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  • Several buzz words…. Niche markets…. Speciaized travel companies…. Websites.Are they all different?Are they doing the same thing?Does it matter?
  • Clearly defined… Minimizing the harm, and maximizing the good.Why is this important?
  • Everyone is familiar with these factsSo many people traveling, huge impactFinite resources, Finite ability to manage people flows
  • Sustainable tourism isn’t just about minimizing harm… but has a real power for change.When done correctly it can do all sorts of things that are ultimately beneficial for the tourism industry & travelersExample: Only five percent of mainstream tourism dollars stay within a destinationExample: Help reduce costs by investing in training, reducing consumption, and thinking strategically about business
  • All of those things sound
  • 66% of U.S. consumers believe their travel choices can make a difference to the environmentLifestyle changes toward sustainability represent a $200 billion industry in the U.S. alone 56% are skeptical of companies making green claims and look for information elsewhere
  • Green Travelers are those that specifically travel for sustainability or consider sustainability at least half of the time.“Dark Green” travelers – those on the forefront of the movement- Tech savvy – resourceful, investigative and rely on the word of mouth experience of others
  • These are things typically associated with sustainability by the majority of people
  • Sustainable tourism goes beyond being obsessed with recycling and living in a treehouse. High quality tourism that embraces the uniqueness of the destination, creates an authentic experience, and encourages interaction with the place and its people is also sustainable.So, being a sustainable business is not JUST about the environment, being crunchy… but it’s about being a GOOD business and providing GOOD opportunities to clientele
  • Tourism as an industry has a fairly common set of indicators it uses Ministries, CVBs, tour operators all use arrivals and income generators as a way to measure viability (These are all relevant – still a business) Sustainable tourism goes one step further to look at impacts Using these indicators whether building a business or a destination promotes healthier more long-term success that isn’t victim to economic trends or fads
  • Tourism that is truly sustainable has very important impacts for everyone. Travelers are more happy – WoMBusinesses – reduce cost, new marketsDestinations – positive association, new marketsGovernments – increased revenue, increased jobs, money stays localResidents – new jobs, money stays local, healthy destination
  • Tourism

    1. 1. TOURISM By Nompumelelo Mathebula
    2. 2. WHAT IS TOURISM  1. Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a travel experience, including transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses, activity facilities and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home.
    3. 3. Excursionist: People traveling for pleasure in a period less than 24 hours (Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).
    4. 4. Foreign Tourist: Any person visiting a country, other than that in which he/she usually resides, for a period of at least 24 hours (Committee of Statistical Experts of the League of Nations, 1937).
    5. 5. Travel: The act of moving outside one's home community for business or pleasure but not for commuting or traveling to or from school (Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).
    6. 6. Visitor: Any person visiting a country other than that in which he/she has his/her usual place of residence, for any reason other than following an occupation remunerated from within the country visited (United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism, 1963).
    7. 7. Attractions: Are the primary motivation for traveling. They may be a primary destination such as Disney World or secondary destination which are interesting places to visit on the way to your primary destination. Attractions usually focus on natural resources, culture, ethnicity or entertainment.
    8. 8. Natural Resources: Natural resources are the combination of physical features, the climate , and the natural beauty of the area. The challenge to managing natural resources based tourism is to preserve the natural resource from the impact of the tourist's.
    9. 9. Culture: A way of life which is observed through a group of people religion, history, government and traditions.
    10. 10. Ethnicity: To visit family and friends.
    11. 11. X-treme Tourism: Tourism based on high adventure activities.
    12. 12. Facilities: When tourists arrive attractions they require facilities provide services. at to Lodging: Represent a variety of services from campgrounds, RV parks, motels and five star resorts. Food & Beverage: Not only provide basic sustenance for tourists but an important factor in the overall tourism experience.
    13. 13. Infrastructure: The basic services on which all tourism depends. These systems include water and sewer systems, communication networks, medical facilities, electricity, police and fire protection and roads
    14. 14. Hospitality: The community's attitude which permeates every tourism location that makes the tourist feel welcome and safe. It is the result of the interaction between the tourist and the local population.
    15. 15. Time: as the hours for leisure increase so does the opportunity for travel. Changes in work days or hours, school calendars will affect how and when people can travel. The overall travel pattern has moved from a two week vacation to 6-8 three or four day minivacations per year.
