ABSTRACTThis research is basically about to plan for facilities compliance OSHAs Ergonomicregulation in the manufactwing industry. This report contains of five chapters;introduction, literature review, methodology, data collection and data analysis. Thisresearch is based on the OSHA needs and fiom the law which been approve in 1994.In methodology, this research is done by evaluating three aspects which are indoorair quality, sound level and illumination. The equipments that will be used are soundlevel and light meter and indoor air quality monitor. In data collection, comparisonwill be made between data and standard data for all fields. Besides that, somesuggestions also have been given to solve all disadvantages in each line.
ABSTRAKSecara asasnya, kajian ini adalah mengenai perancangan perlaksanaan peraturan-peraturan ergonomik dalam Akta Kesihatan dan Keselamatan Pekerjaan (OSHA)dalam industri pembuatan. Laporan ini mengandungi lima bab penting iaitupengenalan, kajian ilmiah, kaedah, pengumpulan data dan penganalisisan data.Kajian ini berdasarkan keperluan yang dikehendaki OSHA yang dikuatkuasakanpada 1994 dan undang-undang lain. Bahagian kaedah menerangkan aspek-aspekyang dinilai seperti kualiti udara dalam bangunan, kadar kebisingan danpencahayaan. Alat-alat yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan semua bacaan ialahpengukur kebisingan, pengukur pencahayaan dan pengukur kualiti udara dalambangunan. Dalam bahagian penganalisisan data, perbandingan akan dibuat antaradata yang diperoleh dengan nilai piawai untuk setiap bidang. Selain itu, cadanganuntuk memperbaik kelemahan-kelemahan turut dinyatakan dalam bahagian ini.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.0 Introduction Nowadays, people can see safety and health aspect play a major role in allindustries. Company cannot afford to lose much more skilful worker in they have.When they lose some experienced worker, they will suffer some decreasing ofproductivity because they will use new worker and in the same time they need totrain them. In the other hand, they must pay some compensation to the worker due tothe accident. By referring to this condition, in 1994, Parliament of Malaysia has agreed toestablish an act which know as Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. This act isestablished to create a safety and comfortable working area in industry. In this act, there is something that can help all workers prevent themselvesfiom hazard which is ergonomic factor. Ergonomic is defined by Karapetrovic(1999); information about human behaviour, limitation, abilities and other humancharacteristic to the design of system for efficient , safe, comfortable and effectivehuman use. This project or research is to evaluate and improving for facilities compliancewith OSHAs ergonomic regulations in manufacturing industry. This chapter willdiscuss about the objectives of the research, scope of the project, problem statement,important of the study and outline of the study.
1.1 Problem Statement OSHAs Ergonomic Regulation is needed to be understood by al industries ldue to many reasons. It is related fbr many safety and health issues in working area.Nowadays, many industries have applied these regulations but not all the workersknow about the existence of it. Basically workers cannot understand the act statedand level of implementation among workers is low. Most of workers ignore safetyprocedures which been ruled by company due to lack of knowledge. This researchtries to understand and identifl the level of implementation in one of manufacturingindustry and how to simplify it so that it can be understood by all workers. Besidesthat, this research also tries to discover relation with safety and health issues in theindustry and how it relate in increasing the productivity in the industry.1.2 Objectives The objectives of this research are: i. To understand OSHAs Ergonomic Regulations in manufacturing industry. ii. To construct OSHAs Ergonomic Regulations Assessment Guide. iii. To evaluate and implement OSHAs Ergonomic Regulations in manufacturing industry. iv. To analyse the efficiency and benefit of implementations.1 3 Scope of the Research This project is to define the OSHAs Ergonomic Regulations and a case studyselected for implementation and analyse in the manufacturing industry. This studyhas been done in Ingress Precision Sdn. Bhd. (IPSB) which is situated in Nilai,Negeri Sembilan. This factory is one of the vendors for PROTON and PERODUA
