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The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
The Use of Creative Commons Licenses
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The Use of Creative Commons Licenses

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send an e-mail to "massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com" to have the new-version paper or download the old-version at: http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/drmwpaper/2011-26.htm

send an e-mail to "massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com" to have the new-version paper or download the old-version at: http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/drmwpaper/2011-26.htm

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  • 1. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis Conclusions The Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris Ouest March, 2012Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 2. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsIntroductionThe Technological Shock The technological shock, caused by New Technologies and the Internet: introduces digital goods, that seems to be similar to common goods (non-rival and non-excluable) allows new actors to across the economic and technical barriers and to create new contents (“Open Video”)Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 3. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsIntroductionFormal Institution All organization structures are based on Formal Institutions: understandable accepted shared Creative Commons licenses represent the Formal InstitutionMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 4. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsIntroductionCreative Commons licenses These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creatorsMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 5. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsIntroductionLicenses 1 Attribution alone (by) 2 Attribution + Non-commercial (by-nc) 3 Attribution + NoDerivs (by-nd) 4 Attribution + ShareAlike (by-sa) 5 Attribution + Non-comm. + NoDerivs (by-nc-nd) 6 Attribution + Non-comm. + ShareAlike (by-nc-sa) 7 (Public Domain) (PD)Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 6. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsIntroductionMotivations to contribute Extrinsic Motivation Monetary administrative commands (Valentinov, 2007) money (Valentinov, 2007) Non-Monetary reputation (Lerner and Tirole, 2002) career concerning (Lerner and Tirole, 2002) peer recognition (Lerner and Tirole, 2002) sharing innovation (Harloff et al., 2003) Intrinsic Motivation activity itself (Lakhani and Wolf, 2005; Valentinov 2007) ego motivation (Lerner and Tirole, 2002; Lakhani and Wolf 2005) solve particular need (von Hippel, 1988, 2005; Johnson, 2002)Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 7. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsIntroduction The extrinsic non-monetary and intrinsic motivations compensate for a lower salary and incentivise volunteering and donationsMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 8. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsIntroduction For-Profit uses monetary motivations Non-Profit benefits from extrinsic non-monetary and intrinsic motivations (Valentinov, 2007) attracts community interest and contributions (Belleflamme et al., 2011; Lambert and Schwienbacher, 2010; Stewart et al., 2006) Informal not organized they do not have monetary ressources they are not abre to use extrinsic non-monetary and intrinsic motivationsMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 9. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis Conclusionsresults Hypothesis 1 H1 For-Profit creators tend to use a high degree of openness in both production and diffusion Because of their legal status they are not able to attract interest and contribution from communityMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 10. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis Conclusionsresults Hypothesis 2 H2 Non-Profit creators tend to use a high degree of openness only in diffusion Because of their legal status they are already able to attract interest and contribution from the communityMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 11. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis Conclusionsresults Hypothesis 3 H3 Informal creators tend to use a low degree of openness only in diffusion Because they need to attract interest and contribution from the community, but they still keep the possibility to commercialize the contentMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 12. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsConstructing The SampleThe Internet Archive Creation of Original Database of video in CC from IA Investigation in February 2010 Why IA? Because of CC advices (web and tool) I drop items: because of not detailed informations (license/creator/year) created before the 2003 (because the first CC was used in December 2002) Total items analyzed: 999Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 13. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsConstructing The SampleDegree Openness in CC licenses Degree of Openness Production Diffusion Maximum PD PD CC by CC by Medium CC by-sa CC by-sa CC by-nc CC by-nd CC by-nc-sa Minimum CC by-nd CC by-nc CC by-nd-nc CC by-nc-sa CC by-nc-ndMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 14. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsConstructing The SampleVariables OpenProdDeg. The degree of openness in production OpenDiffDeg. The degree of openness in production Informal. This dummy variable checks the absence of legal stat. For-profit. This dummy variable checks the FP legal status Non-profit. This dummy variable checks the NP legal status Public. This dummy variable checks if is a PA ...Public Administrations tend to use the higter degree of openness, beacuse of lawMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 15. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsImpact of Legal Status on Openness in Produciton Table: Ordered Logistic Regression and Marginal Effects Results (1) (Dep. Var.) (Marginal Effects) OpenProdDeg Maximum Medium Minimum Informal (d) -1.085∗∗∗ -0.231∗∗∗ 0.0611∗∗∗ 0.170∗∗∗ (0.158) (0.0292) (0.0110) (0.0305) For Profit (d) -0.609∗∗∗ -0.135∗∗∗ 0.0443∗∗∗ 0.0904∗∗∗ (0.138) (0.0289) (0.00884) (0.0230) Non Profit (d) -1.370∗∗∗ -0.262∗∗∗ 0.0159 0.246∗∗∗ (0.241) (0.0334) (0.0259) (0.0551) N 999 999 999 999 Log lik. -989.3 -989.3 -989.3 -989.3 Chi-squared 67.28 67.28 67.28 67.28 p 1.64e-14 1.64e-14 1.64e-14 1.64e-14 Marginal effects; Standard errors in parentheses (d) for discrete change of dummy variable from 0 to 1 ∗ p < 0.05, ∗∗ p < 0.01, ∗∗∗ p < 0.001 Public is dopped to avoid the multicollinearity problemMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 16. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsImpact of Legal Status on Openness in Produciton For-Profit and Informal tend to adopt a degree of openness in production highter that Non-Profit This supports H1, H2 and H3Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 17. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsImpact of Legal Status on Openness in Diffusion Table: Ordered Logistic Regression and Marginal Effects Results (2) (Dep. Var.) (Marginal Effects) OpenDiffDeg Maximum Medium Minimum Informal (d) -1.233∗∗∗ -0.259∗∗∗ 0.0693∗∗∗ 0.190∗∗∗ (0.166) (0.0292) (0.0126) (0.0329) For Profit (d) -0.760∗∗∗ -0.166∗∗∗ 0.0548∗∗∗ 0.111∗∗∗ (0.147) (0.0296) (0.00907) (0.0256) Non Profit (d) -0.830∗∗∗ -0.174∗∗∗ 0.0441∗∗∗ 0.130∗∗∗ (0.183) (0.0334) (0.00909) (0.0350) N 999 999 999 999 Log lik. -983.5 -983.5 -983.5 -983.5 Chi-squared 68.76 68.76 68.76 68.76 p 7.88e-15 7.88e-15 7.88e-15 7.88e-15 Marginal effects; Standard errors in parentheses (d) for discrete change of dummy variable from 0 to 1 ∗ p < 0.05, ∗∗ p < 0.01, ∗∗∗ p < 0.001 Public is dopped to avoid the multicollinearity problemMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 18. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsImpact of Legal Status on Openness in Diffusion For-Profit and Non-Profit tends to adopt a high degree of openness in diffusion higher than Informal This supports H1, H2 and H3Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 19. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsHypotheses Hypothesis 1 is confirmed For-Profit creators are more likely to adopt a high degree of openness in both production and diffusion We interpret this founding as the result of the intent: to be more attractive sharing the control of the production process and than to benefit from contribution of people who are motivated by extrinsic non-monetary and intrinsic motivations to maximize the diffusion in order to increase the contributionsMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 20. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsHypotheses Hypothesis 2 is confirmed Non-Profit creators are more likely to adopt a high degree of openness only in diffusion We interpret this founding as the result of the intent: to maximize only the diffusion in order to increase the contributions, because they are already able to attract community contribution because of their legal statusMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 21. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsHypotheses Hypothesis 3 is confirmed Informal creators: production: tend to adopt a degree of openness less open than For-Profit, but more open than Non-Profit diffusion: tend to adopt a low degree of openness We interpret this founding as the result of the intent: to share part of the production process to attract contributors keep the diffusion process to commercializeMassimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution
  • 22. Background Hypotheses Database Analysis ConclusionsMerci! *picture under cc-by-nd 2.0 Thank you for your attention! Comments? Questions? Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA EconomiX, University Paris Ouest massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.comThis document is under Creative Commons license 3.0 Attribution -Massimiliano GAMBARDELLA massimiliano.gambardella@gmail.com EconomiX, University Paris OuestThe Use of Creative Commons Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution

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