TOURISM
By
Nompumelelo
Mathebula
WHAT IS TOURISM


1. Tourism is a collection of activities, services and
industries that delivers a travel experience, in...
Excursionist: People traveling for
pleasure in a period less than 24
hours
(Macintosh
and
Goeldner, 1986).
Foreign Tourist: Any person visiting a
country, other than that in which he/she
usually resides, for a period of at least ...
Travel: The act of moving outside one's home
community for business or pleasure but not
for commuting or traveling to or f...
Visitor: Any person visiting a country other than that in
which he/she has his/her usual place of residence, for any
reaso...
Attractions:
Are
the
primary
motivation for traveling. They may be
a primary destination such as Disney
World or secondary...
Natural Resources: Natural resources
are the combination of physical
features, the climate , and the natural
beauty of the...
Culture: A way of life which is
observed through a group of
people
religion, history, government
and traditions.
Ethnicity: To visit
family and friends.
X-treme Tourism:
Tourism based on high
adventure activities.
Facilities: When tourists arrive
attractions they require facilities
provide services.

at
to

Lodging: Represent a variet...
Infrastructure: The basic services on
which all tourism depends. These
systems include water and sewer
systems,
communicat...
Hospitality: The community's attitude
which permeates every tourism
location that makes the tourist feel
welcome and safe....
Time: as the hours for leisure increase
so does the opportunity for travel.
Changes in work days or hours, school
calendar...
Money: the majority of travel
requires discretionary income.
Discretionary income is money
left over after all monetary
ob...
Mobility: is the access to
transportation
(car, bus, plane, train or
ship) and the hours required
to get to their destinat...
Motivation: is the reason
people travel. Motivations may
include
seeking
novelty, education, meet new
people, adventure or...
 Demand depends on the price of the
commodity, the prices of related
commodities,
and
consumers'
incomes and tastes.
 Su...
A Choice Between
Two Categories of
Tourism:
MASS TOURISM V.S. ALTERNATIVE
 Mass Tourism:





The organized movement o...
Mass Tourism


Alternative Tourism:


Individually planned activities to
gain and experience first-hand
knowledge about local culture...
Alternative Tourism
A Quick Comparison
between Mass and
Alternative Tourism
Mass Tourism

Alternative Tourism

large groups
traditional
fixed ...
The Different Types of
Tourism




We have already discussed the travel variables that
influence people to travel, or to...
The Different Types of
Tourism
These “types of tourism” categories are a
useful way to start looking at where
tourists go,...
Pleasure Tourism


To improve the physical or spiritual condition of an
individual .
 Examples: yoga workshops, detoxifi...
Business Tourism
To complete a business transaction or attend a
business meeting / conference.
Nature Tourism
To enjoy a natural setting or wildlife, including
ecotourism.
Cultural Tourism
To experience the history, folklore, and culture of a
people.
Social Tourism
Travel that involves the company of others, such as
tour-bus travel or family visits.
Recreation Tourism
To escape the routine of daily life, such as camping
or going to a beach.
Active Tourism
Has a set objective, such as climbing a mountain or
learning a new language.
Sports Tourism
To experience a sport or sporting event, such as ski
holidays or the Olympics.
Religious Tourism
Involves visiting a place of spiritual significance.
Health / Medical Tourism
To improve one’s health, such as a visit to a health
resort or weight-loss camp.
*Adventure Tourism
Involves challenges and adventure, such as trekking
through a tropical rainforest or rock climbing.

* ...
*Wilderness Tourism
To experience something very different from
everyday life in remote wilderness areas.

* Types of Sust...
*Ecotourism
Stresses low-impact adventure in a natural setting;
sometimes called “green tourism.”

