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Research on Network

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    Research on Network Research on Network Document Transcript

    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 1 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Table of Contents Gantt Chart...................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 6 Computer Network.......................................................................................................................... 7 Advantages of Computer Network: ..........................................................................................................7 Disadvantages of Computer Network:......................................................................................................7 Classification of Computer Network:............................................................................................. 8 Local Area Network (LAN):........................................................................................................................8 Wide Area Network (WAN):......................................................................................................................8 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):.........................................................................................................9 Internet .......................................................................................................................................... 10 Network Architecture.................................................................................................................... 10 Client/Server Architecture:.....................................................................................................................10 Advantages of Client/Server Network: ...............................................................................................11 Disadvantages of Client/Server Network:...........................................................................................11 Peer-to-Peer Architecture:......................................................................................................................11 Advantages of Peer-to-Peer Network:................................................................................................12 Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Network: ...........................................................................................12 Protocols ....................................................................................................................................... 14 Classification of Protocols:......................................................................................................................14 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): .................................................................................................14 Internet Protocol (IP): .........................................................................................................................14 Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4): .................................................................................................14 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6): .................................................................................................14 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP):...................................................................................................14 File Transfer Protocol:.........................................................................................................................14 Network Topology........................................................................................................................ 15 Bus Topology:..........................................................................................................................................15 Advantages of Bus Topology:..............................................................................................................15 Disadvantages of Bus Topology: .........................................................................................................16
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 2 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Star Topology:.........................................................................................................................................16 Advantages of Star Topology: .............................................................................................................16 Disadvantages of Star Topology:.........................................................................................................16 Ring Topology: ........................................................................................................................................17 Advantages of Ring Topology:.............................................................................................................17 Disadvantages of Ring Topology:........................................................................................................17 Mesh Topology: ......................................................................................................................................17 Advantages of Mesh Topology:...........................................................................................................18 Disadvantages of Mesh Topology:......................................................................................................18 Tree Topology: ........................................................................................................................................18 Advantages of Tree Topology: ............................................................................................................19 Disadvantages of Tree Topology:........................................................................................................19 Hybrid Topology:.....................................................................................................................................19 Advantages of Hybrid Topology:.........................................................................................................19 Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology: ....................................................................................................20 Network