Thispresentationshouldbecitedas: Adewole(2012)Referencedas:JimohK.Adewole(2012),OpportunitiesforMembraneSeparationinEnhanc...
OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEMBRANE SEPARATION          INENHANCED OIL RECOVERY                          BY               ADEWOLE J...
Outlines Needs for Research in Membrane Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Membrane Separation TechnologySome Success St...
NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MS                             Energy Consumption per Capita vs. GDP per Capita (Ghosh, 2008)       ...
NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MS       World Energy Scenario in 2050 (Koros et al., 2009)             World Population            ...
NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MSIndustrial Energy Consumption in 2050 (Koros et al., 2009)                           Industrial Se...
NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MS  Suspended Particles and Macromolecular Solutes Processing Flash Evaporation                     ...
NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MS              Economic Comparison: Dew point Control  Propane Refrigeration                       ...
Enhanced Oil Recovery                            Classifications (Al-Mjeni et al., 2011)                                  ...
Enhanced Oil Recovery                                  Cheap Sources of CO2     Miscible Fluid     Displacement           ...
Membrane Separation TechnologyPartial separation of a mixture of two or morecomponents by use of a semi-permeable barrier ...
Semi-Permeable Barrier                                   Membrane                                   Inorganic/            ...
Organic Membrane Separation   Figure: Motion of molecules with the polymer cavities (Xiao et al., 2009)Tuesday, May 22, 20...
Glassy & Rubbery PolymersGlassy MembranesFast Gas                                                                         ...
Solution-Diffusion Mechanism                                     Permeability = Diffusivity * Solubility                  ...
Membrane Modules                                                            Module housing                                ...
Advantages of Membrane Separation• Offshore production platform applications• Minimal or no operator attention• Small foot...
Types of Membrane Separation           Types                        Possible EOR ApplicationReverse Osmosis           Misc...
Some Success Stories of MGS          Membrane Gas Separation PlantsPlant                  Initial Cap       Expanded Cap P...
Some Success Stories of MGS                  EOR Gas Enrichment Unit                                                      ...
Some Success Stories of MGS               EOR Gas Enrichment UnitCustomized EOR GE Unit: Membrane for CO2 Removal From Ref...
Challenges in Material Development        for Polymeric MGS                 Low Productivity                 Balanced Perm...
Low ProductivityThe first challengeGas Transport through membrane began 1950Emergence of High Flux asymmetric Loeb-Sour...
Low Productivity                        Commercial Membranes with High CO2 Permeability have Emerged                      ...
Better Balance of Selectivity & Permeability Robeson (1991) Upper Bound Curves Discovered with an Empirical Correlation to...
Better Balance of Selectivity & PermeabilityRobeson’s Upper Bound Curves was further studied andmodified by Freeman (1999)...
Better Balanced of Selectivity & Permeability Robeson’s Empirical Model Revisited with more data in 2008                  ...
Better Balanced of Selectivity & Permeability  Recent Report on Surpassing of Upper Bound Limit                           ...
Plasticization and Conditioning                           Plasticization ?Pressure dependent phenomenaCaused by the diss...
Plasticization and Conditioning                                                   Influence of upstream                    ...
Plasticization and Conditioning                           Plasticization PressurePressure at which the permeability start...
Plasticization and Conditioning          Conditioning in Glassy Polymer Sorbing sizeable quantities of penetrant into gla...
Plasticization and Conditioning                                                      Industrial Example                   ...
Physical AgingPhysical Aging due to nonequilibrium state of glassy polymers                                               ...
Some BreakthroughsSuggested Methods for Improved Separation PerformanceCrosslinking and Thermal Treatment (Qiu et al., 20...
Some Breakthroughs Suggested Methods for Improved Separation PerformanceCopolymerization (Xiao et al., 2009)Template Pol...
Some Breakthroughs                Permeability (barrer)    PermSelectivity                  Plasticization Pressure (bar) ...
Some Breakthroughs  Permeability (barrer)   PermSelectivity      Plasticization Pressure (bar)      Permeability (barrer) ...