which they supply door sash and moulding parts. This research has covered only insash manufacturing. This research will base on sound or noise level, indoor airquality and illumination.1.4 Important of the Research This research is very important to survey the need of OSHAs ErgonomicRegulations in industry. This research also can help the industry which appliesOHSAS 18000s certificate which is related to safety and health in the working area.But the most important of this research, people could see how they can avoidaccident in industry and all the elements that can make accident occur. Besides that,people can see some benefit of implementation in the industry whether inproductivity or the efficiency of the worker.1.5 Outlined of the Research This report consists of five chapters which are introduction, literature review,methodology, data collection and data analysis. In the introduction, it is discuss onoverview of the research, problem statement, scope of the research and important ofthe report. In the literature review, it explains on previous research which related to theresearch to be done and the hypothesis of the all study. In the methodology, all the method to accomplish the research will state. Allthe experimental and analytical method will describe in this part. In data collection, it will discuss how to setup the experiment, the data thatneed to collect and the result prediction of the research.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW21 Overview of the Research . In creating a safety and healthy working area, there are many aspects thatcompany must consider. In ergonomic study, there some factors that contributes toaccidents which are personnel characteristic, job characteristic, equipment and tools,physical environment and social environment. (Wickens et al, 2004) In personnel characteristic, there are some factors that must be consideredwhch are age and gender, job experience and stress, fatigue, drugs and alcohol.From the research, people fiom 15 to 24 years old, have highest rates in accident.The primary reasons is people who get older become more conservative and theirestimation to accident become more conservative. For job experience, highpercentage of accidents occur to the worker who has been work fio first three monthwith peak about two or three month. In this case, experience worker can identify thehazard easily compare to the new worker. Workers who works in stress and fatiguewill have decrement in performance an expose them to injury. For the person whotaking alcohol or drug before works, he will lose much of their attention andawareness for their work. This also exposes them to the accident. (Wickens et al,2004)
Many characteristics of the job or task that can cause difficulties for theoperator. Some oh these include high physical workload, high mental workload andother stress including factor such as vigilance task that lower physical arousal level.(Wickens et al, 2004) Many of the hazards associated with the workplace are localized in the toolsor equipment use by the employees, and as a consequence, much of the safetyanalysis performed in an industrial environment focuses on hazard inherent in theequipment itself Accidents cause by equipment normally due to control and display,electrical, mechanical, pressure and toxic hazard. Good control and display aredesirable to detect any hazard at the equipment. Electric hazard occur due to electricshock in a sudden and accidental stimulation of the bodys nervous system by anelectric current. Mechanical hazard occur can come fiom many source such asrotating equipment, open-generate power presses and power hammer. There aresome accidents due to mechanical hazard such as cutting or tearing of skin, muscleor bones, shearing, crushing, breaking and straining. The entire mechanical hazardcould be reduced by applying guard at the potential area. Toxic and pressure hazardcan cause from altitude change, heat, pressurize gas and many more. It can causevessel to rupture. (Wickens et al, 2004) In physical environment, elements that can cause accident are illumination,noise and vibration, temperature and humidity, fire hazard, radiation hazard, fall andexits and emergency evacuation. Lighting most directly affects safety by making itsrelatively easy or difficult to perform task. Illumination is important for safetyinclude direct and indirect glare and light or dark adaptation. Noise and vibration cancause us to deaf and cannot hear any sound signal to avoid hazard. Workingcondition with too high or low temperature can expose body to serious safety hazardseither directly by impacting body health or indirectly impairing operatorperformance. Fire hazard come Erom combination of three elements: fhel, oxidizerand source of ignition. Fire hazard can burn anythmg close to it. Certaincombinations of the neutrons and protons can results unstable atoms, which try tobecome stable by giving off excess energy in the form of particles wave (radiation).The examples of elements that can produce radiation are X-ray, gamma ray and