Devices:....................................................................................................................................21 Routers:...............................................................................................................................................21 Switches: .............................................................................................................................................22 Hubs: ...................................................................................................................................................22 Modems:.............................................................................................................................................22 Transmission Media................................................................................................................................23 Guided (Wired) Transmission Media: .................................................................................................23 Twisted pair cable...........................................................................................................................23 Coaxial Cable:..................................................................................................................................23 Fiber Optics:....................................................................................................................................24 Unguided (Wireless) Transmission Media: .........................................................................................25 IP Address Classification.............................................................................................................. 25 Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4): .........................................................................................................25 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6): .........................................................................................................26 Hardware Components.................................................................................................................. 26 Projector .................................................................................................................................................26 Printer .....................................................................................................................................................26
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 3 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Scanner ...................................................................................................................................................27 Keyboard.................................................................................................................................................27 Mouse .....................................................................................................................................................27 Strengths of Protocol/Device/Technology.................................................................................... 28 Client/Server Network ............................................................................................................................28 Network topology- Star Topology...........................................................................................................28 Transmission Media- Twisted pair cable ................................................................................................28 Weaknesses of Protocol/Device/Technology ............................................................................... 29 Client/Server Network ............................................................................................................................29 Network topology- Star Topology...........................................................................................................29 Transmission Media- Twisted pair cable ................................................................................................29 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 30 Future Enhancements.................................................................................................................... 31 Blue Print ...................................................................................................................................... 32 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................. 33 Appendix....................................................................................................................................... 37
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 4 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Gantt Chart
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 5 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 6 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Introduction The world has changed a lot in the last couple of decades. Instead of simply dealing with local or regional concerns, many businesses now have to think about global markets. Many companies have facilities spread out across the country, or even around the world. Now-a-days everybody depends upon the network directly or indirectly. Every single person who belongs to urban areas(or even village now a days) more or less dependent upon the computer networks. As per the given scenario, ICT Resources is the company who is the only supplier of business equipment. The owners of ICT Resources have decided to reinvest substantial sum of money on networks. ICT Resources locally own a 3 storey building and till now there are 30 computers and this figure is still growing. Currently there is no network in the company, so they have decided to set up a new office with approximately 35 to 40 employees. The task assigned is to do the study of LAN & WAN and apply TCP/IP and associated protocols and application in the Network that would fully satisfy the project specification and provide with a well recommended solution for ICT Resources India Public Limited Company. With the help of this research, I as a Network Consultant have given my full efforts showing how the networking is done between those computer systems with the only goal to determine the type of network topology they will need within the office and also tried to provide the brief knowledge about the networks and internet connections.