Some Breakthroughs                                                   60                   Plasticization Pressure (bar)   ...
Some Breakthrough                                             CO2 Transport Pipeline                                   4.5...
Some Breakthroughs       Schematic of various gas transport routes through hybrid polymeric                          membr...
Research Areas for ExplorationDevelopment of optimum membrane configuration for available gas separation membranesAggres...
Research Areas for Exploration                Compact enough to be driven by solar power                                  ...
Concluding RemarksMultidisciplinary research efforts is essentialAcademic-Industry collaborative research is vitalValua...
AcknowledgementCPM, RI and KFUPMDirector CPM, Dr A. S. SultanDr L. O. BabalolaKACST and Ministry of Petroleum & Minera...
ReferencesAdewole, J. K., Jensen, L., Al-Mubaiyedh, U. A., von Solms, N., & Hussein, I. A. (2011). Transport             P...
ReferencesJacobs, K. A. (n.d.). New Membrane Applications in Gas Processing. Membrane Technology and            Research, ...
ReferencesPaul, D., & Robeson, L. (2008). Polymer nanotechnology: Nanocomposites. Polymer , 49 , 3187–3204.Pixton, M. R., ...
Thank You                           For                        ListeningTuesday, May 22, 2012      Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUP...
Comments                                            &                                      ContributionsTuesday, May 22, 2...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Adewole J. K.: Membrane Separation Technology in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

846

Published on

A presentation at the Annual KFUPM RI Technical Seminar 2012

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
846
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
78
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Adewole J. K.: Membrane Separation Technology in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

  1. 1. Thispresentationshouldbecitedas: Adewole(2012)Referencedas:JimohK.Adewole(2012),OpportunitiesforMembraneSeparationinEnhancedOilRecovery,KFUPMResearchInstituteTechnicalSeminarSeries 2011–2012, DeliveredonMay21st,2012.
  2. 2. OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEMBRANE SEPARATION INENHANCED OIL RECOVERY BY ADEWOLE Jimoh K. Center for Petroleum & Minerals, Research Institute King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
  3. 3. Outlines Needs for Research in Membrane Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Membrane Separation TechnologySome Success Stories of MGS Challenges in Membrane Material Development for Gas Separation Some Breakthroughs Research Areas of Explorations Concluding Remarks Acknowledgement References Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 3
  4. 4. NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MS Energy Consumption per Capita vs. GDP per Capita (Ghosh, 2008) 140 120 CanadaEnergy Consumption(‘000 KWHr / Capita) 100 US 80% of Global 80 Population 60 Russia France Germany Japan Kazakhstan Czech UK 40 Ukraine Republic Italy Malaysia Thailand Romania 20 Brazil China Turkey Indonesia Egypt India 0 Philippines 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 GDP / Capita (US$) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 4
  5. 5. NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MS World Energy Scenario in 2050 (Koros et al., 2009) World Population World Energy Demand Year 2007 = 6.7billions  Energy Increase (UBE)= 7.7 Asia Growing Econs Developed Countries = 1.2 billions Asia Visions to join More Year 2050 = 9.2 billion Developed Countries Year 2050; Asia = 5.3 billion Energy Increase (CE) = 5.5 Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 5