    16. 16. Money: the majority of travel requires discretionary income. Discretionary income is money left over after all monetary obligations (food, rent and taxes) have been paid.
    17. 17. Mobility: is the access to transportation (car, bus, plane, train or ship) and the hours required to get to their destination
    18. 18. Motivation: is the reason people travel. Motivations may include seeking novelty, education, meet new people, adventure or stress reduction.
    19. 19.  Demand depends on the price of the commodity, the prices of related commodities, and consumers' incomes and tastes.  Supply depends not only on the price obtainable for the commodity but also on the prices of similar products, the techniques of production, and the availability and costs of inputs.
    20. 20. A Choice Between Two Categories of Tourism: MASS TOURISM V.S. ALTERNATIVE  Mass Tourism:    The organized movement of large groups of people to specialized tourist locations. A consequence of the increase of people traveling for pleasure; developed to cater to huge numbers of tourists. Examples: whole resort towns, theme parks, tourism business districts, cruises, packaged vacations, all-inclusive resorts, etc.
    21. 21. Mass Tourism
    22. 22.  Alternative Tourism:  Individually planned activities to gain and experience first-hand knowledge about local cultures and environments.  Focus on secluded areas, occur during non-peak travelling times, can include arranging own flights and accommodations.  Example: a self-planned biking trip through Vermont, while camping or arranging accommodations “as you go.”
    23. 23. Alternative Tourism
    24. 24. A Quick Comparison between Mass and Alternative Tourism Mass Tourism Alternative Tourism large groups traditional fixed program focus on “sights” little or no background research desire for souvenirs purchase items while there may involve loud social activities snapshots and postcards no language preparation singles, families, friends recent trend spontaneous decisions focus on “experiences” careful preparation and research desire for memories / knowledge bring items to give away quiet, low impact photography and painting learn local language
    25. 25. The Different Types of Tourism   We have already discussed the travel variables that influence people to travel, or to stay at home. When travel motivators and barriers combine with these variables, they affect the travel destination and what type of travel experience the tourist signs up for. Today, the tourism industry offers many specialized forms of tourism in order to meet the increasingly diverse and the unique requests of a demanding public. People want to be able to choose from a variety of options based on to their needs and desires!
    26. 26. The Different Types of Tourism These “types of tourism” categories are a useful way to start looking at where tourists go, why they go there, and what they do while on vacation. However, it is important to note that these categories are not always as clear cut as they suggest, as travelers will engage in variety of activities while on vacation, many of which overlap into more than one category.
    27. 27. Pleasure Tourism  To improve the physical or spiritual condition of an individual .  Examples: yoga workshops, detoxification clinics, spas, etc.
    28. 28. Business Tourism To complete a business transaction or attend a business meeting / conference.
    29. 29. Nature Tourism To enjoy a natural setting or wildlife, including ecotourism.
    30. 30. Cultural Tourism To experience the history, folklore, and culture of a people.
    31. 31. Social Tourism Travel that involves the company of others, such as tour-bus travel or family visits.
    32. 32. Recreation Tourism To escape the routine of daily life, such as camping or going to a beach.
    33. 33. Active Tourism Has a set objective, such as climbing a mountain or learning a new language.
    34. 34. Sports Tourism To experience a sport or sporting event, such as ski holidays or the Olympics.
    35. 35. Religious Tourism Involves visiting a place of spiritual significance.
    36. 36. Health / Medical Tourism To improve one’s health, such as a visit to a health resort or weight-loss camp.
    37. 37. *Adventure Tourism Involves challenges and adventure, such as trekking through a tropical rainforest or rock climbing. * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
    38. 38. *Wilderness Tourism To experience something very different from everyday life in remote wilderness areas. * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
    39. 39. *Ecotourism Stresses low-impact adventure in a natural setting; sometimes called “green tourism.” * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
    40. 40. Transportation Systems The type and availability of transportation will determine travel destinations. The development of accommodations were likewise determined by the development of transportation systems.
    41. 41. Types of Transports Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations necessary for transport, and may be       Roads railways airways waterways canals pipelines
    42. 42. Animal Transportations is the use of working animals for the Animal-powered transport movement of people and goods. Humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles.
    43. 43. Air Transportations  A fixed-wing aircraft, commo nly called airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is used to generate lift.
    44. 44. Rail Transportations  Rail transport is where a train runs along a set of two parallel steel rails, known as a railway or railroad. The rails are anchored perpendicular to ties (or sleepers) of timber, concrete or steel, to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge.