thermal neutron. Biological effects of radiation can occur in a one-time acuteexposure or fiom chronic long-term exposure. Falls can be cause by falling due toslippery, fall from one floor to another, falling from a structural support or walkway,fill from building and hll fiom ladder. Exits and emergency evacuation poles or areawhich is also can cause hazard. When there are any accidents occur in the building,and no emergency door, it can cause much more danger. (Wickens et al ,2004) Social environment can cause accident. This is due to other work that wecannot see during doing other work and lack of human awareness. (Wickens et al,2004) From the entire causes which been stated above, this research will focus onthe physical environment aspects at three elements which are illumination, noise andindoor air quality. All this elements must be related and based on OSHAsergonomic regulations. Occupational Safety is a branch of Occupational Safety and Health that isconcerned with the physical environment of the workplace and the wellbeing of theworker. Its aim is to create a conducive environment through safe work practices,procedures and Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) management systems toensure the protection of workers while doing their job tasks. The OccupationalSafety Division of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)division is currently involved in several consultation projects and in-house trainingfor various sectors like manuficturing, transport, construction and agriculture.(WHO/ILO, 1950) Occupational health is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degreeof physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupations, theprevention among workers of departures fiom health caused by their workingconditions, the protection of workers in their employment fiom risks resulting fiomfactors adverse to health, the placing and maintenance of the workers in anoccupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological equipment.(ILO/WHO, 1950)
December 1,1992 marked a new era in d ~ promotion of Occupational Safety eand Health in Malaysia. On this day the National Instihtte of Occupational Safetyand Health (NIOSH) was launched, after careful preparation and commitment fromall parties to improve the safety and health of workers at the workplace in Malaysia.In the words of the Minister of Human Resources, Malaysia, NTOSH would be a"critical catalyst" in the promotion of occupational safely and health that would alsoserve as the "backbone" to create a "self-regulating occupational safety and healthculture" in Malaysia. NIOSH was established as a Company Limited by Guarantee, under theMalaysian Companies Act, 1965. As a company, NIOSH is expected to operateefficiently and with minimal administrative bureaucracy. The NOSH Board ofDirectors comprises of 15 Board members, ten of which are appointed by theGovernment wllile the remaining are elected by NIOSH members during the AnnualGeneral Meeting (AGM). This makes NIOSH different from similar institutions inother countries. NIOSH was set up with a Rhll million Launching G m ~ from the tGovernment and a further W 5 0 million Endowment Fund (RM40 million from theSocial Security Organization (SOCSO) of Malaysia and a fiuther RM 10 millionfiom the Malaysian Government), which will be invested, and the rehun ofinvestment will be used to partly finance the operation of NIOSH. (NIOSH, 2002) The definition of ergonomic base on NIOSH, 2002: The science on how tofit the task and working environment to the workerusing scientrfic data Wilson 1995 defined ergonomic as "thepractice of learning about humancharacteristic and then using that understanding to improvepeople s interactionwith the things they use and the environments in which they do so."
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Table 2.2: OSHAs regulations (Continue) 1. Employer should assess the risk arising from the indoor air quality at the place of work to the health of his employee. 2. An employer should ensure that his employee or any other occupants at the place of work are not exposed to any of the contaminants listed in table 1 exceeding the corresponding maximum limits. 3. The assessment should be carried out during normal business activity and must take into consideration the following. Source of indoor air Code of Practice On contaminants. Indoor Air QualityINDOOR AIR QUALITY Employees exposure to environmental tobacco Refer to Checklist of smoke Ergonomic Evaluation Employees exposure to air contaminants, either fi-om indoor or outdoor source. The prescribed activities. The adequacy of mechanical ventilation at the work place of work. The necessity to monitor an employees exposure; and The necessary actions to be taken to improve the indoor air quality at the work place of work.
Table 2.2: OSHAs regulations (Continue) I . Seseorang tidaklah boleh dihhendaki atau dibenarkan beketja &lam mana-mana bangunan kilang jika daya memasukan cahaya semulajadi kurang dari sepuluh peratus daripada kelusan lantai bangunan itu. 2. Semua tingkap dan tingkap bumbung hendaklah: ( ditempat dan dijarakkan ) sedernikian supqa hadaan cahcrya matahari di tempat kerja sama cerah pada keseluruhan kuwasan kerja. Factory and (I!, sentiasu dibersihk-an pada Machinew Act 967, pennukaan-permukaan luar don Extech Instrument dalamnya dan sentiasa bebas Standard LIGHTING danpada apa-apa halangan. Refer to Checklist o f 3 Daam tiaP-tiaP bahagian Ergonomic Evaluation bangunan, keamatan penyinaran tidak boleh kurang daripada dua kakr dian sekaki diukur pada dataran mengufik setinggi tiga kaki dari aras lantai atau aras kerja dan tidak kurang daMpada lima batang dian sekaki pada mana-mana tempat di mana kerja sebenamya dilakukan. 4. Keamatan penyinaran diukur pada aras lantai ddam mana- mana kilang di mana seseorang lalu lalang tidak boleh kumng daripada setengah batang dian sekaki.
