Accelerated Testing of Warm Asphalt Mixtures for Safe and Reliable Freight Transportation


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In previous studies at the University of Iowa, various WMA mixtures were tested in the laboratory for stiffness, rutting, and moisture resistance. To validate these laboratory results and to predict the field performance, it is proposed to test select WMA mixtures using the accelerated testing equipment in both laboratory and at an APT facility.

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  • RAP Summit held on October 9, 2008 Maximizing RAP Use - Brock NAPA website
  • Iowa Plant
  • One of the most important factors is the mat temperature. Too cold and the mix cannot be compacted - too hot and the mix will not support the rollers.
  • 다핵방향족탄화수소
  • (Ruhl 2004)
  • This would be the last slide, click the text to change it to your information.
  • This is the resource slide to copy and paste logos and graphics from.
  • Accelerated Testing of Warm Asphalt Mixtures for Safe and Reliable Freight Transportation

    1. 1. Warm-Mix Asphalt: A Window to a Better Road Phase 1 Hosin “David” Lee, P.E. Ph.D., Professor Public Policy Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa President of Korean-American Scientists and Engineers Association (KSEA)
    2. 2. Disclaimer The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the information presentedherein. This document is disseminated under thesponsorship of the Department of Transportation University Transportation Centers Program, in the interest of information exchange. The U.S.Government assumes no liability for the contents or use thereof.
    3. 3. University of Iowa in Iowa City
    4. 4. Global WarmingGrinnell Glacier, Glacier National Park, Montana 1911 2000
    5. 5. Since 1979,more than 20% of the polar icecap has melted!
    6. 6. Climate Change is Real!
    7. 7. First Modern Asphalt Facility Built in 1901 by Warren Brothers in East Cambridge, Massachusetts
    8. 8. Current Asphalt Plants in United States  About 4,000 asphalt mixing plants  Mostly drum mix plants  Produces 500 million tons of HMA
    9. 9. Mixing Temperatures of HMA HMA Plant Mixing Temperature, °CGrade Range MidpointPG 58-28 127 ~ 154 140PG 64-22 129 ~ 160 144PG 70-22 138 ~ 165 152PG 76-22 140 ~ 168 154
    10. 10. Too High Temperature of Asphalt Mix During the past century, the asphalt industry has been concerned about keeping the temperature of asphalt mix high enough for adequate coating, placement, and compaction. the problems in coating and An answer to compaction has been to raise the temperature of asphalt mix. Now, for better performance and the environment, a new approach is to lower the temperature of asphalt mix: Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA), a window to the future.
    11. 11. Worker’s Exposure to Asphalt Fumes About 4,000 asphalt plants and 7,000 paving contractors employ nearly 300,000 workers in the United States. In 1977, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that workers should not be exposed to airborne particulates at a concentration greater than 5mg/m3 during any 15-minute period. NIOSH concluded that the collective data currently available from studies on paving asphalt provided insufficient evidence for an association between lung cancer and exposure to asphalt fumes during paving. Asphalt fumes and PAHs at the HMA job site were below the current acceptable exposure limits.
    12. 12. Exposure of Workers to Emissions Working at HMA and WMA Job Sites 12 10 HMA 8Exposurein mg/m3 6 4 WMA 2 0 Pavor Operator Screedman
    13. 13. Which Picture Represent WMA Construction Sites in Iowa?