  6. 6. NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MSIndustrial Energy Consumption in 2050 (Koros et al., 2009) Industrial Sector Consumes 33% Total Energy Consumption Industrial Separation Process Consumes 40% Industrial Energy Needs Separation Equivalent to 13.2% of total Energy Consumption 5x increase in global commodities ≈ 66% increase in 2050 current energy consumption To be Membrane must be Introduced prior to Energy inefficient Effective thermally intensive process. Achieved using available gas separation membranes units Valuable while savings aggressively pursuing development of more novel materials Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 6
  7. 7. NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MS Suspended Particles and Macromolecular Solutes Processing Flash Evaporation 73kwh/m3 MF/UF 7.6Kwh/m3 50millions gallons/day Seawater Processing Thermal Distillation Plant 78.5Kwh/m3 State-of-the-art Seawater RO 6.7Kwh/m3 Propylene/Propane Separation Cryogenic Distillation 0.302Kwh/lb propylene prod Vapor Permeation Membrane 0.050Kwh/lb propylene prod Sources: Koros et al., (2009); Humphrey & Keller (1997); Eykamp (1997); Blume (2004); Gottschlich & Jacobs 7 (1998); Collings et al. (2004) Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM
  8. 8. NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN MS Economic Comparison: Dew point Control Propane Refrigeration 0.165 $/inlet Mscf Membrane 0.098 $/inlet MscfSources: Private Study by Purvin and Gertz, June 1999, MTR, USATuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 8
  9. 9. Enhanced Oil Recovery Classifications (Al-Mjeni et al., 2011) Chemical EOR Thermal EOREOR METHODS Solvent/Miscible (Most Common Classification from Literature) Other/UnconventionalTuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 9
  10. 10. Enhanced Oil Recovery Cheap Sources of CO2 Miscible Fluid Displacement (Availability) Available CO2 Pipeline CO2-EOR ? (Transportation) Level of Toxicity(Rooted in the early Stages of Industrial Revolution) (Gas Properties) Global Warming (Environment) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 10
  11. 11. Membrane Separation TechnologyPartial separation of a mixture of two or morecomponents by use of a semi-permeable barrier Driving Forces: Hydrostatic Pressure Concentration Electrical PotentialFigure: Basic Membrane Separation Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 11
  12. 12. Semi-Permeable Barrier Membrane Inorganic/ Organic Liquid Carbon Glassy Rubbery Hybrid Membrane (Provide Property and Processing Advantages)Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 12
  13. 13. Organic Membrane Separation Figure: Motion of molecules with the polymer cavities (Xiao et al., 2009)Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 13
  14. 14. Glassy & Rubbery PolymersGlassy MembranesFast Gas Slow Gas Hydrogen Nitrogen Ethane Hexane H2O CO2 Methane Propane Rubbery Membranes Fast Gas Slow Gas Hexane Ethane Methane Nitrogen H2O Propane CO2 Hydrogen Source: MTR Inc., USATuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 14
  15. 15. Solution-Diffusion Mechanism Permeability = Diffusivity * Solubility (P) (D) (S)Adsorption at high pressure side Membrane SelectivityDiffusion through the membrane P1 D1 . S1 = P2 D2 . S2Desorption at low pressure sideMembrane Selectivity; Measure of Separation Performance Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 15
  16. 16. Membrane Modules Module housing Feed flow Residue flow Permeate flow Feed flow Residue flow Feed flow Spacer Membrane SpacerCross Section representation Permeate flow after passing through membrane Hollow Fiber Spiral Wound Membrane Module Source: MTR Inc, Aquilo Gas Separation Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 16
  17. 17. Advantages of Membrane Separation• Offshore production platform applications• Minimal or no operator attention• Small footprint, low weight• Low maintenance• Lower capital and operating costs Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 17
  18. 18. Types of Membrane Separation Types Possible EOR ApplicationReverse Osmosis Miscible Gas, Smart Water, Thermal/Hyper filtrationNano filtration Smart Water, Thermal, MicrobialUltra filtration/Micro filtration Chemical, ThermalMembrane Gas Enrichment Unit for Miscible Gas floodingDistillationGas Separation Gas Enrichment Unit for Miscible Gas flooding Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 18
