Chapter Eleven VARIANCE ANALYSIS AND STANDARD COSTING KAL1013 Chapter Eleven
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven 1. Explain and illustrate how standards are used in budgeting 2. Explain the standard-setting process 3. Describe the types of standards and how they are established for businesses. a. Ideal standards b. Normal standards 4. Explain how to calculate and interpret direct material price and quantity variance 5. Explain how to calculate and interpret direct labour rate and time variance 6. Explain how to interpret factory overhead controllable and volume variances. Topic Objectives
Standard Costing KAL1013 Chapter Eleven The cost that has been pre-determined after considering other factors. Those are estimated costs which are considered to be ideal for each of the cost component ( direct material, direct labor and factory overhead ). The standard cost system enable the management to determine how much a product should cost.
The usage of standard costing KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Planning and controlling: Product costing:
Compare actual cost & budgeted cost
Provide readily available unit cost
Setting of Standard Cost KAL1013 Chapter Eleven
Analysis on the historical cost experience:
Provide initial guidelines for standard setting
Determine the most efficient way to operate
Input from operating personnel:
Accountable for meeting the standards
Involve joint efforts on:
Types of Standards KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Ideal standard Normal standard
Can be achieved if everything operates perfectly.
Currently attainable standard
Allowance is made for breakdown, interruptions etc..
Variance Analysis KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Variances are the difference between the actual manufacturing cost and the standard cost at the actual level of production. The significance of the variance for each element in manufacturing cost needs further analysis to determine the corrective actions.
Calculation of variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Direct material Direct labor Factory overhead
Standard Cost KAL1013 Chapter Eleven The expected cost per unit product Illustration 1: The followings are the standard cost for each unit (bottle) of peanut butter produced by Syarikat Sedap Selalu :
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Standard Standard Standard Cost Price Usage RM Direct material: Peanut Butter Sugar Direct labor: Machine operator Packaging Factory OH: Variable costs Fixed costs Standard cost per unit 2.80/kg 0.15kg 0.42 2.70/kg 0.10kg 0.27 1.20/kg 0.25kg 0.30 0.99 4.00/hour 0.02hour 3.00/hour 0.01hour 0.08 0.03 0.11 5.00/hour 0.01hour 12.00/hour 0.01hour 0.05 0.12 0.17 1.27
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven If Syarikat Sedap Selalu produces 10,000 bottles of peanut butter, the expected total cost would be: Direct material Direct labor Factory overhead Total cost 10,000 x 0.99 9,900 10,000 x 0.11 10,000 x 0.17 1,100 1,700 12,700
Calculation of variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Cost element Actual cost Standard cost Variance Direct material Direct labor Factory overhead 9,900 1,100 1,700 9,500 400 (F) 1,050 50 (F) 2,000 300 (U) F = (Favorable) U = (Unfavorable)
Direct Material Variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Direct Material Price Variance Direct Material Usage (Quantity) Variance To measure the difference between the actual cost and the standard cost of direct materials.
1. Direct material price variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven (Actual Price x Actual Quantity) - (Standard Price x Actual Quantity) Simplified to be: Actual Quantity (Actual Price – Standard Price) AQ ( AP – SP )
2. Direct material usage (quantity) variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven (Standard Price x Actual Quantity) - (Standard Price x Standard Quantity) Simplified to be: Standard Price (Actual Quantity – Standard Quantity) SP ( AQ – SQ )
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Actual Price x Actual Qty Std Price x Actual Qty Std Price x Std Qty Price Variance Usage Variance Direct material variance
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Illustration 2 The followings are the actual price and quantity for direct material used by the company in producing 10,000 bottles of peanut butter: Actual Price Actual Quantity Peanut RM2.70/kg 1,400kg Butter RM2.505/kg 1,200kg Sugar RM1.18/kg 2,300kg
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Direct material price variance: Peanut: 1,400 (2.70 – 2.80) = 140 (F) Butter: 1,200 (2.505 – 2.70) = 234 (F) Sugar: 2,300 (1.18 – 1.20) = 46 (F) 420 (F) AQ ( AP – SP )
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Direct material usage variance: Peanut: 2.80 (1,400 – 1,500) = 280 (F) Butter: 2.70 (1,200 – 1,000) = 540 (U) Sugar: 1.20 (2,300 – 2,500) = 240 (F) 20 (U) Therefore , Total direct material variance = 420 (F) + 20 (U) = 400 (F) SP ( AQ – SQ )
Direct Labor Variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Direct Labor Rate Variance Direct Labor Efficiency Variance Measures the differences between the actual cost and the cost that suppose to be paid to the labor.
1. Direct Labor Rate Variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven (Actual Hour x Actual Rate) - (Actual Hour x Standard Rate) Simplified to be: Actual Hour ( Actual Rate – Standard Rate ) AH ( AR – SR )
2. Direct Labor Efficiency Variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven (Standard Rate x Actual Hour) - (Standard Rate x Standard Hour) Simplified to be: Standard Rate ( Actual Hour – Standard Hour ) SR ( AH – SH )
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Actual Hour x Actual Rate Std Hour x Actual Rate Std Hour x Std Rate Rate Variance Efficiency Variance Direct Labor Variance
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Illustration 3: The followings are actual rate and labor hour in the production of 10,000 bottles of peanut butter: Actual labor rate Actual labor hour Machine operator RM3.90/hour 190 hours Packaging RM2.81/hour 110 hours
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Direct Labor Efficiency Variance: Machine Operator: 4.00 (190 – 200) = 40 (F) Packaging: 3.00 (110 – 100) = 30 (U) 10 (F) SR ( AH – SH ) Therefore, total direct labor variance: = 40 (M) + 10 (M) = 50 (M)
Factory Overhead Variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Factory Overhead Flexible Budget Variance Factory Overhead Volume Variance Measures the differences between the actual cost and the supposed related cost of factory overhead.
1. Factory Overhead Flexible Budget Variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Actual Overhead Costs - Flexible Overhead Costs Flexible OH Costs = Variable OH + Fixed OH = (Variable OH rate x Actual production) + (Fixed OH rate x Standard production)
2. Factory Overhead Volume Variance KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Flexible OH Costs - Standard OH at actual production Standard OH at actual production = Variable OH + Fixed OH Variable OH rate x Actual production = + Fixed OH rate x Actual production
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Actual OH Costs Flexible OH Costs Std OH at actual prod. Flexible Budget Variance Production Volume Variance Overhead Variance
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Illustration 4 The followings are the actual factory OH costs incurred in producing 10,000 unit / bottles of peanut butter: Variable OH costs RM560 Fixed OH costs RM1,440 Note: Standard fixed OH costs per unit is calculated based on normal capacity of 12,000 units.
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Flexible budget variance: Variable OH: Actual cost - (Std OH per unit x actual production ) 560 - (0.05 x 10,000) 60 (U) = = Fixed OH : Actual cost - (Std OH per unit x std production ) = = 1,440 - (0.12 x 12,000) 0 Total flexible budget variance = 60 (U)
KAL1013 Chapter Eleven Production volume variance: Variable OH : Flexible OH costs - (Std OH per unit x actual production ) 500 - (0.05 x 10,000) 0 = = Fixed OH : Flexible OH costs - (Std OH per unit x actual production ) = = 1,440 - (0.12 x 10,000) 240 (U) Total production volume variance = 240 (U)