NutritionNutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials - food -required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and humanmedicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizingfoods.A nutrient is a source of nourishment, an ingredient in a food, e.g.protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, fiber and water.Macronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively large quantities.Micronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively small quantities. The Role of Nutrients in the Body* • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS: In addition to supplying energy and raw materials for metabolism, apersons diet must also supply certain substances in a preassembled form.Nutrients a human requires but cannot make are known as "EssentialNutrients". Missing just one of these Essential Nutrients puts the body into astate of being malnourished. • ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS: There are 20 Amino Acids required to make proteins, some can becreated by the body while others cannot be, these are known as EssentialAmino Acids. Eight to nine are essential for humans (nine for infants). It isimportant to note that while eight Amino Acids are considered EssentialAmino Acids all twenty are needed by the Human body. When the humanbody is deficient in one or more of the Essential Amino Acids the result is aform of malnutrition known as "Protein Deficiency." • ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS:
Essential fatty acids are lipids that must be in the diet in a prefabricatedform and that cannot be created by the body. These essential fatty acids arerequired to make some of the phospholipids found in membranes requiredby the body in relatively large amounts compared to Vitamins. • VITAMINS: Vitamins are organic molecules that often serve as co-enzymes or partsof co-enzymes and therefore have catalytic functions. Vitamins are requiredin relatively small amounts compared to Amino Acids, Proteins, and EssentialFatty Acids, but are absolutely essential in a healthful diet. Deficiencies cancause severe syndromes. Vitamins are grouped into two compounds: water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble Vitamins include theB complex, which consists of many compounds that generally function ascoenzymes in key metabolic roles. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, isanother example of a water-soluble vitamin. Ascorbic Acid is required for theproduction of connective tissue. Excess water-soluble vitamins are generallyexcreted with the urine (now known as having expensive urine) and mildoverdoses are generally thought to be harmless. The fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. Vitamin A is incorporatedinto visual pigments of the eye. Vitamin D aids in Calcium absorption andbone formation. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and it seems to play a key rolein protecting the phospholipids in the vitamins are stored by the body sointake of fat soluble vitamins should be monitored more closely. HERE ARE MORE VITAMIN ROLES IN THE BODY: Coenzyme in the removal of Carbon B1 Dioxide.
Constituent of two coenzymes involved in B2 energy metabolism. Constituent of two coenzymes involved in Niacin oxidation reduction reactions. Coenzyme involved in amino acid B6 metabolism. Coenzyme in Carbon transfer in nucleic acid Folic Acid and amino acid metabolism. Coenzyme in carbon transfer in nucleic acid B12 metabolism; maturation of red blood cells. Coenzyme in fat synthesis, amino acid Biotin metabolism, glycogen formation. Vitamin C Maintains intercellular matrix of cartilage, ascorbic bone, and dentin. Important in collagen acid synthesis. Constituent of visual pigment; maintenance Vitamin A of epithelial tissues. Promotes bone growth, mineralization; Vitamin D increases calcium absorption. Vitamin E Functions as an antioxidant, protects cell tocopherol membranes. Important in blood clotting, involved in Vitamin K formation of active Prothrombin.• MINERALS:
As with vitamins, mineral requirements vary. Humans as well as othervertebrates require relatively large quantities of Calcium and Phosphorus forthe construction and maintenance of bone. Calcium is also necessary for thenormal functioning of nerves and muscles, and Phosphorus is also anecessary component of ATP and nucleic acids. Iron is an importantcomponent of the cytochromes that function in cellular respiration and ofhemoglobin, the oxygen-binding protein of red blood cells. Magnesium,manganese, zinc, and cobalt are cofactors built into the structure of certainenzymes. Iodine is necessary to make thyroxine, a thyroid hormone thatregulates metabolic rate. Sodium, potassium, and chlorine are important innerve function. A healthful diet must supply enough calories for energyneeds, carbon chains, organic nitrogen, and ample quantities of the essentialnutrients. HERE ARE MORE MINERAL ROLES IN THE BODY: Bone and tooth formation; blood clotting; Calcium nerve transmission. Bone and tooth formation; acid-base Phosphorous balance; ATP formation. Constituent of tissue compounds, Sulfur Cartilage, and tendons. Potassium Acid-base balance; nerve function. Formation of gastric juice; acid-base Chlorine balance. Acid Base balance; body water balance; Sodium nerve function. Magnesium Activates enzymes; involved in protein
synthesis. Constituent of hemoglobin and enzymes Iron involved inenergy metabolism. Flourine May be important in maintenance of bone structure Constituent of enzymes involved in Zinc digestion. Constituent of enzymes associated with Copper iron metabolism. Activates several enzymes, including oneManganese required for urea production Iodine Constituent of thyroid hormones. Cobalt Constituent of vitamin B-12.