Monitoring Roadway Runoff and      Development of a Design Guide for               Roadway BMPs             John Stansbury...
Outline•   Introduction•   Field Study•   BMP Design Guide•   Summary
Regulatory Background• Clean Water Act (CWA, 1972): requires NPDES permit  (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Syste...
Regulatory Background• NDOR is a non-traditional MS4 and is required to manage roadway  runoff pollution within MS4 bounda...
Project Objectives• Determine water quality of runoff.• Evaluate performance of the existing BMPs.• Improve design guideli...
Field Study• Location and six sub-basins• Methods:   – Flow Measurement   – Sampling Sites   – Sample Analysis• Results
Location• Intersection between I-80 and I-680  in Omaha, Nebraska
Sub-basins and SamplingPorts
Sub-basin 1: ConstructionDebris Lot
Sub-basin 2: Ditch
Sub-basin 3: West PipeTributary Area
Sub-basin 4: Grass Strip alongI-80
Sub-basin 5: East PipeTributary Area
Sub-basin 6: Detention Basin
Flow Measurement• Construction debris lot: Rectangular weir• Ditch: V-notch weir• West, east and basin outlet pipes: AV (a...
Sampling Sites A and BSite A: Construction debris lot inlet   Site B: Ditch toward 108th Street
Sampling Sites C and D  Site C: Northwest outlet                             Site D: Northeast outlet
Sampling Site E         Site E: Detention basin outlet
Sampling Protocol•   Storm identification: The Weather channel website•   NOAA website•   AccuWeather website•   Weather U...
Hydrologic Model•   HEC-HMS 3.4•   Eight sub-basins•   Hydrographs for each sampling point•   Flows used in the compositin...
Chemical/Biological Analysis•   Heavy metals•   Petroleum hydrocarbons•   BTEX•   PAHs•   Road salts•   Total suspended so...
Results   Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event Mean        Concentrations for Site A for All Sampled Events
Comparison with Similar Studies
Results•   Metals (Cu, Cd, and Zn), COD, TSS, & TDS are the major contaminants found in    the highway runoff.•   SVOCs an...
BMP Design Manual• Introduction to BMPs• NDOR Chapter 3• Design Guide
Introduction to BMPsBMPs   defined as:   –   schedules of activities   –   prohibitions of practices   –   maintenance pro...
NE Stormwater ManagementProgram
Chapter 3: Post ConstructionStormwater Control•   Treatment BMPs include:     – Permanent structural BMPs, such as:       ...
Remediation Techniques• Primary BMPs   – Vegetated Filter Strips   – Vegetated Swales   – Bioretention   – Sand Filter   –...
Guidance Manual Format• Fact Sheets   – Pollutant removal potential   – Construction and maintenance costs   – Siting cons...
Vegetated Filter Strip Design Criteria•   WQV flow depth < 1 inch•   WQV velocity below < 1 ft/s•   Slopes in flow directi...
Bioretention Design Criteria• Media: compositions depending on needs• Can be designed as infiltration• Flexible layout
Horizontal Filter DesignCriteria• Media filled trench in ditch bottom• Temporarily store WQV in media• Cobble armoring (1f...
Project Overview• Three-year project (July 2008–March 2011)• Six events sampled each year.   – Two samples in spring, summ...
Summary• Metals (Cu, Cd, and Zn), COD, TSS, & TDS were the  major contaminants found in the highway runoff.• SVOCs and VOC...
Summary• NDOR defines priority stormwater outfalls as:  Concentrated stormwater flow locations directly  discharging from ...
Chapter 3: Post constructionStormwater Control• Responsibility: Treatment of first ½” of runoff (first flush).   – Runon  ...
Summary of Sub-basins
Results   Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event   Mean Concentrations for Site C for all Sampled Events
Results   Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event   Mean Concentrations for Site E for all Sampled Events
Results   Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event   Mean Concentrations for Site C for all Sampled Events
Results   Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event   Mean Concentrations for Site D for all Sampled Events
Results   Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event   Mean Concentrations for Site E for all Sampled Events
Load Calculation• L= C • V  – L = Event Pollutant Load (Kg/event)  – C = Event Mean Concentration (Kg/m3 )  – V = Volume o...
Pollutant Loads for Site A
Pollutant Loads for Site C
Pollutant Loads for Site D
Pollutant Loads for Site E
Cr Concentration versus TSS Concentrationfor the West Pipe Outlet
Cr Concentration versus TSS Concentrationfor the East Pipe Outlet
Cr Concentration versus TSS Concentrationfor the Basin Outlet Pipe
Conclusions of Field Study• Roadside vegetation showed strong potential to  reduce runoff via infiltration.• Metals (Cu, C...
Vegetated Swale DesignCriteria•   WQV flow depth < 4 inches•   WQV velocity <1 ft/s•   Flow through BMP•   Check dams
Sand Filter Design Criteria•   Sediment basin protects filter•   Filter media should be low in fines•   Sediment basin dra...