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 7 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Computer Network A network is a group of computers and peripheral devices connected together through a communications channel. A network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths. (Networking, 2012) Advantages of Computer Network:  Sharing of files: With the help of network, we can share files from one computer to another computers. For example, the printer attached to one computer is easily being accessible by all the computers on the network. But without network, everyone has to use their own printers.  Speed & Cost: Sharing and transferring files within networks are done at a very rapid speed. It saves time and cost.  Storage of files: Important files and documents can easily be stored on a central computer (file server) allowing data to be shared throughout an organization over the same network.  Communication between users: User can easily communicate with each over the network. ICT Resource company manager and top level authorities can now hold online meetings over the network from different locations and can save their time.  Security: Networks also allow security to be established, this is also a main reason for the company to use networks. Disadvantages of Computer Network:  Very Expensive: For establishing a network, purchase of network cables and file servers can be expensive.  Viruses: If one computer is infected with viruses then it will be spread in each and every computer which is in the same network.  Hacking: All computers are connected with each other so it is easier for anyone to access that particular system and can damage the data. (Data Communication, 2012)  Piracy of Software’s: Networking increases the piracy of software.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 8 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Classification of Computer Network: There are three main types of computer networks:  Local Area Network(LAN)  Wide Area Network(WAN)  Metropolitan Area Network(MAN) Local Area Network (LAN): A local-area network (LAN) is a computer network that covers a relatively small area. LAN is capable of transmitting data at very fast rates but the distance is limited and also there is the limit on the number of computers than can be attached to a single LAN. Users can also easily communicate with each other by sending emails or instant messaging. (LAN, 2012) (Networks, 2011) Figure 1- LAN Wide Area Network (WAN): A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a relatively large geographical area. WAN consists of two or more local area networks. Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. The most well-known WAN is the Internet. (WAN, 2011)
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 9 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 (WAN netowrk, 2012) Figure 2- WAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by a local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). (MAN, 2011)It is designed for customers who need a high-speed connectivity. (MAN network, 2012) Figure 3- MAN
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 10 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Internet The Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers. It is a means of connecting a computer to any other computer anywhere in the world via routers and servers. An internet is a network consisting of two or more networks that can communicate with each other. (Forouzan, 2007) Network Architecture Network Architecture is a blueprint of the computer communication network. It is the complete framework of an organization’s computer network. It includes hardware components used for communication and provides the detailed overview of a network. It is also based on the complete working definitions of the protocols. (Network-Architecture, 2012) Network Architecture is classified into two main categories:  Client/Server Architecture  Peer-to-Peer Architecture Client/Server Architecture: Client-Server Architecture is a term refers to two processes or applications which will be communicating with each other to exchange information. One of the two processes acts as a client process and another process acts as a server.  Client Process: Client Process is the process which makes a request from information. After getting the response, this process may terminate or may do some other processing. For example: Internet Browser works as a client application which sends a request to Web Server to get one HTML web page.  Server Process: Server Process is the process which takes a request from the clients. After getting a request from the client, this process will do required processing and will gather requested information and will send it to the requestor client. For example: Web Server keeps waiting for requests from Internet Browsers and as soon as it gets any request from a browser, it picks up a requested HTML page and sends it back to that Browser. (Client/Server Model, 2012)
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 11 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 (Client Network, 2011) Figure 4- Client/Server Network Advantages of Client/Server Network:  Centralized: Resources and data security are controlled through the server.  Scalability: Any or all elements can be replaced individually as needs increases.  Flexibility: New technology can be easily integrated into system.  Accessibility: Server can be accessed remotely and across multiple platforms. Disadvantages of Client/Server Network:  Expensive: It requires huge investment in dedicated server.  Maintenance: Large network requires a trained staff to ensure efficient operation.  Dependence: When server goes down, operations will stop across the whole network. Peer-to-Peer Architecture: Peer-to-Peer Architecture is a network architecture which is used to describe one user linking with another user to transfer information and files. In this network, all computers are considered equal; they all have the same abilities to use the resource available on the network. For Example: The system of intelligence agents that collaborate to collect, filter and correlate the information.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 12 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 (Network, 2011) Figure 5- Peer-to-Peer Network Advantages of Peer-to-Peer Network:  Less Expensive: This network do not requires any dedicated server, so the cost for buying that server is automatically been saved.  Set-Up: It is very easy to install.  Reliable: This network is very much reliable, as the failure of one computer doesn’t affect the functioning of other computers. Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Network:  Security: Security is not good other than setting passwords for files that the user don’t want other people to access.  Efficient: This network is not very efficient if the user have many computers, it is only best to use four to eight computers.  Data Recovery: The data recovery or backup is very difficult as each computer should have their own backup system. (p2p Network, 2011)