* Types of Sustainable ...
Transportation Systems
The type and availability of transportation
will determine travel destinations. The
development of ...
Types of Transports

Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations
necessary for transport, and may be


...
Animal Transportations is the use of working animals for the
Animal-powered transport
movement of people and goods. Humans...
Air Transportations


A fixed-wing
aircraft, commo
nly called
airplane, is a
heavier-than-air
craft where
movement of the...
Rail Transportations


Rail transport is where a train
runs along a set of two
parallel steel rails, known as a
railway o...
Road Transportations


A road is an
identifiable route, way
or path between two or
more places. Roads are
typically
smoot...
Water Transportations


Water transport is the process of
transport a watercraft, such as
a barge, boat, ship or
sailboat...
Other Transportations


Pipeline transport sends goods
through a pipe, most commonly
liquid and gases are
sent, but pneum...
Responsible and Sustainable
Tourism

Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org

Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org

Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos....
The tourism industry has trouble defining it…



Green Tourism



Ecotourism



Geotourism



Authentic Travel



Cul...
Sustainability is vital to the life of the tourism
industry.
Sustainability principles refer to the
environmental, economi...
Every day, tourism plays a larger role in our
world.
Sustainable Tourism has the power to create change
on a global scale.
•

Preserve destinations for generations to come

•
...
… but there is hesitancy.

•

“It’s Just a Fad”

•

“Too Expensive”

•

“Too Complicated”

•

“Requires Sacrificing Qualit...
Consumers are ready.

•

66% in U.S. believe their travel choices make a difference

•

80% in Europe believe their travel...
What do “sustainable travelers” look like?

•

Younger. Average age is 39. Non-green traveler is 44.

•

Educated. 48% hav...
The things that you can probably guess…

•

Conservation of natural resources

•

Protecting biodiversity

•

Reduction of...
And some you didn’t know you knew...

Authenticity

Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org

Uniqueness

Quality

Participation

Brun...
Sustainable tourism measures success indifferent
ways

Type of Travel

Quality of Travel

Number of Visitors

Length of St...
With sustainable tourism
all are benefited.
Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org

Travelers
Businesses

Tourism Boards
Governments...
The journey may be long.
But it’s worth it.

Sustainability will not happen all at once.
But, every little bit counts – fo...
Types of Tourism Impacts
ECONOMIC IMPACTS
SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
TOURISM AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPACTS
Economic Impacts of Tourism
POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

1.

Foreign exchange earnings

1.

Inflation

2.

Contribution to governme...
Tourism and its SocioCultural Impacts
SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS
Introduction to SocioOF TOURISM
Cultural Impacts of Tourism
• sociology and culture
• the tourist c...
ELEMENTS OF CULTURE

HANDICRAFTS
LANGUAGE
TRADITION

 GASTRONOMY
ART AND
MUSIC
HISTORY

 LOCAL WORK
ARCHITECTU
RE
...
Relevant Cultural Concepts
Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism
POSITIVE/BENEFITS








Preservation and restoration of
cultural heritage
Revival ...
TOURISM & ITS
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Three Perspectives: (Relationship
of Tourism and Environment)
1. Tourist-environment interactions
2. Tourist-host interact...
TOURISM &
ENVIRONMENT

SYMBIOTIC
RELATIONSHIP
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

1.

Environmental awareness.

2.

Enhancements of local environment.

3.

Protection and conservat...
“Environmental Awareness
Raising”


Tourism has the potential to increase
public appreciation of the environment
and to s...
Enhancement of local
environments


Retain and increase visitor numbers by improving the general amenity
value of the loc...
Protection and conservation
of wildlife



Tourism acts as a force of conservation as it offers an alternative
economic u...
ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS

1.

Inappropriate development

2.

Loss of natural habitat and effects on wildlife

3.

Pollution

4....
Wildlife can be disturbed.
Golden Toad in Monteverde Cloud Rainforest, Costa Rica

Golden Toad, has declined in
numbers at the same time as
ecotouris...
Greek Island of Zakynthos
1.

Loss of beach nesting areas.

2.

Nesting females and young turtles disoriented by
artificial illumination.

3.

Noise...
Deforestation in Nepal
Effects of trampling
Water

Air

POLLUTION

Land (Solid
Waste)

Noise
Water Pollution

• Water pollution is the contamination
of
water
bodies
such
as
lakes,
rivers,
oceans,
and
groundwater.
Air Pollution
Air pollution is the
introduction of
chemicals, particulat
e matter, or
biological materials
that cause harm...
Noise Pollution
Noise pollution (or
environmental noise)
is displeasing human, animal- or machinecreated sound that
disrup...
Solid Waste
Solid Waste is also
referred
to
as
rubbish, trash, garbag
e, or junk depending
upon the type of
material
and
t...
Overcrowding and traffic
congestion


Happens when the volume of tourists exceeds the
capacity of an environment.



