8) the birth of new england


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8) the birth of new england

  1. 1.   As the year 1700 approached we see a decrease in English immigration and indentured servants  In order to counteract the slowing English immigration planters turned to African Slaves  Slavery had been in place both in African and Europe for Millennia  Prices of slaves also began to justify their purchase over indentured servants  Legal changes also, most importantly the ending of the Monopoly of the Royal African Company, pushed this change Rise of Slavery
  2. 2.  The Puritans  The Puritans were not a united group initially but instead reform minded Englishman  In England Church and State were united in the Church of England  Puritans were focused on pushing the church back to a “Simpler” Focus  Puritans came from all ranks of society but most belonged to the “Middle Class”  At the beginning of the 17th century the Puritans began to see their options in England dwindle and turned to the New World
  3. 3.  The Puritans moving into the New World  The First attempt to colonize the new world by the Puritan followers was in Maine in 1607 but it was unsuccessful  To get away from the issues of England some Puritans moved to the Netherlands and other areas in Europe  John Smith began to push for settlement in what would become New England as early as 1614 AD  The First push for settlement was by 102 separatists who boarded the Mayflower and landed at Plymouth in 1620 AD
  4. 4.   In 1629/1630 developments in England began to push Puritans/Seperatists out of the country  These settlers were led by John Winthrop who eventually gained the royal charter as the Massachusetts Bay Company  Colony was a republic  First founded the city of Boston  After one year the colony began to prosper quicker than the Chesapeake  The combination of both the religious and political goals of the Puritans led them to develop the concept of the “City on a Hill”  Because of the prosperity the colonies began to expand to the north forming new cities and towns The Great Migration
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  6. 6.   Towns were founded through land grants from the Colony to men who acted as a corporate group  Colonies only defined boundaries not how land was distributed  Farming was the main goal of each colonist but to smaller profits than in the south  Expansion was not only political but also religious more so than any other region  This expansion for New England was typically at the expense of Native American tribes Expansion
  7. 7.   Due to the location of New England there were a number of major differences with the Chesapeake  Main labor source was family  Farms were modest in size and diverse  Social hierarchy was not as drastic  Towns offered a variety of social/cultural/religious opportunities  New Englanders were healthier  Religion also played a major part in the life of New Englanders  There were typically more clergymen in New England than any other region  Early focus was on excluding people outside of the Puritan faith from the region Life in New England
  8. 8.  Life Cont.  Other than Farming small industry and fishing dominated commerce in the early Colonial period  These industries were initially shunned by the Puritans but eventually others expanded  Due to this expansion non- puritan dominated seaports along the coast  By the end of the 17th century New England had become a major economic region in the Empire  Due to their growing economic importance New England came under attack by the Crown
  9. 9.   The New England colonies had a problematic relationship with the local natives  The native Americans came to rely on the consumer goods of European states  Europeans took advantage of weakened disconnected native peoples  During the 1620’s and 30’s we see Colonists set up “Praying Towns” near traditional home areas  First major conflict was the Pequot War in 1636 and ended with a slaughter of the Pequot  Set the stage for problematic relations with other Native groups Relations with Native Americans
  10. 10.  King Phillip’s War  In the 1675 the colonists pushed a Wampanoag Chief Metacom, aka King Phillip, to the edge  The New English provoked Metacom by capturing and executing three Wampanoag warriors  Wampanoag’s began to target isolated colonial homestead and outposts using Pequot’s War as an example  The Wampanoag also took advantage of the Flintlocks they had acquired  The New English lacked the ability fight Metacom’s men without other native groups
  11. 11.  King Phillip Cont.  The New English reached out to the Pequot, Mohegan, and Praying town Natives for help  During the spring and Summer of 1676 the allies helped turn the tide of the war  The New English abandoned traditional European military tactics for Native tactics  The Manpanoag’s also began to run out of supplies during this time and suffered  As a result the Native resistance fell apart especially when Metacom was killed in August  The war devastated both the New English as well as the Natives and the New English punished the Natives for their losses