CREDITS John Stansbury, Ph.D., P.E.Massoum Moussavi, Ph.D., P.E., and Tian Zhang, Ph.D., P.E.Slide design © 2009, Mid-Amer...
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NDOR Research Conference: Dr. Zhang

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Nebraska Department of Roads Conference 2012
Presented by Dr. Tian Zhang

Published in: Automotive, Technology
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NDOR Research Conference: Dr. Zhang

  1. 1. Monitoring Roadway Runoff and Development of a Design Guide for Roadway BMPs John Stansbury, Ph.D., P.E.Massoum Moussavi, Ph.D., P.E., and Tian Zhang, Ph.D., P.E.
  2. 2. Outline• Introduction• Field Study• BMP Design Guide• Summary
  3. 3. Regulatory Background• Clean Water Act (CWA, 1972): requires NPDES permit (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System). – Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4)– discharges/regulation: MS4 defined as: A system of conveyances owned/operated by a public body. – Designed or used for collecting or conveying stormwater. – Not a combined sewer & not part of a POTW.• MS4s discharges are regulated nonpoint source pollution. – MS4s regulation is part of the CWA (1987 amended): Phase I (passed in 1990): requires MS4s to submit Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plans (SWPPP) to the US EPA. – Phase II (passed in 1999): requires 6 minimum BMPs. – The objective of MS4s is to reduce pollutant effluents to the Maximum Extent Practicable (MEP) (so not linked with numeric limits).
  4. 4. Regulatory Background• NDOR is a non-traditional MS4 and is required to manage roadway runoff pollution within MS4 boundaries.• NDOR is required (by NDEQ): To capture/treat the first 0.5″ Water Quality Volume (WQV) that runs off of any new/redeveloped impervious area.• Currently treatment levels are only required to be the Maximum Extent Practicable (MEP).
  5. 5. Project Objectives• Determine water quality of runoff.• Evaluate performance of the existing BMPs.• Improve design guidelines of treatment BMPs.
  6. 6. Field Study• Location and six sub-basins• Methods: – Flow Measurement – Sampling Sites – Sample Analysis• Results
  7. 7. Location• Intersection between I-80 and I-680 in Omaha, Nebraska
  8. 8. Sub-basins and SamplingPorts
  9. 9. Sub-basin 1: ConstructionDebris Lot
  10. 10. Sub-basin 2: Ditch
  11. 11. Sub-basin 3: West PipeTributary Area
  12. 12. Sub-basin 4: Grass Strip alongI-80
  13. 13. Sub-basin 5: East PipeTributary Area
  14. 14. Sub-basin 6: Detention Basin
  15. 15. Flow Measurement• Construction debris lot: Rectangular weir• Ditch: V-notch weir• West, east and basin outlet pipes: AV (area velocity) flow modules and sensors
  16. 16. Sampling Sites A and BSite A: Construction debris lot inlet Site B: Ditch toward 108th Street
  17. 17. Sampling Sites C and D Site C: Northwest outlet Site D: Northeast outlet
  18. 18. Sampling Site E Site E: Detention basin outlet
  19. 19. Sampling Protocol• Storm identification: The Weather channel website• NOAA website• AccuWeather website• Weather Underground website• Grab (first flush) and composite (event mean) samples
  20. 20. Hydrologic Model• HEC-HMS 3.4• Eight sub-basins• Hydrographs for each sampling point• Flows used in the compositing process
  21. 21. Chemical/Biological Analysis• Heavy metals• Petroleum hydrocarbons• BTEX• PAHs• Road salts• Total suspended solids• Total dissolved solids• BOD and COD.
  22. 22. Results Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event Mean Concentrations for Site A for All Sampled Events
  23. 23. Comparison with Similar Studies
  24. 24. Results• Metals (Cu, Cd, and Zn), COD, TSS, & TDS are the major contaminants found in the highway runoff.• SVOCs and VOCs were below the detection limits.• A weak correlation between concentrations, TSS, antecedent dry period (ADP), total rainfall, and volume of runoff.• Roadside vegetation (site B) is very efficient to reduce runoff/pollution via infiltration.• The existing BMP (detention pond) seems to be somewhat effective in reducing heavy metals, chloride, COD and TSS loads.