Ove...
Effects of activities


Skiing/alpine tourism
- mountain ecosystems are generally fragile but many
are prone to intensive...
Effects of activities



Ecotourism
- while the premise of ecotourism is to assist in
conservation and well-being of loca...
Tourism, Global
Warming and
Climate Change


By 2050, tourism is expected to see its contribution
to greenhouse gas emiss...
Tourism, Global Warming and
Climate Change


Some expected effects may be;

1.

Rising temperature in central European cu...


Experts begin to understand
how climate change may
reverse
the
shape
of
seasonality with a growing
demand for coolness ...
Tourism-related companies
realized that turning green
makes good business sense. The
German tourism industry
experience.
H...
Tourism-related companies
realized that turning green
makes good business sense.



Resorts

-

Decreasing automobile tra...
Tourism-related companies realized
that turning green makes good
business sense.

• Travel Agencies
- Publication of broch...
Tourism-related companies realized
that turning green makes good
business sense.

• Transportation
- Use high capacity
air...
Tourism-related companies
realized that turning green
makes good business sense.


Cities and Towns

-

Use of solar ener...
reference
Baku ,S.M, different types of tourism , http://www.slideshare.net/ALTINBAKU/the-differenttypes-of-tourism?qid=0e...
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  • Several buzz words…. Niche markets…. Speciaized travel companies…. Websites.Are they all different?Are they doing the same thing?Does it matter?
  • Clearly defined… Minimizing the harm, and maximizing the good.Why is this important?
  • Everyone is familiar with these factsSo many people traveling, huge impactFinite resources, Finite ability to manage people flows
  • Sustainable tourism isn’t just about minimizing harm… but has a real power for change.When done correctly it can do all sorts of things that are ultimately beneficial for the tourism industry & travelersExample: Only five percent of mainstream tourism dollars stay within a destinationExample: Help reduce costs by investing in training, reducing consumption, and thinking strategically about business
  • All of those things sound
  • 66% of U.S. consumers believe their travel choices can make a difference to the environmentLifestyle changes toward sustainability represent a $200 billion industry in the U.S. alone 56% are skeptical of companies making green claims and look for information elsewhere
  • Green Travelers are those that specifically travel for sustainability or consider sustainability at least half of the time.“Dark Green” travelers – those on the forefront of the movement- Tech savvy – resourceful, investigative and rely on the word of mouth experience of others
  • These are things typically associated with sustainability by the majority of people
  • Sustainable tourism goes beyond being obsessed with recycling and living in a treehouse. High quality tourism that embraces the uniqueness of the destination, creates an authentic experience, and encourages interaction with the place and its people is also sustainable.So, being a sustainable business is not JUST about the environment, being crunchy… but it’s about being a GOOD business and providing GOOD opportunities to clientele
  • Tourism as an industry has a fairly common set of indicators it uses Ministries, CVBs, tour operators all use arrivals and income generators as a way to measure viability (These are all relevant – still a business) Sustainable tourism goes one step further to look at impacts Using these indicators whether building a business or a destination promotes healthier more long-term success that isn’t victim to economic trends or fads
  • Tourism that is truly sustainable has very important impacts for everyone. Travelers are more happy – WoMBusinesses – reduce cost, new marketsDestinations – positive association, new marketsGovernments – increased revenue, increased jobs, money stays localResidents – new jobs, money stays local, healthy destination
  • Transcript of "Tourism "