  19. 19. Some Success Stories of MGS Membrane Gas Separation PlantsPlant Initial Cap Expanded Cap Pressure CO2 Mole% Year of (MMscfd) (MMscfd) (bar) CommKelly-Snyder Field 70 600 N/A 87 2006Cakerawala N/A 700 N/A 37Production PlatformQadirpur, Pakistan 265 500 59 6.5 1999Taiwan 30 ─ 42 ─ 1999Kadanwari, Pakistan 210 ─ 90 ─ N/AEOR facility, Mexico 120 ─ N/A 70 N/ASlalm & Tarek, Egypt 100 ─ 65 N/ATexas, USA 30 ─ 42 30 N/ASource: Koros et al., (2009); and Engelien, (2004); Dortmundt, UOP, (1999) 19 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM
  20. 20. Some Success Stories of MGS EOR Gas Enrichment Unit Commissioned July 1997 120 MMSCFD inlet gas 70% CO2. Outlet gas 93% CO2 and is reinjected.Figure: Enhanced Oil Recovery System in Mexico (UoP) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 20
  21. 21. Some Success Stories of MGS EOR Gas Enrichment UnitCustomized EOR GE Unit: Membrane for CO2 Removal From Reformer Gas by MTR Inc, USATuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 21
  22. 22. Challenges in Material Development for Polymeric MGS Low Productivity Balanced Permeability & Selectivity Physical Aging Plasticization &ConditioningTuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 22
  23. 23. Low ProductivityThe first challengeGas Transport through membrane began 1950Emergence of High Flux asymmetric Loeb-Sourirajan membranes – selective top thin layer (0.1micron) and porous support in 1980Could not be used for GS due to surface defectSolved using thin layer of silicone rubber coatingMembrane Permeability Selectivity (CO2/CH4)Celuose Acetate 8.9 20-25 Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 23
  24. 24. Low Productivity Commercial Membranes with High CO2 Permeability have Emerged 50 600 45Permeability (barrer) Permselectivity 500 40 35 400 30 25 300 20 200 15 10 100 5 0 0 Cellulose Cytop Hyflon AD Hyflon AD Teflon AF Cellulose Cytop Hyflon AD Hyflon AD Teflon AF Accetae 60 80 1600 Accetae 60 80 1600 Permeability and Permselectivity for pure gases at feed pressure of 3.5 bar; membrane thickness of 20 μm (Bernardo et al., 2009) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 24
  25. 25. Better Balance of Selectivity & Permeability Robeson (1991) Upper Bound Curves Discovered with an Empirical Correlation to Represent a General Trade-Off Materials that do not obey the simple rules are needed to achieve higher selectivity/permeability combination Figure: Trade-off for CO2/CH4 gas pair in DABA containing polyimides Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 25
  26. 26. Better Balance of Selectivity & PermeabilityRobeson’s Upper Bound Curves was further studied andmodified by Freeman (1999).Discovered that to surpass the upper bound emphasis should beplaced on increasing the selectivity by:Inter-chain spacingChain stiffness Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 26
  27. 27. Better Balanced of Selectivity & Permeability Robeson’s Empirical Model Revisited with more data in 2008 17 years later few membranes are above the 1991 Robeson’s Upper Bound Limit Figure: Robesons trade-off for CO2/CH4 gas pair polyimides Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 27
  28. 28. Better Balanced of Selectivity & Permeability Recent Report on Surpassing of Upper Bound Limit Figure: Robesons trade-off for CO2/CH4 gas pair for microporous Thermally Rearranged polybenzimidazole (TR-PBI) membrane heat treated at 450oC (Han et al., 2010). Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 28
  29. 29. Plasticization and Conditioning Plasticization ?Pressure dependent phenomenaCaused by the dissolution of certain penetrants within the polymer matrixDisruption of the chain packing and enhance inter-segmental mobility of polymer chains (Xiao et al., 2009 ).Induced by condensable gases and vapours encountered in gas separation involving aggressive feed streams, such as CO2 in natural gas (Qiu et al., 2011 and Wind et al, 2004).Causes an increase in permeability and a decrease in selectivity as the partial pressure of plasticizing penetrant rises beyond a critical level. Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 29