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 13 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 (wifi network, 2009) Figure 6- Comparison between Client/Server & Peer-to-Peer Networking
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 14 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Protocols Protocols are the system that helps us to connect to various networks, without protocols we are unable to access networks. It is for transmitting data between two devices. The sending and receiving of device will indicate that the message is sent or received. The protocol can be implemented either in hardware or in software. (Protocol, 2012) Classification of Protocols: Protocols are classified as four main types: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a network communication protocol designed to send data packets over the Internet. It is used to deliver email and transfer files from one location to another. (TCP , 2011) Internet Protocol (IP): Internet Protocol (IP) is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the Internet address level. There are two versions of Internet Protocol. They are: Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4): Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth revision of the IP and a widely used protocol in data communication over different kinds of networks. It is based on the best-effort model. (IPv4, 2012) Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6): Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is an Internet Protocol used for carrying data in packets from a source to a destination over various networks. IPv6 is the enhanced version of IPv4. (IPv6, 2012) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the medium of communication over the World Wide Web. HTTP uses a client-server network where the web browser is the client and communicates with the web server that hosts the website. (HTTP, 2012) File Transfer Protocol: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between computers on the Internet. It is used to put up files and documents over the internet.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 15 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Network Topology In computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected devices. It is the way various components of a network (like nodes, links, peripherals, etc) are arranged. The way in which different systems and nodes are connected and communicate with each other is determined by topology of the network. Topology can be physical or logical. Logical topology refers to the fact that how data actually transfers in a network as opposed to its design. The physical topology of a network is the actual geometric layout of workstations. There are six main types of physical topologies, which are as follows: Bus Topology: In the bus network topology, every workstation is connected to a main cable called the bus. Therefore, each workstation is directly connected to every other workstation in the network. (Network Topology, 2011) (Bus Network, 2010) Figure 7- Bus Topology Advantages of Bus Topology:  It is easy to set-up and extend bus network.  It is very less expensive and the cable length required for this topology is very less as compared to other networks.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 16 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Disadvantages of Bus Topology:  There is a limit on a central cable length and number of nodes that can be connected.  It is very difficult to detect and troubleshoot fault at individual station.  Maintenance costs can get higher with time. (Bus-topology, 2011) Star Topology: In the star network topology, there is a central computer or server to which all the workstations are directly connected. Every workstation is indirectly connected to every other through the central computer. (Network-topology, 2012) (Star-topology, 2010) Figure 8- Star Topology Advantages of Star Topology:  Its performance is far better than bus topology, as signals don’t necessarily get transmitted to all the workstations.  Easy to connect new nodes or devices and similarly components can also be removed easily.  Failure of one node or link doesn’t affect the rest of network. Disadvantages of Star Topology:  Too much dependency on central device which has its own drawbacks. If it fails whole network goes down.  The use of hub, a router or a switch as central device increases the overall cost  Performance of network is dependent on the capacity of central device. (Star- topology, 2011)
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 17 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Ring Topology: In the ring network topology, the workstations are connected in a closed loop configuration. Adjacent pairs of workstations are directly connected. (Network-topology, 2012) (Ring-topology, 2009) Figure 9- Ring Topology Advantages of Ring Topology:  In ring topology, all the traffic flows in only one direction at a very high speed.  When the load on the network increases, its performance is better than that of bus topology.  Additional components do not affect the performance of network as each computer has equal access to resources. Disadvantages of Ring Topology:  If one workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected.  Network is highly dependent on the wire which connects different components.  Each packet of data must pass through all the computers between source and destination. This makes it slower than Star topology. (Ring-topology, 2011) Mesh Topology: In the mesh network topology, devices are connected with many unnecessary interconnections between network nodes. Every node has a connection to every other node in the network. (Network-topology, 2012)
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 18 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 (Mesh-topology, 2010) Figure 10- Mesh Topology Advantages of Mesh Topology:  Expansion and modification in topology can be done without disrupting other nodes.  Even if one of the components fails there is always an alternative present. So data transfer doesn’t get affected. Disadvantages of Mesh Topology:  It is very much expensive as compared to other network topologies.  Set-up and maintenance of this topology is very difficult. (mesh-topology, 2011) Tree Topology: Tree network topology is the combination of star and bus topology. Computers (nodes) are connected by each other through central hub. Ethernet protocol is commonly used in this type of topology. (Network-topology, 2012) (Tree-topology, 2011) Figure 11- Tree Topology
