Chapter 10   © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
Alcoholic Beverages Alcohol is the most popular psychoactive drug in the Western world Categorized as a depressant Ethy...
Standard Drinks and Calories One drink = standard drink One drink typically contains 0.6 ounces of alcohol Caloric cont...
Table 10.1 Serving Sizes Versus Standard Drinksof Common Alcoholic Beverages                                              ...
Absorption   20% is rapidly absorbed from the stomach   75% is absorbed in the upper small intestines   Any remaining i...
Metabolism and Excretion Transported throughout the body via the  bloodstream Easily moves through most biological membr...
Alcohol Intake andBlood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)      The amount of alcohol in a pe...
Figure 10.2 Approximate Blood AlcoholConcentration and Body Weight                                                      8 ...
The Immediate Effects              of Alcohol on Health Depends on the individual Low concentrations 0.03%-0.05% Higher...
Alcohol and Impaired Judgment Alcohol-related injuries and violence    • Homicide    • Suicide    • Automobile crashes   ...
Drinking and Driving In 2008,    275,000 people were injured in alcohol     related automobile crashes    11,773 people...
Figure 10.3 The Dose-Response RelationshipBetween BAC and Automobile Crashes                                              ...
    The Effects of Chronic Use    Diseases of the digestive, cardiovascular systems, and some cancers   Digestive system...
Figure 10.4 The Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Alcohol Abuse                                                          ...
The Effects of AlcoholUse During Pregnancy Effects are dose-related    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)        Full-blown F...
Possible Health Benefits of Alcohol Abstainers and light to moderate drinkers live longer  than do heavy drinkers 35 yea...
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Statistics on American alcohol usage  • 60% ages 18 or older routinely drink alcohol  • 15% ...
Abuse Versus Dependence Alcohol abuse is recurrent use that has negative  consequences Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) i...
Binge Drinking The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism defines:    Pattern of alcohol use that brings a p...
Table 10.2 The Effects of BingeDrinking on College Students                                                      20 © 2012...
Alcoholism Patterns and prevalence  1. Regular daily intake of large amounts  2. Regular heavy drinking limited to weeken...
Treatment Programs Different programs work for different people    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)          12-step program  ...
Gender and Ethnic Differences Men   White American men   Non-white men Women African Americans Latinos Asian Americ...
Table 10.3 Users and Abusers of    Alcohol in the U.S.: 2008                                                     24© 2012 ...
Drinking Behavior andResponsibility Examine your drinking behavior    CAGE screening test Drink moderately and responsi...
Promote Responsible Drinking          in Others Encourage responsible attitudes Be a responsible host Hold the drinker ...
Develop Responsible                  Drinking Habits Keep a record of your behavior in a health journal Analyze your rec...
Chapter 10© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
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Chapter 10 Powerpoint

  1. 1. Chapter 10 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Alcoholic Beverages Alcohol is the most popular psychoactive drug in the Western world Categorized as a depressant Ethyl alcohol – only alcohol that can be consumed  Beer 3-6% alcohol by volume  Ales and malt liquors 6-8% alcohol by volume  Table wines 9-14% alcohol by volume  Fermenting  Fortified wines 20% alcohol by volume  Sugar added  Extra alcohol is added  Hard liquors 35-50% alcohol by volume (or stronger)  Distilling brewed or fermented grains or other plant products Proof value  Two times the alcohol percentage concentration 2 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Standard Drinks and Calories One drink = standard drink One drink typically contains 0.6 ounces of alcohol Caloric content  7 calories per gram  One drink (14-17 grams) has about 100-120 calories  Also contains carbohydrates  One beer about 150 calories  “Light” in light beer refers to calories (about 100)  5-ounce glass of red wine has 100 calories  5-ounce glass of white wine has 96 calories  3-ounce margarita has 157 calories  6-ounce Cosmopolitan has 143 calories  6-ounce rum and Coke has 180 calories 3 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Table 10.1 Serving Sizes Versus Standard Drinksof Common Alcoholic Beverages 4© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Absorption 20% is rapidly absorbed from the stomach 75% is absorbed in the upper small intestines Any remaining is absorbed along the GI track Absorption is affected by what is in the drink  Carbonation increases the rate of absorption  Artificial sweeteners (in drink mixers) increase the absorption  Food in the stomach slows the absorption  Drink of high concentration slows absorption  Eventually all the alcohol ingested will be absorbed 5 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Metabolism and Excretion Transported throughout the body via the bloodstream Easily moves through most biological membranes Main site for metabolism is the liver About 2-10% of ingested alcohol is not metabolized 6 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Alcohol Intake andBlood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)  The amount of alcohol in a person’s blood; a measure of intoxication  Body weight  Percentage of body fat  Sex Balance of alcohol absorbed and rate of metabolism Genetic factors Drinking behavior Can not be influenced by:  Exercise  Breathing deeply  Eating  Drinking coffee  Taking other drugs Metabolism is the same if the person is awake or asleep 7 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Figure 10.2 Approximate Blood AlcoholConcentration and Body Weight 8 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. The Immediate Effects of Alcohol on Health Depends on the individual Low concentrations 0.03%-0.05% Higher Concentrations 0.1%-0.2%  Concentration of .35% and higher can be fatal Alcohol hangover Alcohol poisoning Using alcohol with other drugs 9 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Alcohol and Impaired Judgment Alcohol-related injuries and violence • Homicide • Suicide • Automobile crashes • Hostility Alcohol and aggression  Antisocial personality disorder  Leads to arrest  Impairs home life Alcohol and sexual decision making  More likely to engage in unsafe sex 10 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Drinking and Driving In 2008,  275,000 people were injured in alcohol related automobile crashes  11,773 people were killed in alcohol related accidents Dose-response function • Driving with a BAC of 0.14% is over 40 times more likely to be involved in a crash • Greater than 0.14%, the risk of fatal crash is estimated to be 380 times higher 11 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Figure 10.3 The Dose-Response RelationshipBetween BAC and Automobile Crashes 12 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13.  