    14. 14. WMA Plants Reduce Greenhouse Gas The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a rule that was designed to reduce SO2 by 70% and NOx emissions by 60% by 2015. Some state and local governments require that HMA plants in some ozone sensitive areas limit asphalt production to a certain number of hours per week. WMA plants would reduce CO2 and SO2 by 30% to 40%, volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 50 percent, CO by 10% to 30%, NOx by 60% to 70% and dust by 20% to 25%. EAP (2006); Newcomb (2007); Ruhl (2004); D’Angelo (2008)
    15. 15. WMA Saves Energy Cost Compared with HMA Iceland Honolulu, HI Joliet, ILFuel source No. 2 Fuel oil Diesel Natural gasFuel to make 1 ton 2-3 gallons 2-3 gallons 2.5-3.5 thermsof HMAFuel Cost $2.50/gal $2.20-3.20/gal $0.70-0.80/thermFuel Cost to make $5.00-$7.50 $4.40-$9.00 $1.75-$2.801 ton of HMAElectricity to make 8-14 kWh 8-14 kWh 8-14 kWh1 ton of HMAElectricity Cost $0.02/kWh $0.1805/kWh $0.0445/kWhAverage energy $5.15-$7.78 $5.84-$11.53 $2.11-$3.44cost for 1 ton of HMA20% savings with $1.00-$1.50 $0.88-$1.80 $0.35-$0.56 WMA50% savings with $2.50-$3.75 $2.20-$4.50 $0.88-$1.40 WMA Ólöf Kristjánsdóttir (2007)
    16. 16. WMA TechnologyCategory WMA Additive Company U.S. Project Sasobit® Sasobit Yes Asphaltan® Romonta N/AOrganic Licomont BS-100 Clariant N/A Cecabase RT® Ceca Yes LeadCap Kumho Yes Advera® Eurovia Yes Aspha-Min® PQ Corporation Yes Low Energy Asphalt McConnaughay Tech. Yes Double-Barrel®Green Astec YesFoaming Ultrafoam GX Gencor Yes Terex®WMA System Terex Yes Aquablack Warm Mix Asphalt Maxam Equipment Inc Yes WAM-Foam Kolo Veidekke, Shall N/A Evotherm J1 MeadWestVaco/Mathy YesChemical RedisetTM WMA Akzo Nobel Yes
    17. 17. WMA Additives Selected for Laboratory Evaluation at the University of Iowa Organic Additives: CECABASE RT®, Sasobit® Foaming Additives: Asphalt- min®, Advera WMA Chemical Additives: Evotherm J1, RedisetTM WMX
    18. 18. Evaluation of WMA Products in Laboratory Six WMA Mixtures: CECABASE RT®, Sasobit®, Asphalt-min®, Advera WMA, Evotherm J1, and RedisetTM WMX. Control WMA Mixture and HMA Mixture Maximum Specific Temperature Gravity Bulk Specific Gravity Air VoidIndirect Moisture Dynamic Repeated Tensile Sensitivity Modulus LoadStrength Test Test Test Test
    19. 19. Mixing Method and Dosage Rate of WMA AdditiveAdditive Process Dosage RateCECABASE RT® Wet 0.40% of binder weight DrySasobit® 1.50% of binder weight WetAsphalt-min® Dry 0.30% of mixture weightAdvera WMA® Dry 0.25% of mixture weightEvotherm J1® Wet 0.50% of binder weightRedisetTM WMX Wet 2.00% of binder weight
    20. 20. Mix Design Parameters Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size ofAggregates 19.0 mmNdesign 86 gyrations (for 3 million ESAL)Asphalt Content 5.5% using PG 64-34Aggregate Heating 125°C for WMATemp. 135°C for HMAAsphalt Heating 149°C for both WMA and HMATemp.