  30. 30. Plasticization and Conditioning Influence of upstream pressure on permeability coefficients (a) Low-sorbing gases (b) Plasticization of a rubbery polymer (c) dual-mode behavior in a glassy polymer (d) dual-mode behavior at low pressure (<10 atm) and plasticization at higher pressure Matteucci et al. (2006) Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 30 Tuesday, May 22, 2012
  31. 31. Plasticization and Conditioning Plasticization PressurePressure at which the permeability starts to increase with increasing pressure.Pressure at which gas permeability exhibits a minimum value (Xiao et al., 2009; and Scholes et al., 2010) Effects of PlasticizationDecline in membrane performanceIncrease in methane lossDecline in process reliability (Wind, 2004) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 31
  32. 32. Plasticization and Conditioning Conditioning in Glassy Polymer Sorbing sizeable quantities of penetrant into glassy polymer Glassy state is altered  Polymers do not return to their original state after removal of the penetrant (Murphy et al., 2009) EffectsPermanent changes to the morphology and transport properties of membrane due to irreversible volume dilation (Xiao et al., 2009 )Gas separation performance becomes time-dependentAffect the reliability of this performance and hinder commercialization of membrane for industrial separation (Xiao et al. 2009) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 32
  33. 33. Plasticization and Conditioning Industrial Example Flow Capacity Max: 8 MMSCFD Operated: 2.5-3.0 MMSCFD Pressure rating Max: 1250 psig Operated: 475 psig Temperature Max: 135oF Operated: 100-125oFMembrane Material research Inc, USA Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 33
  34. 34. Physical AgingPhysical Aging due to nonequilibrium state of glassy polymers Diffusion of Free Volume and lattice contraction (physical Aging) (Xiao et al., 2009) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 34
  35. 35. Some BreakthroughsSuggested Methods for Improved Separation PerformanceCrosslinking and Thermal Treatment (Qiu et al., 2011; & Kanehashi, et al.,2010)•Decarboxylation-induced thermal cross linking•Cross-linking by diamino compounds at ambient temperature•Monoesterification & transesterification reaction of carboxylicacid•Imide ring opening reactions•Diols-alder type cyclization reactions Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 35
  36. 36. Some Breakthroughs Suggested Methods for Improved Separation PerformanceCopolymerization (Xiao et al., 2009)Template Polymerization & Use of Porogens (Askari et al., 2012 )Thermal Rearrangement (Park et al., 2010; Park et al.,2007; Tullos et al., 1999)Polymer Blending (Xiao et al., 2009)Mixed Matrix (Adewole et al., 2011; Koros et al., 2009; and Chung et al., 2007)Grafting of Polymer Backbone (Pixton & Paul,1995; and Scholes et al., 2010)Dual-layer hollow fiber spinning process (Hosseini et al., 2010) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 36
  37. 37. Some Breakthroughs Permeability (barrer) PermSelectivity Plasticization Pressure (bar) 450 330 290 190 150 140 45 48 48 48 48 14 120oC, 24hr 180oC, 24hr 300oC, 330oC, 20hr 350oC, 1hr 370oC, 1hr 20hr Separation Performance of Decarboxylation-induced Thermal Crosslinking of Hollow Fiber 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) Membrane for Pure CO2 Gas (Qiu et al., 2011)Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 37
  38. 38. Some Breakthroughs Permeability (barrer) PermSelectivity Plasticization Pressure (bar) Permeability (barrer) PermSelectivity Plasticization Pressure (bar) 300 265 250 250 130 100 69 69 55 69 69 55 37.5 30 27.5 27 27 26 180oC, 24hr 330oC, 20hr 350oC, 1hr 180oC, 24hr 330oC, 20hr 350oC, 1hr Separation Performance of Decarboxylation-induced Thermal Separation Performance of Decarboxylation-induced ThermalCrosslinking of Hollow Fiber 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) Membrane for Crosslinking of Hollow Fiber 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) Membrane for 10%CO2 /90% CH4Gas (Qiu et al., 2011) 50%CO2 /50% CH4Gas (Qiu et al., 2011) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 38