    45. 45. Road Transportations  A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel .
    46. 46. Water Transportations  Water transport is the process of transport a watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat, makes over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river.
    47. 47. Other Transportations  Pipeline transport sends goods through a pipe, most commonly liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. For liquids/gases, any chemically stable liquid or gas can be sent through a pipeline.
    48. 48. Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Bruno Maia/ Bruno Maia/ Bruno Maia/
    49. 49. The tourism industry has trouble defining it…  Green Tourism  Ecotourism  Geotourism  Authentic Travel  Cultural Tourism  Adventure Tourism  Community Tourism  Responsible Tourism
    50. 50. Sustainability is vital to the life of the tourism industry. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and sociocultural aspects of tourism development. A suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability. UN World Tourism Organization
    51. 51. Every day, tourism plays a larger role in our world.
    52. 52. Sustainable Tourism has the power to create change on a global scale. • Preserve destinations for generations to come • Safeguard our cultural and environmental heritage • Promote social equality • Energize new markets to travel to the destination • Revitalize local communities • Create jobs along the rich value chain • Keep tourism dollars within destinations • Help businesses reduce costs Bruno Maia/
    53. 53. … but there is hesitancy. • “It’s Just a Fad” • “Too Expensive” • “Too Complicated” • “Requires Sacrificing Quality” • “No Return on Investment”
    54. 54. Consumers are ready. • 66% in U.S. believe their travel choices make a difference • 80% in Europe believe their travel choices make a difference • 95% of business travelers think hotels should be “green” • 44% consider the environment when making travel decisions • 67% would change travel habits if they knew it made a difference *Sabre Holdings, 2010 **TUI ***Deloitte Bruno Maia/
    55. 55. What do “sustainable travelers” look like? • Younger. Average age is 39. Non-green traveler is 44. • Educated. 48% have a college degree. • Wealthier. 13% higher income. • Spender. $2,000 more on travel per year. • Tech Savvy. Book online and value technology. *Saber Holdings, 2010 ** LOHAS **TUI* Bruno Maia/
    56. 56. The things that you can probably guess… • Conservation of natural resources • Protecting biodiversity • Reduction of waste • Minimizing effects on climate change Bruno Maia/
    57. 57. And some you didn’t know you knew... Authenticity Bruno Maia/ Uniqueness Quality Participation Bruno Maia/
    58. 58. Sustainable tourism measures success indifferent ways Type of Travel Quality of Travel Number of Visitors Length of Stay How much money is spent Where the money is spent
    59. 59. With sustainable tourism all are benefited. Bruno Maia/ Travelers Businesses Tourism Boards Governments Residents
    60. 60. The journey may be long. But it’s worth it. Sustainability will not happen all at once. But, every little bit counts – for you and the traveler.
    63. 63. Economic Impacts of Tourism POSITIVE NEGATIVE 1. Foreign exchange earnings 1. Inflation 2. Contribution to government revenues 2. Opportunity costs 3. Dependency 4. Seasonality 5. Leakage 6. Enclave tourism 7. Seasonal character of jobs 8. Prostitution and the underground economy 3. Generation of employment 4. Balance of payment / trade account balance 5. Stimulation of infrastructure investment 6. Contribution to local economies
    64. 64. Tourism and its SocioCultural Impacts
    65. 65. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS Introduction to SocioOF TOURISM Cultural Impacts of Tourism • sociology and culture • the tourist culture • elements of culture
    67. 67. Relevant Cultural Concepts
    68. 68. Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism POSITIVE/BENEFITS     Preservation and restoration of cultural heritage Revival of traditional arts and crafts Cultivation of cultural pride and sense of identity Cross-cultural exchange NEGATIVE/COSTS  Loss of cultural character  Loss of authenticity and meaning of traditional arts and crafts  Commercialization of human relationships  Potential misunderstandings and conflicts between residents and tourists
    70. 70. Three Perspectives: (Relationship of Tourism and Environment) 1. Tourist-environment interactions 2. Tourist-host interactions 3. Host-environment interactions
    72. 72. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 1. Environmental awareness. 2. Enhancements of local environment. 3. Protection and conservation of wildlife.
    73. 73. “Environmental Awareness Raising”  Tourism has the potential to increase public appreciation of the environment and to spread awareness of environmental problems when it brings people into closer contact with nature and the environment.