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 19 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Advantages of Tree Topology:  Expansion of network is possible and easy.  Error detection and correction is easy.  If one segment is damaged, other segments are not affected. Disadvantages of Tree Topology:  Scalability of the network depends on the type of cable used.  As more and more nodes and segments are added, the maintenance becomes difficult. (tree-topology, 2012) Hybrid Topology: Hybrid network topology is a computer network that uses a combination of two or more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not resemble one of the standard topologies used in computer networking. (Hybrid Topology, 2011) (hybrid, 2011) Figure 12- Hybrid Topology Advantages of Hybrid Topology:  Reliable: Unlike other networks, fault detection and troubleshooting is easy in this type of topology.  Scalable: It’s easy to increase the size of network by adding new components, without disturbing existing architecture.  Flexible: It can be designed according to the requirements of the organization and by optimizing the available resources.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 20 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology:  Expensive: Hybrid network are usually larger in scale, so they require a lot of cables, cooling systems which can be costly.  Complexity of Design: It is not easy to design this type of architecture and its tough job for designers. (topology-hybrid, 2012)
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 21 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Figure 13- Comparison between Network Topology Network Devices: Network devices are the components used to connect computers or other electronic devices together so that they can share files or resources like printers or fax machines. Devices used to setup a Local Area Network are the most common type of network devices used by the public. Various devices are used to connect computer network. The most common devices are: Routers: The main function of the router is to sort and distribute the data packets to their destinations based on their IP addresses. Routers do not broadcast the data packets. (computer-science, 2011) (router, 2010) Figure 14- Routers
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 22 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Switches: A switch is an intelligent device that maps the IP address with the MAC address of the LAN card. Switches are used in LAN, WAN and MAN. (computer- science, 2011) (switches, 2011) Figure 15- Switches Hubs: The central connecting device in a computer network is known as a hub. There are two types of a hub i.e. active hub and passive hub. (Devices, 2010) (Ethernet, 2012) Figure 16- Hubs Modems: A modem is a communication device that is used to provide the connectivity with the internet. (Modems, 2011) Figure 17- Modems
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 23 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Transmission Media Transmission Media is defined as the medium through which data is transferred from sender to receiver in a network. It is classified as two main categories: Guided (Wired) Transmission Media: Guided media are the physical link through which signals are confined to narrow path. These are made up of copper wire bounded by jackets. (Guided-transmission media, 2011) It is further classified into following categories: Twisted pair cable: Twisted pair cable is made by twisting the two insulated cable to each other so that it takes a twisted shape. (Data network, 2011) Figure 18- Twisted pair cable It consists of two types:  Shielded twisted pair cable (STP): Shielded twisted pair cable is heavier and more difficult to manufacture, but it can improve the signaling rate in a given transmission media.  Unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP): Unshielded twisted pair cable is made of copper media. The number of actual twisted pair cables held in one sheath varies, that used for connecting networks is generally four pairs. Coaxial Cable: Coaxial cable is a two-conductor cable in which one conductor forms an electromagnetic shield around the other. Coaxial cable is made up of a central inner core, surrounded by an insulating material.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 24 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 (coaxial-cable, 2010) Figure 19- Coaxial Cable Fiber Optics: Fiber Optics consists of thin glass fibers that can carry information at frequencies in the visible light spectrum and beyond. (Data network, 2011) (fiber-optics, 2010) Figure 20- Fiber Optics Guided Media Advantage Disadvantage Twisted Pair Cable Easy to work with and easy to install Relatively low bandwidth Coaxial Cable Easy to modify and good bandwidth High installation cost Fiber Optics Cable Early detection of cable damage and secure transmissions. Transmission on fiber optical requires repeating at distance intervals.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 25 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Unguided (Wireless) Transmission Media: Unguided media relates to data transmission through the air and is commonly referred to as wireless. The transmission and reception of data is carried out using antenna. Unguided transmission media are used for data communication, which are as follows:  Radio Transmission  Microwave  Satellite Communication (unguided media, 2010) IP Address Classification Internet Protocol (IP) is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the Internet address level. There are two versions of Internet Protocol. For example: ‘166.68.10.24’ is the IP address. They are: Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4): Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) address are unique. They are unique is the sense that each address defines one and only one. An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a device to the Internet. IPv4 address is divided into five classes, which are Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E. Classes A, B, and C differ in the number of hosts allowed per network. Class D is for multicasting and Class E is reserved. Class Address Range Supports Class A 1.