-Introduction-The Sun-Inner Planets (Terrestrial Planet) a) Mercury b) Venus c) Earth d) Mars- Asteroids Belt-Outer Planets (Jovian Planets) a) Jupiter b) Saturn c) Uranus d) Neptune- Dwarf Planet-Comets-Al-Quran Verse About The Universe
Introduction-Contains the sun as a center and theplanets likeMercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.-include the satellite of the planets,numerous comets, asteroid and meteoroids.-They are bound to the sun because of thegravity attracted by the sun.-Most of the satellite of the planets and theasteroids revolve around the sun in thesame direction.
The list of planets and the distance the planet to the sun in our solar system are as follows: - 57.9 million miles to Mercury, 108.2 million miles to Venus, 149.6 million miles from Earth, 227.9 million miles to Mars, 778.3 million miles from Jupiter, 1,427.0 million miles to Saturn, 2,871.0 million miles to Uranus, 4,497.0 million miles from Neptune 5,913.5 million miles to Pluto.Below is a list based on the mass distribution ofplanets in our solar system.Sun: 99.85%Planets: 0.135%Comets: 0.01%Satellites: 0.00005%Minor Planets: 0.0000002%Meteoroids: 0.0000001%Interplanetary Medium: 0.0000001%
The Sun-Closest star to us with theaverage distance 149,680,000km.-diameter 1,391,980 km with asurface temperature of 5.500 ° Cand core temperature of 15million ° C.-classified as a dwarf star type G.-Light from the sun takes 8minutes to reach Earth.-mass of about 2 x 1030 kg.-The sun rotates every 25.04Earth days rotation and has 27.9times the gravity of the earthgravity.-
Inner Planet-Its call terrestrial planet, telluricplanet or rocky planet.-a planet that is primarily composedof silicate rocks and/or metals.-The closest to the Sun.-Terrestrial planets all have roughly thesame structure.-Terrestrial planets possess secondaryatmospheres — atmospheresgenerated through internal volcanismor comet impacts, as opposed to thegas giants, which possess primary The terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, andatmospheres — atmospheres captured dwarf planet Ceres. Sizes to scale.directly from the original solar nebula.-Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars.-Theoretically, there are two types ofterrestrial or rocky planets, onedominated by silicon compounds andanother dominated by carboncompounds, like carbonaceouschondrite asteroids.
Density Trend of Inner Planet
Mercury-closest planet to the sun, about57.9 million kilometers and thesmallest planet in our solarsystem.-The diameter of Mercury is 40%smaller than Earths, and 40%larger than the Moon.-The surface of Mercury isapproximately equal to thesurface of the Moon craters suchas asteroids and tens ofkilometers of high cliffs.-
Venus-second closest planet to theSun, making one completerevolution every 224.7 Earth days.-considered a twin planet to theEarth because of thesize, mass, volume and density similar to Earth.-no ocean, andsurrounded by atmospheric carbon dioxideat higher percentages.-Atmosphere of Venus hasno water vapor and its cloudsconsist of droplets of sulfuric acid droplets.-its atmosphere pressure 92 timeshigher than Earths atmospherepressure at sea level.-Complete rotation of Venus on itsaxis in 245 Earth days, and around its orbitwithin 225 Earth days.-rotates from east to west, unlike theEarth, from west to east.-
Orbital Characteristics Physical Characteristics AtmosphereAphelion -108,942,109 km Mean radius- 6,051.8 ± 1.0 km, 0.949 9 Surface pressure - 93 bar (9.3 MPa)0.728 231 28 AU Earths CompositionPerihelion -107,476,259 km Flattening - 0 96.5% Carbon dioxide 3.5% Nitrogen0.718 432 70 AU Surface area - 4.60×108 km2, 0.902 Earths 0.015% Sulfur dioxideSemi-major axis -108,208,930 km, 0.723 Volume - 9.38×1011 km3, 0.857 Earths 0.007% Argon 0.002% Water vapor332 AU Mass - 4.868 5×1024 kg , 0.815 Earths 0.001 7% Carbon monoxideEccentricity -0.006 8 Mean density - 5.204 g/cm3 0.001 2% Helium 0.000 7% NeonOrbital period 224.700 69 day Equatorial surface gravity - 8.87 m/s2, 0.904 g trace Carbonyl sulfide0.615 197 0 yr Escape velocity - 10.46 km/s trace Hydrogen chloride trace Hydrogen fluoride1.92 Venus solar day Sidereal rotation period, −243.018 5 daySynodic period -583.92 days Equatorial rotation velocity - 6.52 km/h (1.81Average orbital speed -35.02 km/s m/s)Mean anomaly -50.44675° Axial tilt - 177.3°Inclination 3.394 71° to Ecliptic North pole right ascension - 18 h 11 min 2 s,3.86° to Sun’s equator 272.76°2.19° to Invariable plane North pole declination - 67.16°Longitude of ascending node -76.670 69° Albedo - 0.67 (geometric), 0.90 (Bond)Argument of perihelion -54.852 29° Surface temp.Satellites -None Kelvin - 735 K Celsius - 460 °C Apparent magnitude brightest −4.9*6+*7+ (crescent),−3.8*8+ (full) Back Angular diameter 9.7"–66.0"
