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Environmental conflicts:

Environmental conflicts:
Among natural causality and nature of customers

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Environmental conflicts: Among natural causality and nature of customers Environmental conflicts: Among natural causality and nature of customers Presentation Transcript

  • ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS AND CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTS Environmental conflicts: Among natural causality and nature of customers Massimo De Marchi Dipartimento di Geografia Università di Padova
  • SEEING AND UNDERTANDING
    • Greenpeace protests in bikini against the pollution of pulpmills (13/05/2006)
    • Evangelina Carroso, Greenpeace activist, irrupted during the final pictures of IV summit between European Union and Latin America and Caribe, hold in Vienna.
    • The environmentalist association protest against the pollution of two pulpmills in Frey Bentos, the one Finnish the other Spanish. The plants are contested by Argentina because they are polluting the river Uruguay bordering the two countries.
    • The irruption found interest among some head of states, especially the Venezuelan leader Chavez.
    • The security manager explained that the girl fired the controls presenting a pass as journalist.
  • The Bikini
  • The Head of States and the Premiers
  • The conflict and the environment? SUMMIT? CONFLICT?
  • SEEING AND UNDERTANDING
    • WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get?
    • The conflict exist when it becomes visible?
    • … but what about latency?
    • Media and conflicts: strong images and simplification…
    • … conflict as sport race
    • after the images the conflict is solved?
    • What happened during latency?
    • Why cooperation was broken?
    • Is it possible to read conflicts befor e visibility?
  • THREE CONCEPTUAL CLUSTERS
    • … research projects, publications, consultant activities:
    • Environmental Scarcity/Environmental Security (ES)
    • Environmental Negotiation (EN)
    • Environmental rights/Environmental Justice (ER or EJ)
    • The three “paradigms” do not span in the same way:
    • (ES) central governmental authorities and national and international political discourses
    • (EN) local governmental organisations and firms
    • (ER or EJ) is managed by NGO and CSO
    • … almost an instant shoot then a trend …
  • ENVIRONMENT AND SECURITY
    • Scarcity and security represent the orthodox approach to environmental conflicts …
    • … the citation system strengths the visibility of scarcity/security school by reciprocal cross-citation
    • axiomatic kernel : environmental degradation-scarcity-social conflicts (violent)
    • … protected by a belt of corollaries helping to damp the rigidity of the determinism or to strengthen the vagueness of the possibilism
    • Internal debate: “environmental security” or “environment and security”
  • TORONTO GROUP: SIMPLIFIED MODEL
  • Homer-Dixon, 1994, pp. 5-6 Within the next fifty years , the planet’s human will probably pass nine billions and global economic output may quintuple. Largely a s a result , scarcities of renewable resources will increase sharpely . The total area of high quality agricultural land will drop, as will the extent of forests and the number of species they sustain . Coming generations will also see the widespread depletion and degradation of aquifers , rivers and other water resources ; the decline of many fisheries and perhaps signficative climatic change . If such “environmental scarcit ies " become severe could they precipitate violent civil or international conflicts ? … Our research show ed that environmental scarcit ies are already contributing to violent conflicts in many parts of the developing world. Th ese conflicts are probably he early signals of an upsurge of violence in the coming decades that will be induced or aggravated by scarcity . The violence will usually be sub-national, persistent and diffuse .
  • TORONTO GROUP: REDEFINITIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS
    • Scarcity, role of institutions, ingenuity
    • Not discussed elements:
    • the use of a catastrophic approach in the construction of the premises of the works
    • the speed of environmental deterioration is increasing and that it will increase more than social adaptation ability
    • the independent role for the environmental scarcity variable
    • the central role of population growth (even if in the works after the 1994 the issue is less stressed)
  • ENVIRONMENT AND SECURITY, CONSIDERATIONS
    • Natural resources are axiomatically considered scarce and then object of the dispute among individuals, society and states
    • environmental determinism that interprets scarcity as natural factor on which individuals can have a reduced control
    • environmental security = authoritarian control on the environment in order to secure security
    • ALTERNATIVE: to distinguish environmental security from national security and its connections with military activities… … to connect with food and social security
  • TRENDS
    • Baechler (1998) focuses on the multidimensional role of the environmental variable: reason, trigger, target, channel, catalyst not just independent and determinant
    • He develops the dimension of the environmental discrimination and of the human environmental rights.
    • Baechler [1998, p. 38]: relationship among sustainable development, environmental conflicts and break-up of the society in transition in developing countries …
    • … peak of a iceberg of a wider break-up or indicator of strengthening of actors in marginal areas?
  • ENVIRONMENT AND NEGOTIATION
    • The conflict is the field for the negotiation’s intervention
    • it does not analyse the causes of the conflicts, but it focuses on solution (negotiated)
    • it works less about violent conflicts and more on disputes and controversies
    • the community is mature and structured with academic institutions deputed to the preparation of the negotiation professionals
  • ENVIRONMENT AND NEGOTIATION, CONSIDERATIONS
    • the actors rationally measure the difference between the benefits in absence of agreement (BATNA, Best Alternative To No Agreement) and those with the agreement
    • the actors move from the stiffening on positions to a real comparison between interests
    • face to face dialogue, the presence of mediators (from facilitator to mediator), the definition of work procedures, the elaboration of an agreement with mechanisms of verification
    • Assumption: pluralistic democracy with all the interests free to express
    • OBSERVATION: the power isotropy is not already exiting
  • TRENDS
    • The rule manipulator (Raiffa)
    • The role of mediators:
    • How to manage power imbalance?
    • How to mange interest not represented?
    • How to manage different level of accessing negotiation? (logistic, information…)
    • Interventist /neutral mediator … heavy or light mediator ?
    • The crisis of treaty approach in British Columbia:
    • not only interests of First Nations (oil or wood against fish or game) but rights and citizenships
  •  
  • ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE
    • Environmental conflicts as opportunity of confrontation among development models
    • Distributional dimension of environmental policies
    • Key words: participation, empowerment, rights, justice, development
    • Multi-actor and multi-scale conflict analysis
    • Most of production on developing countries
  • ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE: CASES
    • Based on a wide analysisis of case studies
    • Khon Khaen Dispute Resolution Institute University di Kon Kaen, 1996 (in Thai), 932 environmental conflicts in Thailand: 532 cases are conflicts among villagers and national administrations
    • CLADES (Centro Latinoamericano de Ecologia Social) Montevideo publishes in 1998 a work on 50 cases of socio-environmental conflicts in Uruguay (1990-1998)
    • OLCA (Observatorio Latinoamericano de Conflictos Ambentales)
    • IBASE (Istituto Brasileiro de Analises Sociais e Economicas) research on 5 environmental conflicts in the south (+ city of Rio de Janeiro) and the conflicts on national newspapers
    • RECONCILE (Resource Conflict Institute), Kenya
    • Green Belt Mouv e ment, Kenya (Wangari Maathai, Nobel Prize 2004)
    • ENDA GRAF Sahel, West Africa
  • THE QUITO GROUP: CONTRIBUTIONS
    • Political option starting form the choice of language: conflito socio-ambiental
    • Through environmental dimension resurfaces the issues of exclusion and oppression
    • “ Quito-group” refuses the word “solution” and adopt the words “ tratamiento and manejo alternativo ”
    • Conflict is a complex process requiring a careful analysis of the causes, whose solution cannot be guaranteed
    • In many cases the actors are born from the conflicts
    • Conflicts are catalyst s of empowerment’s processes
  • EPOS of Linköping, CONTRIBUTIONS
    • Security is redefined behind the integrity of the State
    • Security is a plural dimension not only related to military action, but connected with political, economical, environmental issues
    • Individuals and communities deal with security matter in terms of objective and perceived threats
    • governance and the role of policies and institutions in natural resource management
    • Sustainability is not only related with carrying capacity but also with equity: entitlement and empowerment
    • When entitlement is not granted (empowered) a population with a large availability of resources can experiment scarcity and lack of security
  • PRIO of Oslo, CONTRIBUTION Issues to explore As objectives As problems Environmental sustainability Equity Peace Environmental deterioration Poverty Conflict
  • TRENDS
    • The d ebate about environmental conflicts is reframing adoption of EJ approach also in Europe and North America
    • Principle 10 of Rio Declatarion
    • Aarhus Convention (1998) “right to participation, information and justice in environmental matters”
    • Environmental Justice :
    • Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) , EPA
    • DOT (Department of transport) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA )
  • JOHANNESBURG 2002: Resistances and adaptations
    • Decline in production of AS community: new context … but WWCS (Woodrow Wilson Centre for Scholars)
    • PRIO of Oslo redefine research about environment an d conflicts CSCW (Centre for Studies on Civil War) prepare the chapter about environmental conflicts for World Development report 2003 of World Bank
    • November 2001: Environment Development and sustainable Peace among Environmental Change and Security Project (WWCS), FUNDAPEN (Fundacion Paz y Democracia, Costa Rica), Adelphi Research (NGO, Berlin).
    • EDSP in September 3, 2002 seminar “Addressing te environmental roots of tensions and conflicts: a new security agenda”, IUCN, IIDS, German and Swiss Cooperation Agency (GTZ, SDC)
  • 2 typology in Burkina Faso
    • Conflicts for land
    • Conflicts for trees
    • Conflicts for water
    • Conflicts among villagers and private users (enterprises)
    • Conflicts among villagers and S tate
    • Conflicts among villagers and development programs
    • Conflicts among different villager actors (farmers, herders ,… )
    • Conflicts involving women
    Logic of scarcity (GO) Logic of justice (NGO) Champs brousse Immigrants and native s farmers and herders Land borrowing A nimals Irrigation F ishing
  • Environmental conflict as learning environment Geography of complexity Territorialization process Knowledge and enaction of actors Morphology of conflict Peace and conflict research Biology of cognition and conscientization EnvironmentalConflict