    21. 21. Mixing and Compaction Temperatures of WMA Mixtures 170 Average of Aggregate Temperature Average of Mixing Temperature Low Compaction Temperature 160 High Compaction Temperature 150Temperature ( ˚ C) 140 130 120 110 CECABASE Sasobit® Sasobit® Aspha-min® Aspha-min® Advera Evotherm J1 Rediset Control Control HMA RT® (Wet (Dry (Powder) (Granular) WMA WMX WMA Process) Process) Type of Mixture
    22. 22. Density of WMA Mixtures
    23. 23. Air Voids of WMA Mixtures
    24. 24. Moisture Sensitivity of WMA Mixtures 800 Dry Condition Wet Condition TSR= TSR=Indirect Tensile Strenght (psi) 600 35.4% TSR= 68.0% TSR= TSR= TSR= TSR= 38.2% 48.6% 50.5% 31.9% 57.6% TSR= 41.4% TSR= 37.8% TSR= 400 61.5% 200 0 CECABASE Sasobit® Sasobit® Aspha-min® Aspha-min® Advera Evotherm J1 Rediset Control Control HMA RT® (Wet (Dry (Powder) (Granular) WMA WMX WMA Process) Process) Type of Mixture
    25. 25. Asphalt Material Performance Testing (AMPT) Equipment was used to Measure Dynamic Modulus and Flow Number
    26. 26. Dynamic Modulus @ 4.4° C 20,000 CECABASE RT® Sasobit® (Wet Process) Sasobit® (Dry Process)Dynamic Modulus (Mpa) at 4.4˚C Aspha-min® (Granular) Advera WMA 15,000 Evotherm J1 Rediset WMX Control WMA Control HMA 10,000 5,000 0 0.1 1 10 100 Loading Frequency (Hz)
    27. 27. Dynamic Modulus @ 21.1° C 8,000 CECABASE RT® Sasobit® (Wet Process) ˚CDynamic Modulus (Mpa) at 21.1 Sasobit® (Dry Process) Aspha-min® (Granular) Advera WMA 6,000 Evotherm J1 Rediset WMX Control WMA Control HMA 4,000 2,000 0 0.1 1 10 100 Loading Frequency (Hz)
    28. 28. Dynamic Modulus @ 37.8° C
    29. 29. Master Curves of WMA Mixtures 1.0.E+08Dynamic Modulus, KPa 1.0.E+07 CECABASE RT® Sasobit® (Wet Proess) 1.0.E+06 Sasobit® (Dry Proess) Aspha-min® (Granular) Advera WMA Evotherm J1 Rediset WMX Control WMA Control HMA 1.0.E+05 1.E-05 1.E-03 1.E-01 1.E+01 1.E+03 1.E+05 1.E+07 Frequency, Hz
    30. 30. Flow Number of WMA Mixtures at 45° C 138 kPa
    31. 31. Ranking of ITS, TSR, Dynamic Modulus, and Flow Number of WMA Mixtures Ranking AverageType of Mix Indirect Tensile Ranking Dynamic Tensile Strength Flow Number Score Modulus Strength RatioCECABASE RT® 9 5 9 8 7.75Sasobit®(wet process) 3 6 1 2 3Sasobit®(dry process) 4 4 2 1 2.75Aspha-min®(powder) 10 9 - - 9.5Aspha-min®(granular) 7 8 7 7 7.25Advera WMA 8 10 5 9 8Evotherm J1 1 2 6 6 3.75RedisetTM WMX 2 3 3 5 3.25Control WMA 5 7 8 4 6Control HMA 6 1 4 3 3.5
    32. 32. Summary and Conclusions Pavement is expected to perform better because the asphalt is not aged. Working environment will be better for construction workers with a lower amount of asphalt fumes. Based on the limited test results, Sasobit®, Evotherm J1, and RedisetTM WMX additives are effective in producing WMA mixtures in the laboratory that are comparable to HMA mixtures. In the future, the majority of asphalt mixtures will be produced at a lower temperature than today.
    33. 33. Better Performance WMA Happier Better WorkersEnvironment
    34. 34. Future Research  Lime and Anti-stripping Additives should be considered for WMA to improve the moisture susceptibility.  To predict the rutting performance under moisture, Hamburg Wheel Tracking test should be performed. More test sections using WMA should be constructed adjacent to HMA.
    35. 35. Cool-Mix Asphalt:A Door to a Better Road Phase 2
    36. 36. Questions Why should WMA be used instead of HMA? How can WMA be adopted quickly in practice? How to evaluate WMA for implementation?
    37. 37. CREDITS Dr. Yongjoo Kim, Anand Sampath Nishant Sheth, Jeremy Purvis, David BlancoKorea Institute of Construction Technology (KICT) Kumho Petrochemical Ltd. Slide design © 2009, Mid-America Transportation Center. All rights reserved.
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