23 Previous Research Table below tells about some study which been made by other person whichquite significant with this research.Table 2.3: Summary of Previous Research I Descri(Diley and Kliner, 1996) The research is all about up and down on the job could cause an accident. It also t l about the right that ak workers have in OSHA also the liability that safety officer must cany on. It also tells about employees duties under OSHA. Besides that, the management should create safety culture in the working area.(Kearney, 1995) This research is about to plan facilities compliance with OSHAs Ergonomic Regulations and it is more about workers compensation. It also tell about the relation between OSHA and ergonomic. It also brief about how to plan compliance and the person involved.(Govindaraju, Pennathur, This journal is about how to improve the quality ofMital, 2000) manufacturing based on case study that they give. The case study related more on ergonomic.(Hartford, 2001) This study is more about to understand the needs of OSHA and how OSHA can help employer and employees to create safe working area.(Robert,1999) This journal tells about the history of OSHA It also tells about six OSHA elements and alternative policy
2 3 Summary By studying all the source that collected, OSHA is an act that need to be obeydue to it policy to create safe working area and could help company to increasingproductivity and working efficiency. Failure to obey this law can cause the companywill charge in the court. This act also has regulations related to ergonomic whichhelp worker work safely and help company to create safety area although there aremany job and heavy machines around them.
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY3.1 Overall Research Methods To accomplish this research, all the methods to get the data and to analysemust be setup in proper way. In this chapter, al the methods from getting the title luntil the conclusion will be discussed. First, the title had been gathered from the lecturer and the lecturer w l assign ilas the supervisor to guide this research. After getting the title, lecturer had brief thetitle and how the research will be done and the goal of the research. Then, the research had been started by searching for the journals and bookswhich related to the study. All this sources is usefbl as guideline to the research andto get more information about this title. It also useful to understand the title and theresearch needs to accomplish the research. Besides searching all the data by using book and journal, the data also hadbeen gathered in short course which been held in Ingress Precision Sdn. Bhd.(IPSB)in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. This course was held for the staffs as preparation for auditfrom SIRIM to evaluate the company for IS0 14000 and OHSAS 18000 certificates. After getting all the sources, the research had start with writing theintroduction of the research. In introduction, all about the project will be discussed
and we can see the scope of the research. The research is continued with literaturereview. This is to review all the previous research and the delinition of the research. Then the methods to get the data will be discussed in methodology chapter.Here the method on how to get the data will be explained. Data needed are soundlevel, illumination and indoor air quality. Sound level will be collected using soundlevel meter. Data will be gathered fiom three different spot at the line. Then, the datawill be checked and got the average. From this data, comparison with standard ofsound level will be making by comparing data with standard in Machinery andFactory act. Illumination will be collected using light meter. Same as sound level,data collected in 3 different spot. After get the data and average of data, comparisonwill be made with three standards which are Company standard, light meter standardand Machinery and Factory act standard. Indoor air quality will be collected usingindoor air quality monitor. The monitor will be placed at centre of the line. Data thatmonitor collected are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, humidity, volatile organiccompound and temperature. Standard that used to compare with data collected isCode of Practice Indoor Air Quality by Ministry of Human Resource Malaysia. Afterthat, it will continue with data collection. For indoor air quality, data will take onlyonce in one line. Sound level and illumination data will be collected three times fi-omdifferent spot. For sound level, data can be collected at the machines that can givehigh level of sound. For illumination, data can be gathered at the machine at theplace operator done his work. Data analysis study shows us the result of the research and the status of thestudy. From data analysis, data can be compared and the graph of each section ofresearch can be look. In data analysis, the effect of the result also can be highlighted.Discussion will be focused on obstacle during doing the research and how toimplement OSHAs ergonomic regulation and the right way to do it. Conclusion issummarized of the research and what expectation of the result gathered.
Measurinl tions Data 1 Referent Equipmen -- Factory and Average Sound Sound Level Sound Level Meter Machinery Act Level 1967 Average Extech Instrument Illumination Light Meter Illumination level Standard Level of Carbon . Dioxide, Carbon Indoor A r Quality i Code of PracticeIndoor Ar Quality i Monoxide and Monitor Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic compound3.2 Experimental Methods. In this research, three data has been collected. Here, all the method to run thisresearch has been shown. All data will be recorded in the table. All tables consist ofminimum and maximum value and average. For illumination and noise level, thetable consist of three reading. For indoor air quality table, it has five readings whichare carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, humidity, volatile organic compounds andtemperature. After getting all average data, the data has been compared with standarddata to state the status. From the status of the data, the recommendation will be madeand done.
