A Roadway Wind/Solar Hybrid PowerGeneration and Distribution System: towards energy-plus roadways Mo Zhao Academic Advisor: Dr. Anuj Sharma University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Transportation Energy Consumption• Transportation sector consumes about 28% of total energy consumed by all sectors in the United States.• 378 million gallons of gasoline are consumed in U.S. every day.• In U.S., only 3% of energy consumed in transportation sector is from renewable energy source.• Transportation sector consumes more than 600 million kWh electric powers every month in 2010. Sources: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC.
Transportation Energy ConsumptionIn the city of Lincoln• 418 signalized intersections under its jurisdiction. The total electricity consumption at these intersections is nearly 92,500 kWh per month.• Electricity expenditure is 5% of the city’s traffic operating budget.• The electricity price charged by local utility, LES, usually changes once per year.• The annual inflation rate for utility prices in Lincoln is around 2.5 to 3%. This utility price can inflate by as much as 17% if the Cap and Trade gets approved for the US.
Green Transportation• Green vehicles 1 million electric vehicles on the road in the U.S. by2015.• Green fuels Reduce the carbon content of the fuels by 15% belowthe 2005 level by 2030.• Intelligent transportation system public transit As traffic engineers, optimize traffic operation…
• Innovative concept : To use the public right-of-way and roadwayinfrastructure as a source for energy production, storage, and distribution.
RHPS: Towards Energy-Plus Roadways• The Roadway Wind/Solar Hybrid Power Generation and Distribution System (RHPS)can be installed on the transportation infrastructure along the roadways.• Electrical power consumed by traffic control systems and others on roadway systems can be offset by installing enough RHPS units at feasible locations with relatively good wind and solar resource.• It will significantly reduce transportation operation cost and reduce CO2 emission from producing electricity using clean energy source instead of fossil fuel.
RHPS: Towards Energy-Plus Roadways• Average US household consumes approx. 1000 KWH of power per month• Average intersection consumes approx. 220 KWH of power per month Energy saving by 300,000 signalized intersections in U.S. powered by on-site-generated renewable energy = residential electricity for about 66,000 households.
Test Site 1 Bergey XL 1.0 KW 2 Solar panel: 420W 4 6-V 305-Ah batteries 84th and Hwy 2, Lincoln
Data at test site• Monthly energy consumption is about 275 kWh at 84th & Hwy2• wind energy supplys nearly 30%• The batteries are designed to support full operations at the traffic signal for 5 to 6 hours at 50% battery discharging level.
Improve Traffic Network Reliability• In the City of Lincoln, 2674 power failures happened in the service area of local utility agent Lincoln Electricity Systems, during Jan1 2006 to Dec 7, 2010.• Many of these power failures were caused by storms and other inclement weather.• In case of a power outage, the operations at a signalized intersection are reverted back to all-way-stop control, which can significantly degrade the operations.
Improve Traffic Network Reliability In New York City on August 14, 2003, due to the Northeast Blackout, approximately 11,600 signalized intersections and 413 train sets operating throughout the New York City subway system lost power, stranding over 400,000 customers.59th Street Bridge, New York City, during August 2003 electrical blackout.(Source: FHWA Final Report DOT-VNTSC-FHWA-04-04)
Improve Traffic Network Reliability• The RHPS system won’t be affected by the grid power failure.• It would improve the stability and reliability of traffic control system by providing with certain storage capacity.• Power backup system Uninterruptable power supply(UPS) and battery bank supply: full operation: 5-6 hours; flashing: 8-10 hours; during grid power failure or fluctuation• Significantly reduce traffic delay during power outage
Traffic Network Power Outage Study Studied intersections in Kearney, NE
Traffic Network Power Outage Study Power outage occurrence time distribution at some studied intersections
RHPS Design Optimization• Power backup systems can provide alternative power source for traffic control signals.• The policy makers, with limited budgets and unlimited demands, need a tool to choose signalized intersections that can be provided with backup power.• A decision support tool to determine the optimal location and capacity of backup power in a city-wide or a smaller traffic network. The tool will also assess if the backup system can be economically augmented using renewable energy sources such as a wind turbine and solar panels.
Other Projects on Transportation Infrastructure• solar/wind hybrid powered street light installed in Minnesota a 130 watts solar panel, a 400 watts wind turbine Cost: $4,600 Solar/wind hybrid generator along with sufficient battery storage provide a reliable power source for rural ITS applications
Other Projects on Transportation Infrastructure • Solar powered parking lots 5,000 photovoltaic panels Production: more than 1000 megawatts per year = energy to power 114 households Reduced CO2 emission: 1,900,000 pounds = annual emissions from 158 cars.solar parking lot in Bordentown, NJ
Other Projects on Transportation Infrastructure• Oregon solar highwayGround-mounted PV array was installed at the interchange of I-5 and I-205Cost: $1,280,000Annual Electricity production: 112,000 kilowatt-hours
Concepts of Use Renewable Energy inTransportation• The Solar Roadways: replace all existing transportation infrastructure like roads, parking, etc., with Solar Road Panels that collect energy and provide sensor data 3 layers of road solar panels: Road surface layer made of translucent glass which is able to provide strength and traction yet pass sunlight, Electronic layer collects power from sensor and host some circuitry, Base plate layer is for power and data distribution.