  39. 39. Some Breakthroughs 60 Plasticization Pressure (bar) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Crosslinked with Decarboxylation at Decarboxylation at Ethylene glycol in high Temperature high Temperature DMAc +220 oC, 23hr +220 oC, 23hr + rapid Quenching from above Tg Improved Antiplasticization Resistance via Crosslinking of 6FDA-DAM-DABA (2:1) (Staudt-Bickel & Koros ,1999; and Kratochvil & Koros, 2008)Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 39
  40. 40. Some Breakthrough CO2 Transport Pipeline 4.5 Pure HDPE 4 Permeability (barrer) 1wt% C15A 3.5 3 2.5 5wt% N1.44P 2 Mixed CH4/CO2 Mixed Matrix Polyethylene/Nanoclay for Natural Gas Tranportation at 50 oC and 100bar (Adewole et al., 2012)Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 40
  41. 41. Some Breakthroughs Schematic of various gas transport routes through hybrid polymeric membranes (Xiao et al., 2009)Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 41
  42. 42. Research Areas for ExplorationDevelopment of optimum membrane configuration for available gas separation membranesAggressive research efforts towards developing more novel materials with better balanced of selectivity and flux, and resistance to plasticization, conditioning and agingEvaluation of the best source of CO2 for EOR GE unitLiquid membranes from renewable sources (date seed oil)Development of methods where membranes are fabricated at lower temperature is neededDevelopment of novel large scale membrane spinning processes for mixed matrix (hybrid) Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 42
  43. 43. Research Areas for Exploration Compact enough to be driven by solar power Light Fuels Electricity Membrane module Feed RetentateM Photosynthesis Permeate Photovoltaic Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 43
  44. 44. Concluding RemarksMultidisciplinary research efforts is essentialAcademic-Industry collaborative research is vitalValuable Savings can be achieved using available materials while aggressively pursuing development of more novel materialsDeveloping countries such as should incorporate membrane units from the beginning. Thermally intensive units have 30-50 years useful livesSuggested methods should be extended to polymers that are currently useful for gas separation in the industry Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 44
  45. 45. AcknowledgementCPM, RI and KFUPMDirector CPM, Dr A. S. SultanDr L. O. BabalolaKACST and Ministry of Petroleum & Mineral ResourcesFriends and Colleagues Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 45
  46. 46. ReferencesAdewole, J. K., Jensen, L., Al-Mubaiyedh, U. A., von Solms, N., & Hussein, I. A. (2011). Transport Properties of Natural Gas through Polyethylene Nanocomposites. Journal of Polymer ResearchAl-Mjeni, R., Arora, S., Cherukupalli, P., Wunnik, J., dwards, J., Febler, B. J., et al. (2011). Has the Time Come for EOR? Oilfield Review , 22 (4), 16-34.Partha S. Ghosh & Associates, (2008). Presntation on How Chemical Engineering will Drive the 21st Century: The Mega Possibilities Ahead.Bernardo, P., Drioli, E., & Golemme, G. (2009). Membrane Gas Separation: A Review/State of the Art. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. , 48, 4638–4663.Blume, I. (2004). Norit Ultrafiltration as Pretreatment for RO for Wastewater Reuse: The Sulaibiya Project. Presentation at Advanced Membrane Technology II Conference, . Irsee, Germany.Collings, C. W., Huff, G. A., & Bartels, J. V. (2004). Patent No. Pat. Appl. Publ. 20040004040 A1. USA.Dortmund, D., Doshi, K., ‘Recent Developments in CO2 Removal Membrane Technology,Eykamp, W. (1997). Membrane Separation Processes. In Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook (7th ed., p. Chapter 22). New York, NY: Mc Graw-Hill.Gertz, P. a. (1999, June ). Propane Refrigeration Cost. Private Study .Gottschlich, D., & Jacobs, M. L. (n.d.). Monomer Recovery Process, Membrane Technology and Research Inc., USA, p. 14.http://www.uop.com/gasprocessing/TechPapers/CO2RemovalMembrane.pdfHumphrey, J. L., & Keller, G. E. (1997). Energy Considerations, in Separation Process Technology. New York, NY: Mc Graw-Hill. Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 46