3.2.1 Noise or Sound Level To get this data, equipment that been used is sound level meter to measurethe noise level. This experiment covers only in 16 lines. Each line, three reading hasbeen taken and the average reading has been calculated. This equipment measuresthe minimum and maximum reading for each time. This measurement gives readingin decibel (dB) unit. After get all the average reading, the data has been comparedwith Permissible Exposure Limits which consist in Factories and Machinery Act andRegulation. Refer to Appendix A.3.22 Illumination To get this data, illumination meter has been used to get illumination level.This equipment use lux as the unit. To use the equipment, it must be switched on andset the equipment to read data fiom fluorescent bulb. It gives minimum, maximumand average reading. Here, take three reading has been taken and get the averagedata. After a l the data collected, it has been compared with Extech Instrument lStandard. Refer to Appendix A.3 2 3 Indoor Air Quality To fulfil this experiment, indoor air quality monitor equipment has been used.To use it, make sure it has been calibrate in the place with good air quality such asrecreational forest. It can measure carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, humiditytemperature and other gas or particle level in certain area. It gives minimum andmaximum value for each reading. Refer to Appendix A.
3 3 OHSAS 18000 COURSE This certificate is to recognize a company afford to follow the rules and which contain in OHSAS 18000 needs. All the company which want thiscertificate, they need to apply from SIRIM or other body. They must follow all theprocedures that contained in it terms and conditions. All the workers must attendOHSAS training which conducted by outside consultant or by certified safety officer.This is one of the terms that they must obey. In OHSAS 18000 there are manyaspects that they need to follow. The company need to identifjr the entire hazard intheir compound and hazard source. The entire hazard area must be labelled withspecial signage. They also need to occupy they plant with accident report form. Thisis to record all the accident which been occurred in the plant. In this course, there aresome explanations that relate to this research. It talks about sound level, illuminationand indoor air quality which need to be obeyed by the company which want thecertificate.3.4 Limitation There is a limitation that which been faced during conducting theseexperiments. First of all, to collect data, the data before machine starting operationsis needed. This is to seek the situation or condition without operation and to detectany out source. For example, the sound level of the machine before and duringoperation is different. Before operation, the sound is may be low, but the sound ofthe surrounding is needed to check whether it contributes to the increasing of soundlevel. Here the difficulty to get data without machines operate is impossible becausethe production is continuous 24 hours a day.
CHAPTER 4 DATA COLLECTION4.1 Setting up Data Collection To set up data collection, first, review of the factory must be considered. InIPSB, there are 17 lines with variety of machine are existence. The machines thatplace in IPSB are press machine, roll forming machine, plasma welding, machine,metal saw cutting machine, bending machine, stretch bending machine, rotarybending machine, oil press machine, drilling machine, overhead crane and antirustmachine. This factory has two companies and IPSB is selected. This is the border ofthe study. The equipments that will use are sound level meter, illumination meter andindoor air quality monitor. Thls company is chosen due to product that it producewhich is more complex with use of many heavy machines and more danger.4.2 Table for Data Collection To collect all the data, three tables has been setup. These tables are used tocollect reading for three experiments which are sound level, illumination level andindoor air quality. For these three tables they have column for lines, reading, maximum andminimum value and average. These tables consist of 17 production lines in IPSB.
Each table will have three columns for reading at each line. Each line has threereading. Average value fio each line will be calculated by adding those three valueand divide the total value with three. Below is the sample of the equation: Average = (reading1 + reading2 + reading 3 1 3 After getting all the average of each reading, the value will be compared withthe standard data. Here, the status of each line will be recognized. Here the companycan setup the countermeasure to overcome any problem for each line. Table whichbeen constructed can be referred to Appendix A. After knowing the status of each line, the experiment will continue to identi@the critical area and need to by modi@ due to OSHA need. Below are standards thatwill be used to compare al data. lTable 4.1: Standard for Sound Level (Factory And Machinery Act 1967) Duration sure Permi8 .aY (hour: