On Trust

1,038 views
934 views

Published on

A presentation on different aspects of Trust

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,038
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

On Trust

  1. 1. On Trust Massimo FeliciMassimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  2. 2. 1 Outline• What is Trust?• Trust matters• Trust problems• Seeking an Experimental Trust Framework• Trust and Dependability• Directions for future workMassimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  3. 3. What is Trust? 2 Constructive TrustDifferent Trust Features or Meanings• Different meanings of trust• Characterization of trust in terms of basic constructs: Trusting Intention, Trusting Behavior, Trusting Beliefs, System Trust, Dispositional Trust and Situational Decision to Trust• Trust features, e.g.: Competence, Predictability, Benevolence and Integrity References: [5, 6, 7, 8]Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  4. 4. What is Trust? 3 Relational Trust• Trust is relational• Trust as a three-part relation A Trusts B in to do X or in matters Y• Trust depends on the context or situation• Trust is subjective: “trust (or, symmetrically, distrust) is a particular level of the subjective probability with which an agent assesses that another agent or group of agents will perform a particular action, both before he can monitor such action (or independently of his capacity ever to be able to monitor it) and in a context in which it affects his own action.” References: [2]Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  5. 5. What is Trust? 4 Trustworthiness• “In general, the complexity of the problem of trust derives primarily from the complexity of the problem of trustworthiness. [...] the motivations for being trustworthy are manifold. In a sense, trusting someone in some context is simply to be explained as merely the expectation that the person will most likely be trustworthy.”• Inducements: internal (e.g., moral rules, interests, consequences, etc.), external (e.g., social constraints, institutional constraints, norms, etc.) or mixed. References: [3]Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  6. 6. What is Trust? 5 Rational Trust• Rational theory of trust... Trust as a rational choice• Encapsulated-interest model of Trust “Your trust turns not directly on your own interests but rather on whether these are encapsulated in the interests of the trusted. You trust someone if you believe it will be in her interest to be trustworthy in the relevant way at the relevant time, and it will be in her interest because she wishes to maintain her relationship with you.” References: [3]Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  7. 7. What is Trust? 6 Distrust• dual concept of trust• like Trust, a three-part relationship A distrust B with respect to X• like Trust, a matter of degree• asymmetries between Trust and Distrust: asymmetric grounds (motivational and epistemological), asymmetric societal implicationsMassimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  8. 8. Trust Matters 7 Interactions• One-way Trust (iterated)• Mutual Trust (e.g., Prisoner’s Dilemma)• Thick Relationships (e.g., social and institution relationships, group memberships, etc.)Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  9. 9. Trust Matters 8 Interactions• Increasing complexity of interaction• Different mechanisms work/cope with different complexities• Local trust relationships do not scale upMassimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  10. 10. Trust Matters 9 Considerations on Interactions• Thick relationships expose the limitations of games — games poorly capture knowledge about thick relationships• games capture cooperative interactions, rather than trust• games need to be interpreted with respect to contextual relationships – local relationships might be easy to capture/model/understand/formalise/...; on the other hand, some global phenomena may be little influenced by thick relationships• Local and Global TrustMassimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  11. 11. Trust Matters 10 Structures• there is yet little understanding how emerging socio-technical structures (e.g., organizations, responsibilities, etc.) affect trust• Other structural dependencies: Dependability, Risk perception• Structure Complexity• Diverse Structures: Formal structures, Social structures (e.g., Social Networks), Institutional structures (e.g., Responsibilities)Is there any implication from the social theory of risk? References: [1]Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  12. 12. Trust Matters 11 A Formal Trust Structure• A trust structure T is a triple T = (D, , ), where and are binary orderings on a set of values D.• t s means that s represents a higher degree of trust than t• information ordering or refinement: References: [4]Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  13. 13. Trust Matters 12 Knowledge Uncertainty and Risk• Trust involves knowledge uncertainty, hence, risk — “to acto on trust is to take a risk, although trust is not itself a matter of deliberately taking a risk because it is not a matter of making a choice.” References: [3]• This is, however, a simplistic interpretation of the relationships among trust, knowledge uncertainty and risk• The better our understanding, the better the trust mechanisms that mitigate risk in presence of knowledge uncertaintyIs there any implication for Risk Theory? Risky systems involve complexinteractions, hence, do they require trust? References: [9]Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  14. 14. Trust Problems 13 Modelling Interaction• Games are a natural means for modelling interaction• Three-part relation: A Trusts B in to do X or in matters Y• Encapsulated-interest model of Trust• Local and Global Interaction• How to capture thick relationships (e.g., complex emerging relationships)?Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  15. 15. Trust Problems 14 Quantifying Trust• Measuring Trust• Probabilistic view of trust (e.g., bayesian models of Trust)• Events affect trust estimation “An event structure is a triple ES = (E, ≤, ) consisting of a set E of events which are partially ordered by ≤, the necessity (or casuality) relation; the conflict relation is a binary, symmetric, irreflexive relation on events.”Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  16. 16. 15 Seeking an Experimental Trust Framework• Trust Relation and Interaction: A trusts B to do X, in matters Y or to discharge responsibility Z• Encapsulated-trust model: encapsulating inducements• Event Structures: ES = (E, ≤, ), ordering on events; causality relationship• Trust Structures: T = (D, , ); ordering degrees of trust; refinement on information• Thick Relationships (e.g., social relationships, group memberships, etc.)Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  17. 17. 16 Seeking an Experimental Trust Framework• Trust Relation and Interaction: A trusts B to do X, in matters Y or to discharge responsibility Z• Encapsulated-trust model: encapsulating inducements• Trust Structures: ordering degrees of trust; refinement on information• Trust Events: ordering on events; causality relationship• Trust Information• Thick Relationships (e.g., social relationships, group memberships, etc.)Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  18. 18. Dependability Aspects 17 Trust and Confidence• Experts estimate their confidence (i.e., “the probability that a claim is true”) on different claims• The combinations of different arguments present some uncertainty and contingency – for instance, despite the emergence of further knowledge strengthening one of the claims, the overall confidence on the claim could decrease• Is it possible to analyse the (multi-leg argument) confidence problem as an interaction/game problem?• Is it possible to interpret the confidence problem with respect to trust? This would tell us how trust/confidence differ.Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  19. 19. Dependability Aspects 18 Trust and Responsibilities• How does Trust extend Responsibility models?• Relational Trust: A trusts B to discharge responsibility X• Trust models involve many tree-part relationships over responsibilities• How to extend emerging structures by thick relationships (e.g., social or institutional relationships)?Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  20. 20. Dependability Aspects 19 Trust and Timing• Event structures order and constrain occurring events• Time bands define different focuses• Trust might emerge over different time bandsMassimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  21. 21. 20 Other Trust Aspects• Trust as process• Trust as routine – taken-for-granted• Trust in Multi-Agent Systems• Trust and Performance• Organizational Trust• Deciding when Trust is enoughMassimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  22. 22. 21 Summary• Overview of Trust aspects and concepts (e.g., Distrust, Trustworthiness, etc.)• Basic models: relational (e.g., three-part relation, thick relationships), encapsulated-interest model, interaction (games), trust structures and probabilistic trust (depending on events).• How do the basic models relate to each other? Integrating them?• Can we use/tailor them for structuring empirical analyses on Trust?Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  23. 23. 22 Directions for Future Work• Analysing/Modelling Trust in different application domains• Developing Examples of Trust Problems• Seeking an Experimental Approach to Trust: Requirements• Developing an Experimental Approach to Trust: Modelling Framework, Experimental Analysis• Looking at different Case Studies and Empirical investigationsMassimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012
  24. 24. 23References[1] Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky. Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers. University of California Press, 1982.[2] Diego Gambetta, editor. Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Basil Blackwell, 1998.[3] Russell Hardin, editor. Trust and Trustworthiness. Russell Sage Foundation, 2002.[4] Karl Krukow and Mogens Nielsen. Trust structures: Denotational and operational semantics. International Journal of Information Security, 6(2-3):153–181, 2007.[5] D. Harrison McKnight and Norman L. Chervany. The meanings of trust. Technical Report 96-04, University of Minnesota, Management Informations Systems Research Center (MISRC), 1996.[6] D. Harrison McKnight and Norman L. Chervany. What is trust? a conceptual analysis and an interdisciplinary model. In Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems, pages 827–833, 2000.[7] D. Harrison McKnight and Norman L. Chervany. Conceptualizing trust: A typology and e-commerce customer relationships model. In Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-34), volume 7, page 7022. IEEE Computer Society, 2001.[8] D. Harrison McKnight and Norman L. Chervany. Trust and distrust definitions: One bite at a time. In R. Falcone, M. Singh, and Y.-H. Tan, editors, Proceedings of Trust in Cyber-societies, number 2246 in LNAI, pages 27–54. Springer-Verlag, 2001.[9] Charles Perrow. Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies. Princeton University Press, 1999.Massimo Felici On Trust c 2008-2012

×