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254 Supports 16 million hosts on each of 127 networks. Class B 128.1.0.1 to 191.255.255.254 Supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks. Class C 192.0.1.1 to 223.255.254.254 Supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks. Class D 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 Reserved for multicast groups. Class E 240.0.0.0 to 254.255.255.254 Reserved.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 26 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6): Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the enhanced version of IPv4 and can support very large numbers of nodes as compared to IPv4. An IPv6 address consists of 16 bytes, it is 128 bits long. After doing research on the IP addresses, I found that the class used for ICT Resources Company is Class C addresses because it is designed for small organizations with a small number of attached hosts or routers. IP’s in this class ranges from 192.0.0.0 to 223.0.0.0. Hardware Components Projector (projector, 2013) Figure 21- Projector Printer (printer, 2013) Figure 22- Printer
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 27 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Scanner (scanner, 2013) Figure 23- Scanner Keyboard (keyboard, 2013) Figure 24- Keyboard Mouse (Mouse, 2013) Figure 25- Mouse
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 28 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Strengths of Protocol/Device/Technology Client/Server Network There are many reasons for choosing Client/Server network. Some of these are:  Security: Client/Server network is more secure in comparison to peer-to-peer network. The data backup is the main issue in the company, so client/server network is the best.  Less Expensive regarding Software: In Client/Server network, it is not necessary to have different license for software. Single server licensed software can be usable for each and every client.  Maintenance: In Client/Server network, administrator has to pay more attention to server rather than each and every system. Network topology- Star Topology There are many reasons for choosing Star topology. Some of these are:  As compared to Bus topology it gives far much better performance, signal don’t necessarily get transmitted to all the workstations.  It is very easy to install and also not very expensive as compared to other topology.  It allows addition and deletion of devices very easily.  It is designed for small organization and if one link fails, other links continues working without affecting the entire system. (topology, 2011) Transmission Media- Twisted pair cable The reasons for choosing this transmission media for the company are as follows:  It is very less expensive and resistant as compared to other transmission media.  It have more appropriate cabling standard for Ethernet LAN.  It supports data transfer rate up to 1 Gb/sec that makes it more efficient for the future.  It is very flexible and can be used for either voice or data communications.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 29 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Weaknesses of Protocol/Device/Technology Client/Server Network Besides having advantages, there are few drawbacks too which are as under:  Dependability: When the server goes down, operations cease  Lack of mature tools: It is a relatively new technology and needed tools are lacking  Expensive: Higher than anticipated costs  Can cause network congestion Network topology- Star Topology Besides having advantages, there are few drawbacks too which are as under:  Too much dependency on central devices has its own drawbacks. If it fails whole network goes down.  The use of hub, a router or a switch as central device increase the overall cost of the network.  Performance and as well number of nodes which can be added in such topology is depended of capacity of central device. Transmission Media- Twisted pair cable Besides having advantages, there are few drawbacks too which are as under:  The cable will require direct per-to-peer connection (point to point).  It will also be incompatible if connecting to more than one computer by going through a switch or hub.  STP is more difficult to connect to a terminating block. (Twisted-pair cable, 2010)
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 30 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Conclusion After doing research and critical analysis on the given topic with the help of Internet and books, I came to know about many new key terms like, Networks, protocols, IP addresses, transmission media. I learned the handle the issues coming in network management as well as got the brief knowledge on LAN on real time. Network topology is the main keyword which gave me the brief idea after this analysis that how it works and how many types of topology are there. Finally after completing the given assigned project, we came to the conclusion related to ICT Resources Company. They are:  We are using Local Area Network (LAN) on each floor of the building so that security related problems should not be faced by the employees working in the company.  Client/Server Network is been used in the company, because it best suits as compared to other network i.e., Peer-to-Peer network. In this, client will make the request in the network and the server will receive the request of the user.  We are using Star Network Topology as it is far better for this company. It is very easy to install and we can add and delete the devices without affecting other devices and links.  We are using twisted pair cable for ICT Resources Company because it is very less expensive and also supports data transfer rate up to 1 Gb/sec which makes it more efficient for the future.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 31 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Future Enhancements From the given scenario, it is decided that the owners of ICT Resources Company will be spreading their business to 3 strategic locations throughout North India with more upcoming offices in the year 2015. So keeping in mind for the future scope, here are some future aspects:  We will be using Wide Area Network (WAN) as it is going to be a large organization in North India. WAN depends upon the connection and speed of the network.  We will be using Hybrid Network topology in future as it is the combination of one and more topology.  We will be using Fiber Optic in future, as it consists of thin glass fibers to carry information.  A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is going to be used which is a private communications network usually used within a company to communicate over a public network.