  25. 25. BMP Design Manual• Introduction to BMPs• NDOR Chapter 3• Design Guide
  26. 26. Introduction to BMPsBMPs defined as: – schedules of activities – prohibitions of practices – maintenance procedures – structural and/or managerial practices that, when used singly or in combination, prevent or reduce the release of pollutants to waters of the US.Six minimum BMPs (control measures) identified by CWA: – Public participation and involvement – Public education and outreach – Illicit discharge – Construction site storm water runoff control – Post-construction storm water runoff control – Municipal operations pollution prevention and good housekeeping
  27. 27. NE Stormwater ManagementProgram
  28. 28. Chapter 3: Post ConstructionStormwater Control• Treatment BMPs include: – Permanent structural BMPs, such as: • Settling of particulate matter • Filtration • Biological uptake • Soil adsorption• Non-structural BMPs for source control such as policies/ordinances that: – Provide requirements and standards – Protect sensitive areas (wetlands and riparian areas) – Maintain/increase open space – Provide buffers along sensitive water bodies – Minimize impervious surfaces – Minimize disturbance of soils and vegetation
  29. 29. Remediation Techniques• Primary BMPs – Vegetated Filter Strips – Vegetated Swales – Bioretention – Sand Filter – Horizontal Filter
  30. 30. Guidance Manual Format• Fact Sheets – Pollutant removal potential – Construction and maintenance costs – Siting constraints – Maintenance operation• Design Guides – Design criteria – Design process – Example
  31. 31. Vegetated Filter Strip Design Criteria• WQV flow depth < 1 inch• WQV velocity below < 1 ft/s• Slopes in flow direction from 2–15%• Minimum 15 foot flow path• 80% Vegetated Cover
  32. 32. Bioretention Design Criteria• Media: compositions depending on needs• Can be designed as infiltration• Flexible layout
  33. 33. Horizontal Filter DesignCriteria• Media filled trench in ditch bottom• Temporarily store WQV in media• Cobble armoring (1ft above flow depth)
  34. 34. Project Overview• Three-year project (July 2008–March 2011)• Six events sampled each year. – Two samples in spring, summer, and fall seasons – Total: • 12 storms for sampling sites A, C, D, and E • 10 for site B• Data analysis• Development of design manual
  35. 35. Summary• Metals (Cu, Cd, and Zn), COD, TSS, & TDS were the major contaminants found in the highway runoff.• SVOCs and VOCs were below the detection limits.• There was a weak correlation between concentrations, TSS, antecedent dry period (ADP), total rainfall, and volume of runoff.• Roadside vegetation (site B) was very efficient in reducing runoff/pollution via infiltration.• The existing BMP (detention pond) seems to be somewhat effective in reducing heavy metals, chloride, COD, and TSS loads.• Effectiveness of different BMPs needs to be evaluated.• BMP design is case sensitive, but development of general design procedures is possible.
  36. 36. Summary• NDOR defines priority stormwater outfalls as: Concentrated stormwater flow locations directly discharging from state ROW to the following:• Streams (Perennial and Intermittent)/Lakes/Wetlands/MS4s• Ephemeral drainage that directly discharges to one of the above within 500 feet beyond the ROW line
  37. 37. Chapter 3: Post constructionStormwater Control• Responsibility: Treatment of first ½” of runoff (first flush). – Runon – New Development• BMPs selection criteria (NDOR): – Primary treatment: 80% removal TSS – Metals are secondary treatment concern – Low maintenance – Cost Effective – No open water – Implement BMP within existing right of way as much as possible – Infiltration should not be a primary removal mechanism near roadway – Aesthetics
  38. 38. Summary of Sub-basins
  39. 39. Results Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event Mean Concentrations for Site C for all Sampled Events
  40. 40. Results Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event Mean Concentrations for Site E for all Sampled Events
  41. 41. Results Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event Mean Concentrations for Site C for all Sampled Events
  42. 42. Results Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event Mean Concentrations for Site D for all Sampled Events
  43. 43. Results Arithmetic Mean and Median for First Flush and Event Mean Concentrations for Site E for all Sampled Events
  44. 44. Load Calculation• L= C • V – L = Event Pollutant Load (Kg/event) – C = Event Mean Concentration (Kg/m3 ) – V = Volume of Runoff (m3 /event)
  45. 45. Pollutant Loads for Site A
  46. 46. Pollutant Loads for Site C
  47. 47. Pollutant Loads for Site D
  48. 48. Pollutant Loads for Site E
  49. 49. Cr Concentration versus TSS Concentrationfor the West Pipe Outlet
  50. 50. Cr Concentration versus TSS Concentrationfor the East Pipe Outlet
  51. 51. Cr Concentration versus TSS Concentrationfor the Basin Outlet Pipe
  52. 52. Conclusions of Field Study• Roadside vegetation showed strong potential to reduce runoff via infiltration.• Metals (Cu, Cd, and Zn), COD, TSS, and TDS are the primary contaminants found in the highway runoff.• SVOCs and VOCs were below the detection limits.• A weak correlation between concentrations, TSS, antecedent dry period (ADP), total rainfall, and volume of runoff.• The existing BMP seems to be somewhat effective in reducing the heavy metals, chloride, COD, and TSS loads. Effectiveness is limited to low intensity rainfall events.
  53. 53. Vegetated Swale DesignCriteria• WQV flow depth < 4 inches• WQV velocity <1 ft/s• Flow through BMP• Check dams
  54. 54. Sand Filter Design Criteria• Sediment basin protects filter• Filter media should be low in fines• Sediment basin drainage < 24 hours• Filter bed drainage < 40 hours
  55. 55. CREDITS John Stansbury, Ph.D., P.E.Massoum Moussavi, Ph.D., P.E., and Tian Zhang, Ph.D., P.E.Slide design © 2009, Mid-America Transportation Center. All rights reserved.
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