The Effects of Chronic Use Diseases of the digestive, cardiovascular systems, and some cancers Digestive system  Liver function  Liver cell damage and destruction (cirrhosis)  Cirrhosis causes drinker to lose tolerance  Pancreas inflammation Cardiovascular system  Moderate doses may reduce the risk of heart disease  Higher doses elevates blood pressure, may weaken heart muscle or cardiac myopathy Cancer  Mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus  5-6 total drinks daily  Responsible for the most common form of liver cancer  Hepatitis speeds the growth of this cancer  Breast cancer  Increase risk with 2-3 drinks per day Brain damage  Cognitive impairments and brain shrinkage  Memory loss, dementia, and compromised problem-solving Mortality  Alcoholics’ average life expectancy is about 15 years less than non-alcoholics 13 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Figure 10.4 The Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Alcohol Abuse 14 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. The Effects of AlcoholUse During Pregnancy Effects are dose-related  Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)  Full-blown FAS occurs in up to 15 out of every 10,000 live births in the U.S.  Alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorder (ARND)  Negative effects on the baby’s brain development 15 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Possible Health Benefits of Alcohol Abstainers and light to moderate drinkers live longer than do heavy drinkers 35 years old and younger, your odds of dying increase in proportion to the amount consumed Moderate drinking = one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men  May lower coronary heart disease  Raises blood levels of HDL, reduces blood clots  May lower risks of diabetes, arterial blockages, Alzheimer’s 16 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Statistics on American alcohol usage • 60% ages 18 or older routinely drink alcohol • 15% are former drinkers • 25% are lifetime abstainers • 7% are classified as heavy alcohol users 17 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Abuse Versus Dependence Alcohol abuse is recurrent use that has negative consequences Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) involves more extensive problems, tolerance, and withdrawal Warning signs of alcohol abuse  Drinking alone or secretively  Using deliberately and repeatedly  Self-medicating  Feeling uncomfortable on certain occasions when no alcohol  Escalating consumption  Consuming alcohol heavily in risky situations (before driving)  Getting drunk regularly  Drinking in the morning or at unusual times 18 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Binge Drinking The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism defines:  Pattern of alcohol use that brings a person’s BAC up to 0.08 or above (typically four drinks for a male or three for a woman) within two hours National Survey on Drug Use and Health defines:  Having five drinks in a row for a man or four in a row for a woman within two hours About 75% of the alcohol consumed by adults in the U.S. meets the definition of binge drinking 19 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. Table 10.2 The Effects of BingeDrinking on College Students 20 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Alcoholism Patterns and prevalence 1. Regular daily intake of large amounts 2. Regular heavy drinking limited to weekends 3. Long periods of sobriety interspersed with binges or daily heavy drinking lasting for weeks or months 4. Heavy drinking limited to periods of stress Health Effects  Delirium tremens (the DTs)  Blackouts and other memory problems Social and psychological effects Causes of alcoholism 21 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Treatment Programs Different programs work for different people  Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)  12-step program  Al-Anon, Rationale Recovery, Women for Sobriety  Employee assistance and school-based programs  Inpatient hospital rehabilitation  Pharmacological treatments.  Disulfiram (Antabuse)  Inhibits the metabolic breakdown; feel ill  Naltrexone (ReVia, Depade)  Reduces the craving for alcohol and decreases its pleasant effects  Injectable naltrexone (Vivtrol) – single monthly shot  Acamprosate (Campral)  Acts on brain pathways related to alcohol abuse 22 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Gender and Ethnic Differences Men  White American men  Non-white men Women African Americans Latinos Asian Americans American Indians and Alaska Natives Helping someone with an alcohol problem 23 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Table 10.3 Users and Abusers of Alcohol in the U.S.: 2008 24© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Drinking Behavior andResponsibility Examine your drinking behavior  CAGE screening test Drink moderately and responsibly Drink slowly Space your drinks Eat before and while drinking Know your limits and your drinks 25 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Promote Responsible Drinking in Others Encourage responsible attitudes Be a responsible host Hold the drinker responsible Take community action 26 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. Develop Responsible Drinking Habits Keep a record of your behavior in a health journal Analyze your record Set goals Devise a plan Monitor your progress Reward yourself 27 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Chapter 10© 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
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