    1. 1. TOURISM By Nompumelelo Mathebula
    2. 2. WHAT IS TOURISM  1. Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a travel experience, including transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses, activity facilities and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home.
    3. 3. Excursionist: People traveling for pleasure in a period less than 24 hours (Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).
    4. 4. Foreign Tourist: Any person visiting a country, other than that in which he/she usually resides, for a period of at least 24 hours (Committee of Statistical Experts of the League of Nations, 1937).
    5. 5. Travel: The act of moving outside one's home community for business or pleasure but not for commuting or traveling to or from school (Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).
    6. 6. Visitor: Any person visiting a country other than that in which he/she has his/her usual place of residence, for any reason other than following an occupation remunerated from within the country visited (United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism, 1963).
    7. 7. Attractions: Are the primary motivation for traveling. They may be a primary destination such as Disney World or secondary destination which are interesting places to visit on the way to your primary destination. Attractions usually focus on natural resources, culture, ethnicity or entertainment.
    8. 8. Natural Resources: Natural resources are the combination of physical features, the climate , and the natural beauty of the area. The challenge to managing natural resources based tourism is to preserve the natural resource from the impact of the tourist's.
    9. 9. Culture: A way of life which is observed through a group of people religion, history, government and traditions.
    10. 10. Ethnicity: To visit family and friends.
    11. 11. X-treme Tourism: Tourism based on high adventure activities.
    12. 12. Facilities: When tourists arrive attractions they require facilities provide services. at to Lodging: Represent a variety of services from campgrounds, RV parks, motels and five star resorts. Food & Beverage: Not only provide basic sustenance for tourists but an important factor in the overall tourism experience.
    13. 13. Infrastructure: The basic services on which all tourism depends. These systems include water and sewer systems, communication networks, medical facilities, electricity, police and fire protection and roads
    14. 14. Hospitality: The community's attitude which permeates every tourism location that makes the tourist feel welcome and safe. It is the result of the interaction between the tourist and the local population.
    15. 15. Time: as the hours for leisure increase so does the opportunity for travel. Changes in work days or hours, school calendars will affect how and when people can travel. The overall travel pattern has moved from a two week vacation to 6-8 three or four day minivacations per year.
    16. 16. Money: the majority of travel requires discretionary income. Discretionary income is money left over after all monetary obligations (food, rent and taxes) have been paid.
    17. 17. Mobility: is the access to transportation (car, bus, plane, train or ship) and the hours required to get to their destination
    18. 18. Motivation: is the reason people travel. Motivations may include seeking novelty, education, meet new people, adventure or stress reduction.
    19. 19.  Demand depends on the price of the commodity, the prices of related commodities, and consumers' incomes and tastes.  Supply depends not only on the price obtainable for the commodity but also on the prices of similar products, the techniques of production, and the availability and costs of inputs.
    20. 20. A Choice Between Two Categories of Tourism: MASS TOURISM V.S. ALTERNATIVE  Mass Tourism:    The organized movement of large groups of people to specialized tourist locations. A consequence of the increase of people traveling for pleasure; developed to cater to huge numbers of tourists. Examples: whole resort towns, theme parks, tourism business districts, cruises, packaged vacations, all-inclusive resorts, etc.
    21. 21. Mass Tourism
    22. 22.  Alternative Tourism:  Individually planned activities to gain and experience first-hand knowledge about local cultures and environments.  Focus on secluded areas, occur during non-peak travelling times, can include arranging own flights and accommodations.  Example: a self-planned biking trip through Vermont, while camping or arranging accommodations “as you go.”
    23. 23. Alternative Tourism
    24. 24. A Quick Comparison between Mass and Alternative Tourism Mass Tourism Alternative Tourism large groups traditional fixed program focus on “sights” little or no background research desire for souvenirs purchase items while there may involve loud social activities snapshots and postcards no language preparation singles, families, friends recent trend spontaneous decisions focus on “experiences” careful preparation and research desire for memories / knowledge bring items to give away quiet, low impact photography and painting learn local language
    25. 25. The Different Types of Tourism   We have already discussed the travel variables that influence people to travel, or to stay at home. When travel motivators and barriers combine with these variables, they affect the travel destination and what type of travel experience the tourist signs up for. Today, the tourism industry offers many specialized forms of tourism in order to meet the increasingly diverse and the unique requests of a demanding public. People want to be able to choose from a variety of options based on to their needs and desires!
    26. 26. The Different Types of Tourism These “types of tourism” categories are a useful way to start looking at where tourists go, why they go there, and what they do while on vacation. However, it is important to note that these categories are not always as clear cut as they suggest, as travelers will engage in variety of activities while on vacation, many of which overlap into more than one category.
    27. 27. Pleasure Tourism  To improve the physical or spiritual condition of an individual .  Examples: yoga workshops, detoxification clinics, spas, etc.
    28. 28. Business Tourism To complete a business transaction or attend a business meeting / conference.
    29. 29. Nature Tourism To enjoy a natural setting or wildlife, including ecotourism.
    30. 30. Cultural Tourism To experience the history, folklore, and culture of a people.
    31. 31. Social Tourism Travel that involves the company of others, such as tour-bus travel or family visits.
    32. 32. Recreation Tourism To escape the routine of daily life, such as camping or going to a beach.
    33. 33. Active Tourism Has a set objective, such as climbing a mountain or learning a new language.
    34. 34. Sports Tourism To experience a sport or sporting event, such as ski holidays or the Olympics.
    35. 35. Religious Tourism Involves visiting a place of spiritual significance.
    36. 36. Health / Medical Tourism To improve one’s health, such as a visit to a health resort or weight-loss camp.
    37. 37. *Adventure Tourism Involves challenges and adventure, such as trekking through a tropical rainforest or rock climbing. * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
    38. 38. *Wilderness Tourism To experience something very different from everyday life in remote wilderness areas. * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
    39. 39. *Ecotourism Stresses low-impact adventure in a natural setting; sometimes called “green tourism.” * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
    40. 40. Transportation Systems The type and availability of transportation will determine travel destinations. The development of accommodations were likewise determined by the development of transportation systems.
    41. 41. Types of Transports Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations necessary for transport, and may be       Roads railways airways waterways canals pipelines
    42. 42. Animal Transportations is the use of working animals for the Animal-powered transport movement of people and goods. Humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles.
    43. 43. Air Transportations  A fixed-wing aircraft, commo nly called airplane, is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is used to generate lift.
    44. 44. Rail Transportations  Rail transport is where a train runs along a set of two parallel steel rails, known as a railway or railroad. The rails are anchored perpendicular to ties (or sleepers) of timber, concrete or steel, to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge.
    45. 45. Road Transportations  A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel .
    46. 46. Water Transportations  Water transport is the process of transport a watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat, makes over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river.
    47. 47. Other Transportations  Pipeline transport sends goods through a pipe, most commonly liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. For liquids/gases, any chemically stable liquid or gas can be sent through a pipeline.
    48. 48. Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org
    49. 49. The tourism industry has trouble defining it…  Green Tourism  Ecotourism  Geotourism  Authentic Travel  Cultural Tourism  Adventure Tourism  Community Tourism  Responsible Tourism
    50. 50. Sustainability is vital to the life of the tourism industry. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and sociocultural aspects of tourism development. A suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability. UN World Tourism Organization
    51. 51. Every day, tourism plays a larger role in our world.
    52. 52. Sustainable Tourism has the power to create change on a global scale. • Preserve destinations for generations to come • Safeguard our cultural and environmental heritage • Promote social equality • Energize new markets to travel to the destination • Revitalize local communities • Create jobs along the rich value chain • Keep tourism dollars within destinations • Help businesses reduce costs Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org
    53. 53. … but there is hesitancy. • “It’s Just a Fad” • “Too Expensive” • “Too Complicated” • “Requires Sacrificing Quality” • “No Return on Investment”
    54. 54. Consumers are ready. • 66% in U.S. believe their travel choices make a difference • 80% in Europe believe their travel choices make a difference • 95% of business travelers think hotels should be “green” • 44% consider the environment when making travel decisions • 67% would change travel habits if they knew it made a difference *Sabre Holdings, 2010 **TUI ***Deloitte Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org
    55. 55. What do “sustainable travelers” look like? • Younger. Average age is 39. Non-green traveler is 44. • Educated. 48% have a college degree. • Wealthier. 13% higher income. • Spender. $2,000 more on travel per year. • Tech Savvy. Book online and value technology. *Saber Holdings, 2010 ** LOHAS **TUI* Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org
    56. 56. The things that you can probably guess… • Conservation of natural resources • Protecting biodiversity • Reduction of waste • Minimizing effects on climate change Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org
    57. 57. And some you didn’t know you knew... Authenticity Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org Uniqueness Quality Participation Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org
    58. 58. Sustainable tourism measures success indifferent ways Type of Travel Quality of Travel Number of Visitors Length of Stay How much money is spent Where the money is spent
    59. 59. With sustainable tourism all are benefited. Bruno Maia/Naturezafotos.org Travelers Businesses Tourism Boards Governments Residents
    60. 60. The journey may be long. But it’s worth it. Sustainability will not happen all at once. But, every little bit counts – for you and the traveler.
    61. 61. Types of Tourism Impacts ECONOMIC IMPACTS SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
    62. 62. TOURISM AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPACTS
    63. 63. Economic Impacts of Tourism POSITIVE NEGATIVE 1. Foreign exchange earnings 1. Inflation 2. Contribution to government revenues 2. Opportunity costs 3. Dependency 4. Seasonality 5. Leakage 6. Enclave tourism 7. Seasonal character of jobs 8. Prostitution and the underground economy 3. Generation of employment 4. Balance of payment / trade account balance 5. Stimulation of infrastructure investment 6. Contribution to local economies
    64. 64. Tourism and its SocioCultural Impacts
    65. 65. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS Introduction to SocioOF TOURISM Cultural Impacts of Tourism • sociology and culture • the tourist culture • elements of culture
    66. 66. ELEMENTS OF CULTURE  HANDICRAFTS LANGUAGE TRADITION  GASTRONOMY ART AND MUSIC HISTORY  LOCAL WORK ARCHITECTU RE RELIGION  EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS DRESS LEISURE ACTIVITIES
    67. 67. Relevant Cultural Concepts
    68. 68. Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism POSITIVE/BENEFITS     Preservation and restoration of cultural heritage Revival of traditional arts and crafts Cultivation of cultural pride and sense of identity Cross-cultural exchange NEGATIVE/COSTS  Loss of cultural character  Loss of authenticity and meaning of traditional arts and crafts  Commercialization of human relationships  Potential misunderstandings and conflicts between residents and tourists
    69. 69. TOURISM & ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
    70. 70. Three Perspectives: (Relationship of Tourism and Environment) 1. Tourist-environment interactions 2. Tourist-host interactions 3. Host-environment interactions
    71. 71. TOURISM & ENVIRONMENT SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
    72. 72. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 1. Environmental awareness. 2. Enhancements of local environment. 3. Protection and conservation of wildlife.
    73. 73. “Environmental Awareness Raising”  Tourism has the potential to increase public appreciation of the environment and to spread awareness of environmental problems when it brings people into closer contact with nature and the environment.
    74. 74. Enhancement of local environments  Retain and increase visitor numbers by improving the general amenity value of the local environment.
    75. 75. Protection and conservation of wildlife  Tourism acts as a force of conservation as it offers an alternative economic use.  Tourism draws attention to issues relating to biodiversity, endangered species and human impact on the environment. (Doswell, 1997)
    76. 76. ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS 1. Inappropriate development 2. Loss of natural habitat and effects on wildlife 3. Pollution 4. Loss of spirit 5. Overcrowding and traffic congestion 6. Activities (affecting the natural environment)
    77. 77. Wildlife can be disturbed.
    78. 78. Golden Toad in Monteverde Cloud Rainforest, Costa Rica Golden Toad, has declined in numbers at the same time as ecotourism has evolved in the area.
    79. 79. Greek Island of Zakynthos