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 32 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Blue Print Server Central Hub 1st floor 2nd floor Ethernet 3rd floor Ethernet Ethernet Computer Printer Scanner Projector Scanner Printer Projector Printer Scanner Computer Computer Internet Service Provider
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 33 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Bibliography Bus Network. (2010). Retrieved March 2014, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/images/bus_network.gif Bus-topology. (2011). Retrieved March 2014, from http://www.ianswer4u.com/2011/05/bus-topology- advantages-and.html#axzz2y0A3Hgic Client Network. (2011). Retrieved February 2014, from http://fcit.usf.edu/network/chap6/chap6.htm Client/Server Model. (2012). Retrieved February 2014, from http://www.tutorialspoint.com/unix_sockets/client_server_model.htm coaxial-cable. (2010). Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.phy.davidson.edu/stuhome/phstewart/IL/speed/cableinfo.html computer-science. (2011). Retrieved March 2014, from http://blog.teachbook.com.au/index.php/computer-science/networking-2/networking/ Data Communication. (2012). Retrieved Februrary 2014, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/datacomm/2networksrev2.shtml Data network. (2011). Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.tutorialspoint.com/data_communication_computer_network/transmission_media.htm Devices. (2010). Retrieved March 2014, from http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Devices/Common_Devices Ethernet. (2012). Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.automation-drive.com/ethernet-hub fiber-optics. (2010). Retrieved April 2014, from http://fiberoptic101.blogspot.in/2010/11/making-of- fiber-optic-cable.html Forouzan, B. A. (2007). In B. A. Forouzan, Data Communictions and Networking. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. Guided-transmission media. (2011). Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.slideshare.net/asrabatool/guided-transmission-media HTTP. (2012). Retrieved March 2014, from http://www.techopedia.com/definition/2336/hypertext- transfer-protocol-http hybrid. (2011). Retrieved March 2014, from http://3.bp.blogspot.com/- m4pVhf9kAhM/T6fzuAzR4II/AAAAAAAAAJ0/u2ENSgxOpbk/s400/hybrid_topology_diagram.jpg Hybrid Topology. (2011). Retrieved March 2014, from http://www.ask.com/question/hybrid-topology
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    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 36 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 tree-topology. (2012). Retrieved March 2014, from http://www.ianswer4u.com/2012/01/tree-topology- advantages-and.html#axzz2y0A3Hgic Twisted-pair cable. (2010). Retrieved April 2014, from http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_disadvantages_of_twisted_pair_cable unguided media. (2010). Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.cse.ohio- state.edu/~gurari/course/cis677/cis677Se10.html VPN. (2012). Retrieved April 2014, from http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/V/VPN.html VPN connection. (2011). Retrieved April 2014, from https://www.securenet.cz/en-vpn-connection.php WAN. (2011). Retrieved February 2014, from http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/wide_area_network_WAN.html WAN netowrk. (2012). Retrieved February 2014, from http://ihome.ust.hk/~lblkt/diploma/inet/inet.html wifi network. (2009). Retrieved February 2014, from http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/local- area-network-wi-fi-wireless,3020-2.html
    • Hardware, Software, Systems & Networks II Individual Assignment Page 37 of 37 Level 2 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2014 Appendix ICT Resources Company is going to spread their business in North India, by 2015 for which they will setup new offices. For which they will require three-storey building which is fully setup with latest networks so that employees would not face any problems either it be of security or data transfer. So being a network consultant, I came to the conclusion that the best network for this organization will be Wide Area Network (WAN). In WAN, we have to deploy our own fiber optic cables and routers which cost bit expensive. It totally depends on the fiber optic cables. It has best signal quality and is designed for best internet speed. It requires high maintenance because large number of cables is used in this network. The monthly charge depends upon the speed of the network. For security purpose IP-VPN is the best solution for ICT. VPN service is operated on a switched network by ISP. With IP-VPN, a service provider connects two IP addresses located at geographical sites. These two locations are appeared within a private IP network. The benefits of this "virtual" connection include greater reliability for the customer and better resource utilization for the service provider. A virtual private network (VPN) is a private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, to communicate over a public network. Using VPN service, a user’s data remains encrypted and secure. (VPN, 2012) (VPN connection, 2011) Figure 26- Virtual Private Network