Earth-the third planet from the sun.-Home to millions ofspecies, including humans, Earthis the only place in the universewhere life is known to exist.-Scientific evidence shows thatthe planet was formed about4:54 billion years ago, and lifeappeared on its surface within abillion years.-
Orbital characteristics Physical characteristics AtmosphereAphelion Mean radius 6,371.0 km Surface pressure152,098,232 km 101.325 kPa (MSL)1.01671388 AUPerihelion 147,098,290 km Equatorial radius 6,378.1 km Composition0.98329134 AU 78.08% nitrogen (N2) 20.95% oxygen (O2)Semi-major axis Polar radius 6,356.8 km 0.93% argon 149,598,261 km 0.038% carbon dioxide1.00000261 AU About 1% water vapor (varies withEccentricity 0.01671123 Flattening 0.0033528[9 climate)Orbital period 365.256363004 days Circumference 40,075.017 km (equatorial)1.000017421 yr 40,008.00 km (meridional) 2Average orbital speed 29.78 km/s Surface area 510,072,000 km107,200 km/h 148,940,000 km2 land (29.2 %) 361,132,000 km2 water (70.8 %)Mean anomaly 357.51716° 3 Volume 1.08321×1012 kmInclination 7.155° to Suns equator1.57869° to invariable plane. Mass 5.9736×1024 kgLongitude of ascending node 3 348.73936° Mean density 5.515 g/cm 2Argument of perihelion 114.20783° Equatorial surface gravity 9.780327 m/s 0.99732 gSatellites 1 (the Moon) Escape velocity 11.186 km/s Sidereal rotation period 0.99726968 d 5 23h 56m 4.100 Equatorial rotation velocity1,674.4 km/h (465.1 m/s) Axial tilt 23°2621".4119 Back Albedo 0.367 (geometric), 0.306 (Bond) Surface temp. min mean max Kelvin 184 K 287.2 K 331 K ° ° °
Mars-the fourth planet from the sun in thesolar system .-named after the RomanCivilization War Lord (Lord of Warsequivalent Greek Civilization: Ares)-amazing the people of Earth as amystery filled with red color. Mars hasonly 25% of Earths surface area andonly 10% of the mass of the Earth(Earths land area, however, is whetherthe land area of Mars).-Atmosphere- is 95% carbon dioxide, 3%nitrogen, 1.6% argon with very littleoxygen and water.-Topographical conditions of Mars:desert in the north of the lava whichspread out the high ground is differentwith the South, which filled the crater.
Orbital characteristics Physical characteristics Atmosphere Equatorial radius 3,396.2 ± 0.1 km[a] Surface pressure 0.636 (0.4–Aphelion 249,209,300 km,1.665 861 AU 0.533 Earths 0.87) kPaPerihelion 206,669,000 km Composition (mole fractions)1.381 497 AU Polar radius 3,376.2 ± 0.1 km[a] 95.32% carbon dioxide 0.531 Earths 2.7% nitrogenSemi-major axis 227,939,100 1.6% argonkm 1.523 679 AU Flattening 0.005 89 ± 0.000 15 0.13% oxygenEccentricity 0.093 315 Surface area 144,798,500 km2 0.08% carbon monoxide 0.284 Earths 210 ppm water vapor 100 ppm nitric oxideOrbital period 686.971 days Volume 1.6318×1011 km3 15 ppm molecular hydrogen 1.8808 Julian years 0.151 Earths 2.5 ppm Neon 668.5991 sols 850 ppb HDOSynodic period 779.96 days Mass 6.4185×1023 kg 300 ppb Krypton 2.135 Julian years 0.107 Earths 130 ppb formaldehyde 80 ppb xenonAverage orbital speed 24.077 km/s Mean density 3.9335 ± 0.0004 g/cm³ 30 ppb ozoneInclination 1.850° to ecliptic Equatorial surface gravity 3.711 m/s² 18 ppb hydrogen peroxide 5.65° to Suns equator 0.376 g 10 ppb methane 1.67° to invariable plane.Longitude of ascending node Escape velocity 5.027 km/s 49.562°Argument of perihelion 286.537° Sidereal rotation period 1.025 957 day24.622 9 h BackSatellites 2 Equatorial rotation velocity 868.22 km/h (241.17 m/s) Axial tilt 25.19° North pole right ascension 21 h 10 min 44 s 317.681 43° North pole declination 52.886 50° Albedo 0.170 (geometric) 0.25 (Bond)
Asteroid Belt-. Asteroids in the inner orbit of Jupiter and it consists ofrock.-In 1801, astronomers, Sicily Guiseppe Piazzi discoveredan object that is not known, and then consider moving inthe sky as part of our Solar System.-Popular hypothesis about the cause of the formation ofasteroid-asteroid explosions were the result of a planetbetween Mars and Jupiter are leaving the rest of theasteroid-shaped asteroid. This idea has beenabandoned, mainly due to the total mass of theasteroid, the asteroid is not sufficient to form a planetbecause of its extremely small size and its diameter ishalf the diameter of the Moon.-Experts prefer to refer to the astronomical theory ofasteroid-asteroid which is small bodies that fail toassemble to form a planet due to Jupiters gravitationalinfluence. One indication of this theory is the existenceof holes in the distribution of asteroid orbitscircle. Indeed, the orbits have the same long-timerotation of half or one third or a long-time rotation ofJupiter was found empty without occupants.
Jovian Planet-Jovian planets are also known as gas giants. There arefour Jovian planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, andNeptune.-The term Jovian came from Jupiter, describing theother gas giants in our Solar System as Jupiter-like.-Despite common belief, gas giants are not composedentirely of gas. A rocky core exists somewhere withinthese balls of gas, but it is difficult if not impossible asof yet, to determine where this center is.-Because of the intense high temperatures in the middleof these planets, the rocky core of a gas giant is actuallybelieved to be liquid heavy compounds, such as nickel.Thus, it is sometimes misleading when astronomersrefer to the rocky core of these planets. The Jovianplanets are larger than the other planets of the SolarSystem and have dozens of moons. Jovian Planet : Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Jupiter-located at a distance 5.2 AU from the Sun.-At the equator it has a line-center of 143 000 km,which is 11 times line-center of the Earth.-a mass of nearly 320 times mass of Earth, Jupiterhas a mass of 2 times the total mass of all theplanets in the Solar System.-Density is approximately 1.3 times density ofwater, which is modest compared to the density ofEarths 5.5 times density of water. The size of thislow density was detected starting in 1930 as thebenefits of the lightest two elements, namelyhydrogen and helium.-There are 63 satellites rotating in its own orbitaround Jupiter. 4 of them the largest discovered byGalileo in 1610.
Saturn-Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and thesecond largest planet in the Solar System,after Jupiter.-Saturn, along with Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, isclassified as a gas giant.- The interior of Saturn is probably composed of acore of iron, nickel, silicon and oxygen compounds,surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, anintermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquidhelium and finally, an outer gaseous layer.-Saturn is probably best known for its systemof planetary rings, which makes it the most visuallyremarkable object in the solar system.-The rings extend from 6,630 km to 120,700 kmabove Saturns equator, average approximately20 meters in thickness and are composed of 93%water ice with a smattering of tholin impurities and7% amorphous carbon.-Saturn has at least 62 moons. Titan, the largest,comprises more than 90% of the mass in orbitaround Saturn, including the rings.
Uranus-the seventh planet from the Sun.-the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largestplanetary mass in the Solar System.-Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, andboth are of different chemical composition than thelarger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn.-Uranuss atmosphere, while similar to Jupiter andSaturns in its primary compositionof hydrogen and helium, contains more "ices" such aswater, ammonia and methane, along with tracesof hydrocarbons.-Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ringsystem, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons.-Uranus revolves around the Sun once every 84 Earthyears. Its average distance from the Sun is roughly3 billion km (about 20 AU).-Uranus has an axial tilt of 97.77 degrees, so its axisof rotation is approximately parallel with the plane ofthe Solar System.-Uranus has 27 known natural satellites. Thenames for these satellites are chosen from charactersfrom the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.
Neptune-the eighth and farthest planet fromthe Sun in our Solar System.-Neptune is 17 times the massof Earth and is slightly more massivethan its near-twin Uranus, which is 15Earth masses and not as dense.-On average, Neptune orbits the Sun ata distance of 30.1 AU, approximately 30times the Earth-Sun distance.Its astronomical symbol is ♆, a stylizedversion of the god Neptunes trident-At high altitudes, Neptunesatmosphere is 80% hydrogen and19% helium. A trace amount ofmethane is also present.-Neptune has a planetary ring system,though one much less substantial thanthat of Saturn.
Dwarf PlanetA dwarf planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), is a celestialbody orbiting the Sun that is massive enough to be spherical as a result of itsown gravity but has notcleared its neighboring region of planetesimals and is nota satellite. The term dwarf planet was adopted in 2006 as part of a three-waycategorization of bodies orbiting the Sun, brought about by an increase in discoveriesof trans-Neptunian objects that rivaled Pluto in size, and finally precipitated by thediscovery of an even more massive object, Eris. The IAU currently recognizes five dwarfplanets—Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris. However, only two of these bodies,Ceres and Pluto, have been observed in enough detail to demonstrate that they fit thedefinition. Eris has been accepted as a dwarf planet because it is more massive than Pluto.The IAU subsequently decided that unnamed trans-Neptunian objects with an absolutemagnitude brighter than +1 (and hence a mathematically delimited minimum diameter of838 km) are to be named under the assumption that they are dwarf planets. The onlytwo such objects known at the time, Makemake and Haumea, went through this namingprocedure and were declared to be dwarf planets. Back
CometsA comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma (athin, fuzzy, temporary atmosphere) and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are both due to the effectsof solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei are themselves loosecollections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles, ranging from a few hundred meters to tensof kilometers across. Comets have been observed since ancient times and have historically been consideredbad omens. Comets have a wide range of orbital periods, ranging from a few years to hundreds of thousandsof years. Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper belt, or its associated scattered disc, which lie beyondthe orbit of Neptune. Longer-period comets are thought to originate in the Oort Cloud, a spherical cloud oficy bodies in the outer Solar System. Long-period comets plunge towards the Sun from the Oort Cloudbecause of gravitational perturbations caused by either the massive outer planets of the Solar System(Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), or passing stars. Rare hyperbolic comets pass once through the innerSolar System before being thrown out into interstellar space along hyperbolic trajectories. Comets aredistinguished from asteroids by the presence of a coma or a tail. However, extinct comets that have passedclose to the Sun many times have lost nearly all of their volatile ices and dust and may come to resemblesmall asteroids. Asteroids are thought to have a different origin from comets, having formed inside theorbit of Jupiter rather than in the outer Solar System. The discovery of main-belt comets andactive centaurs has blurred the distinction between asteroids and comets. Back
The Quran Verse About The UniverseBig-bang Theory: Day And Night:“Do those who are disbelievers not see In the Creation of the heavens and the earth, and thethat the heavens and the earth were alternation of night and day, there are Signs for peoplesewn together and then We unstitched with intelligence: those who rememberthem and that We made from water Allah, standing, sitting and lying on their sides, andevery living thing? So will they not have reflect on the Creation of the heavens and the earth:faith? (Surat al-Anbiya: 30) ‘Our Lord, You have not created this for nothing. Glory to You!" (Surah Al Imran: 190-191)“It is We Who have built the universewith (Our creative) power, and, verily, it is Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth andWe Who are steadily expanding it. (Surat sends down water from the sky and by it brings forthadh-Dhariyat: 47) fruits as provision for you. He has made the ships subservient to you to run upon the sea by His command, and He has made the rivers subservient to you, and He has made the Sun and Moon subservient to you holding steady to their courses, and He has made the night and day subservient to you. He has given you everything you have asked Him for. If you tried to number Allahs blessings, you could never count them. Man is indeed wrongdoing, ungrateful. (Surah Ibrahim: 32-34)www.harunyahya.com
The Quran Verse About The Universe Orbit: “Also ponder how the sun is moving unhampered in its course. All this is happening according to measures determined and set by the One Who is Almighty and all-knowing. All His Laws are based on knowledge. Yasin- verse 38 And see the moon for which We have determined various stages. (It appears like a beautiful crescent and then gradually becomes the full moon, after which it starts waning till it becomes like an old date stalk, dried up and curved.) Yasin-verse 39 All these huge heavenly bodies are not static in space, but are in continuous motion. However, all their movements are according to a discipline based on set measures and calculations. It can never happen that the sun, by speeding up, can overtake the moon; or that the night lingers on beyond the point where the day had to start (meaning that the sun rises little after the appointed time). No, this never happens. Each and every one of them keeps moving through space, in its own orbit, according to the speed and course set for it (21:33). Yasin-verse 40