    80. 80. 1. Loss of beach nesting areas. 2. Nesting females and young turtles disoriented by artificial illumination. 3. Noise 4. Traffic 5. Pollution 6. Activities in water
    81. 81. Deforestation in Nepal
    82. 82. Effects of trampling
    83. 83. Water Air POLLUTION Land (Solid Waste) Noise
    84. 84. Water Pollution • Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater.
    85. 85. Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulat e matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere.
    86. 86. Noise Pollution Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human, animal- or machinecreated sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.
    87. 87. Solid Waste Solid Waste is also referred to as rubbish, trash, garbag e, or junk depending upon the type of material and the regional terminology. In living organisms, waste relates to unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from them. (Caribbean Area)
    88. 88. Overcrowding and traffic congestion  Happens when the volume of tourists exceeds the capacity of an environment.  Overcrowding poses an increased risk of environmental damage through erosion and restricts visitor appreciation of the destination.  Inappropriate parking  Congestion damages vegetation, causes erosion and adds to localized pollution.
    89. 89. Effects of activities  Skiing/alpine tourism - mountain ecosystems are generally fragile but many are prone to intensive use. - many view skiing as a damaging activity because it requires associated development, such as lodges, resorts, roads and cause severe erosion and deforestation.
    90. 90. Effects of activities  Ecotourism - while the premise of ecotourism is to assist in conservation and well-being of local communities, it is often the case that ecotourism-based activities lead to deterioration in environmental quality. - proper planning and management is needed
    91. 91. Tourism, Global Warming and Climate Change  By 2050, tourism is expected to see its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions rise from 3 to 7%.  KYOTO Protocol, adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. (highlights the expected impacts of tourism in the environment)  Very significant because climate and temperature are important determinants of destination selection.
    92. 92. Tourism, Global Warming and Climate Change  Some expected effects may be; 1. Rising temperature in central European culture cities in peak season will lead to a decline in visitors. 2. Specific ecosystems s/as coral reefs will be affected. 3. In Alpine areas, shorter skiing seasons may arise.
    93. 93.  Experts begin to understand how climate change may reverse the shape of seasonality with a growing demand for coolness in summer, leading to increased energy consumption for airconditioning, along with a greater number of extreme weather events which could disrupt tourism, such as flooding, sand storms, droughts and summer fires.
    94. 94. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. The German tourism industry experience. Hotel Sector  installing water saving devices;  Abolishing individually wrapped food items at the breakfast buffet;  Using recycled paper and reusable bottles.
    95. 95. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense.  Resorts - Decreasing automobile traffic in resorts, clinic and recreational zones by constructing parking areas outside of the central areas and using electric buses. - (Club Noah Nido, Palawan) Isabelle, El
    96. 96. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Travel Agencies - Publication of brochure offering tips and information on species protection and environmentally proper behavior to vacationers.
    97. 97. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense. • Transportation - Use high capacity airplanes to reduce noise and emissions of pollutants and fuel consumption. - “Garbage return initiative” LTU International Airways’ ecobag.
    98. 98. Tourism-related companies realized that turning green makes good business sense.  Cities and Towns - Use of solar energy - Replacing regular light bulbs for energy-saving bulbs. - Promoting bicycles for inner city transport - Use of rain water
    99. 99. reference Baku ,S.M, different types of tourism , http://www.slideshare.net/ALTINBAKU/the-differenttypes-of-tourism?qid=0e314dab-6fb5-4a04-8c14-83ff02dc9a5b&v=qf1&b=&from_search=1 06 March 2014 Eliana ,S .What is tourism , http://www.slideshare.net/ELIFUENTES/cfakepathingles?qid=af03c26d-e7c4-4599-85ce61c43be53b3c&v=default&b=&from_search=3 6 March 2014 Jiger , C .Transportation , http://www.slideshare.net/hrishigenei/types-oftranportations?qid=b77a0b01-4eb7-4881-813c-f9c7344c25bd&v=default&b=&from_search=10,08 March 2014 Oohlala , R . Tourism impact ,http://www.slideshare.net/reymarieoohlala/chap5-tourismimpacts?qid=2e37a5c7-154e-447c-a846-ef0c605cdcb3&v=qf1&b=&from_search=4 06 March 2014 Pettan , J ,sustainable tourism http://www.slideshare.net/jithupettan/sustainable-tourism-9613349?qid=d7f027d5-36f2-423bb6cc-dc6ae1a91d02&v=default&b=&from_search=1,06 March 2014
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