  47. 47. ReferencesJacobs, K. A. (n.d.). New Membrane Applications in Gas Processing. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc.Kanehashi, S., Sato, S., & Nagai, K. (2010). Synthesis and Gas Permeability of Hyperbranched and Cross - linked Polyimide Membranes. In Y. Yampolskii, & B. Freeman (Eds.), Membrane Gas Separation (pp. 3-27). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Koros, W. K., Krotochvil, A., Shu, S., & Husain, S. (2009). Energy and Environmental Issues and Impacts of Membranes in Industry. In E. Drioli, & L. Giorno (Eds.), Membrane Operations Innovative Separations and Transformations (pp. 139-165). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.Kratochvil, A. M., & Koros, W. J. (2008). Decarboxylation-Induced Cross-Linking of a Polyimide for Enhanced CO2 Plasticization Resystance. Macromolecules , 41, 7920- 7927.Matteucci, S., Yampolskii, Y., Freeman, B. D., & Pinnau, I. (2006). Transport of Gases and Vapors in Glassy and Rubbery Polymers. In Y. Yampolskii, I. Pinnau, & B. D. Freeman (Eds.), Materials Science of Membranes for Gas and Vapor Separation (pp. 1-40). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Murphy, T. M., Offord, G. T., & Paul, D. R. (2009). Fundamentals of Membrane Gas Separation. In E. Drioli, & L. Giorno (Eds.), Membrane Operations. Innovative Separations and Transformations (pp. 63-82). Weinheim: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.Park, H. B., Han, S. H., Jung, C. H., Lee, Y. M., & Hill, A. J. (2010). Thermally rearranged (TR) polymer membranes for CO2 separation. Journal of Membrane Science , 359 , 11–24.Park, H. B., Jung, C. H., Lee, Y. M., Hill, A. J., Pas, S. J., Mudie, S. T., et al. (2007). Polymers with cavities tuned for fast selective transport of small molecules and ions,. Science , 318, 254–258. Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 47
  48. 48. ReferencesPaul, D., & Robeson, L. (2008). Polymer nanotechnology: Nanocomposites. Polymer , 49 , 3187–3204.Pixton, M. R., & Paul, D. R. (1995). Gas transport properties of adamantane- based polysulfones. POLYMER , 36 (16), 3165.Qiu, W., Chen, C.-C., Xu, L., Cui, L., Paul, D. R., & Koros, W. (2011). Sub-Tg Cross-Linking of a Polyimide Membrane for Enhanced CO2 Plasticization Resistance for Natural Gas Separation. Macromolecules , 44, 6046–6056.Scholes, C. A., Chen, G. Q., Stevens, G., & Kentish, S. E. (2010). Plasticization of ultra-thin polysulfone membranes by carbon dioxide. Journal of Membrane Science , 346 , 208–214.Staudt-Bickel, C., & Koros, W. J. (1999). Improvement of CO2/CH4 separation characteristics of polyimides by chemical crosslinking. Journal of Membrane Science , 155, 145–154.Tullos, G., Powers, J., Jeskey, S., & Mathias, L. (1999 ). Thermal conversion of hydroxycontaining imides to benzoxazoles: polymer and model compound study. Macromolecules , 32 , 3598–3612.Wellington, J. M., & Ku, A. Y. (2011). Opportunities for Membranes in Sustainable Energy. Journal of Membrane Science , 373, 1-4.Wind, J. D., Paul, D. R., & Koros, W. J. (2004 ). Natural gas permeation in polyimide membranes. Journal of Membrane Science , 228 , 227–236.Xiao, Y., Low, B. T., Hosseini, S. S., Chung, T. S., & Paul, D. R. (2009 ). The strategies of molecular architecture and modification of polyimide-based membranes for CO2 removal from natural gas - A review. Progress in Polymer Science , 34 , 561–580. Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 48
  49. 49. Thank You For ListeningTuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 49
  50. 50. Comments & ContributionsTuesday, May 22, 2012 Adewole J. K., CPM-KFUPM 50
  1. Gostou de algum slide específico?

    Recortar slides é uma maneira fácil de colecionar informações para acessar mais tarde.

×