    74. 74. Enhancement of local environments  Retain and increase visitor numbers by improving the general amenity value of the local environment.
    75. 75. Protection and conservation of wildlife  Tourism acts as a force of conservation as it offers an alternative economic use.  Tourism draws attention to issues relating to biodiversity, endangered species and human impact on the environment. (Doswell, 1997)
    76. 76. ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS 1. Inappropriate development 2. Loss of natural habitat and effects on wildlife 3. Pollution 4. Loss of spirit 5. Overcrowding and traffic congestion 6. Activities (affecting the natural environment)
    77. 77. Wildlife can be disturbed.
    78. 78. Golden Toad in Monteverde Cloud Rainforest, Costa Rica Golden Toad, has declined in numbers at the same time as ecotourism has evolved in the area.
    79. 79. Greek Island of Zakynthos
    80. 80. 1. Loss of beach nesting areas. 2. Nesting females and young turtles disoriented by artificial illumination. 3. Noise 4. Traffic 5. Pollution 6. Activities in water
    81. 81. Deforestation in Nepal
    82. 82. Effects of trampling
    83. 83. Water Air POLLUTION Land (Solid Waste) Noise
    84. 84. Water Pollution • Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater.
    85. 85. Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulat e matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere.
    86. 86. Noise Pollution Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human, animal- or machinecreated sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.
    87. 87. Solid Waste Solid Waste is also referred to as rubbish, trash, garbag e, or junk depending upon the type of material and the regional terminology. In living organisms, waste relates to unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from them. (Caribbean Area)
    88. 88. Overcrowding and traffic congestion  Happens when the volume of tourists exceeds the capacity of an environment.  Overcrowding poses an increased risk of environmental damage through erosion and restricts visitor appreciation of the destination.  Inappropriate parking  Congestion damages vegetation, causes erosion and adds to localized pollution.
    89. 89. Effects of activities  Skiing/alpine tourism - mountain ecosystems are generally fragile but many are prone to intensive use. - many view skiing as a damaging activity because it requires associated development, such as lodges, resorts, roads and cause severe erosion and deforestation.
    90. 90. Effects of activities  Ecotourism - while the premise of ecotourism is to assist in conservation and well-being of local communities, it is often the case that ecotourism-based activities lead to deterioration in environmental quality. - proper planning and management is needed
    91. 91. Tourism, Global Warming and Climate Change  By 2050, tourism is expected to see its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions rise from 3 to 7%.  KYOTO Protocol, adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. (highlights the expected impacts of tourism in the environment)  Very significant because climate and temperature are important determinants of destination selection.
    92. 92. Tourism, Global Warming and Climate Change  Some expected effects may be; 1. Rising temperature in central European culture cities in peak season will lead to a decline in visitors. 2. Specific ecosystems s/as coral reefs will be affected. 3. In Alpine areas, shorter skiing seasons may arise.
    93. 93.  Experts begin to understand how climate change may reverse the shape of seasonality with a growing demand for coolness in summer, leading to increased energy consumption for airconditioning, along with a greater number of extreme weather events which could disrupt tourism, such as flooding, sand storms, droughts and summer fires.
    94. 94. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. The German tourism industry experience. Hotel Sector  installing water saving devices;  Abolishing individually wrapped food items at the breakfast buffet;  Using recycled paper and reusable bottles.
    95. 95. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense.  Resorts - Decreasing automobile traffic in resorts, clinic and recreational zones by constructing parking areas outside of the central areas and using electric buses. - (Club Noah Nido, Palawan) Isabelle, El
    96. 96. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Travel Agencies - Publication of brochure offering tips and information on species protection and environmentally proper behavior to vacationers.
    97. 97. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Transportation - Use high capacity airplanes to reduce noise and emissions of pollutants and fuel consumption. - “Garbage return initiative” LTU International Airways’ ecobag.
    98. 98. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense.  Cities and Towns - Use of solar energy - Replacing regular light bulbs for energy-saving bulbs. - Promoting bicycles for inner city transport - Use of rain water
    99. 99. reference Baku ,S.M, different types of tourism , 06 March 2014 Eliana ,S .What is tourism , 6 March 2014 Jiger , C .Transportation ,,08 March 2014 Oohlala , R . Tourism impact , 06 March 2014 Pettan , J ,sustainable tourism,06 March 2014