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻫﺭﻨﻬﻴﺘﻲ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ CTT o C 2580  TT CF (9 5 9 5  ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com ‫ﻤﺜﺎل‬1.19‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻷﻴﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬50o F،‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ؟‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤل‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ‬2.19‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﺼل‬ ، )3250() 9 5  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬1.19‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﺼل‬ ، Co 15.23710  ‫ﻤﺜﺎل‬2.19‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺨﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬25o C‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬80o C‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻫﺭﻨﻬﻴﺘﻲ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤل‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬3.19‫ﻨﺭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻔﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ KCC oo 555525  ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬3.19‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﺼل‬ ، FC oo 99)55( 
  22. 22. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 23 ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬‫ﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺌل‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻤ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬thermal expansion، ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺼﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻜﻙ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ،‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺍﻋﻰ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬.‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﺘﺨﻴل‬ ،‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻗﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬3.15‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﻀﺤﺔ‬12.15b. ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬10-10 m.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ،‫ﺴﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬ ‫د‬.‫ﺳﻛﯾك‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﺣﺎزم‬ www.trgma.com 4.19‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻭﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺜﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺯﺌﺒﻘﻲ‬‫ﻜﺄﺤﺩ‬‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻌﺕ‬‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﺤﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ 7.19‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻜﻙ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬‫ﻟﻠ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻗﺎﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ 10-11 m‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬1013 Hz.‫ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ،‫ﺴﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬7.19
  23. 23. ‫ﻋﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ 24 ‫ﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ 

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