Project management fundamentals


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Project management fundamentals

  1. 1. impossible is just an excuseFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  2. 2. impossible is just an excuse Key Concepts Project Project process groups Program Project knowledge area Project manager Project management office Project management Portfolio Project life cycle Functional organization Project risk Matrix organization Stakeholder Projectized organization Triple constraintFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  3. 3. impossible is just an excuse Key Techniques Project management framework Differences between projects and operational activities Project management interaction with general management Project characteristics throughout the life cycle Stakeholder responsibilities Triple constraint interactions and dependencies Project Management knowledge areas (9) Project Management process groups (5) Project Management processes (44)Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  4. 4. impossible is just an excuse Project: Is a Series of Activities and Tasks that Have a specific objective to be completed within certain specifications Have defined start and end dates Have funding limits (if applicable) Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e., money, people, equipment) Are multifunctional (i.e., cut across several functional lines)Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  5. 5. impossible is just an excuse A Project Is Temporary Unlike day-to-day operation, a project has specific starting and ending dates. Of the two dates, the ending date is the more important. A project ends either when its objectives have been met or when the project is terminated due to its objectives not being met. If you can’t tell when an endeavor starts or ends, it’s not a project. This characteristic is important because projects are, by definition, constrained by a schedule.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  6. 6. impossible is just an excuse Produces a Product or Service In addition to having a discrete timeframe, a project must also have one or more specific products or services it produces. A project must “do” something. A project that terminates on schedule might still not be successful—it must also produce something unique.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  7. 7. impossible is just an excuse Programs, Portfolios, & PMO A group of related projects is called a program A is a collection of projects and programs that satisfy the strategic needs of an organization is called portfolio Office primary responsible of managing projects and programs is commonly called the project management office (PMO)Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  8. 8. impossible is just an excuse Project Stakeholders All people and organizations that have an interest in the project or its outcome are called project stakeholders. The stakeholders provide input to the requirements of the project and the direction the project should take throughout its life cycle Key stakeholders can include ➤ Project manager—The person responsible for managing the project. ➤ Customer or user—The person or organization that will receive and use the project’s output. ➤ Performing organization—The organization that performs the work of the project. ➤ Project team members—People who are directly involved in performing project work. ➤ Project management team—Members who are directly involved in managing the project. ➤ Sponsor—The person or organization that provides the authority and financial resources. ➤ Influencers—People not directly related to the project’s product but with the ability to affect the project in a positive or negative way. ➤ Project management office (PMO)—If the PMO exists, it can be a stakeholder if it has responsibility for the project’s outcome.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  9. 9. impossible is just an excuse The Project Manager The project manager is the person responsible for managing the project. Project manager is the most visible stakeholder. PM does not have the ultimate authority or responsibility for any project. Senior management has the ultimate authority for the project. PM is granted the authority by senior management to get the job done and to resolve many issues. PM is also in charge of the project but often does not control the resources.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  10. 10. impossible is just an excuse Project Management “Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.” Project management is taking what you know and proactively applying that knowledge to effectively guide your project through its life cycle. The purpose of applying this knowledge is to help the project meet its objectives.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  11. 11. impossible is just an excuse Functional Organization A functional organization structure is a classical hierarchy in which each employee has a single superior. Employees are then organized by specialty and work accomplished is generally specific to that specialty. Of all the organizational structures, this one tends to be the most difficult for the project manager. The project manager lacks the authority to assign resources and must acquire people and other resources from multiple functional managers. In many cases, the project’s priority is viewed lower than operations by the functional manager.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  12. 12. impossible is just an excuse Matrix Organization A matrix organization is a blended organizational structure. Although a functional hierarchy is still in place, the project manager is recognized as a valuable position and is given more authority to manage the project and assign resources. Matrix organizations can be further divided into weak, balanced, and strong matrix organizations. The difference between the three is the level of authority given to the PM.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  13. 13. impossible is just an excuse Projectized Organization In a Projectized organization, there is no defined hierarchy. Resources are brought together specifically for the purpose of a project. The necessary resources are acquired for the project, and the people assigned to the project work only for the PM for the duration of the project. At the end of each project, resources are either reassigned to another project or returned to a resource pool.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  14. 14. impossible is just an excuse The Triple Constraints Project scope—How much work is to be done? Increasing the scope causes more work to be done, and vice versa. Time—The schedule of the project. Modifying the schedule alters the start and end dates for tasks in the project and can alter the project’s overall end date. Cost—The cost required to accomplish the project’s objectives. Modifying the cost of the project generally has an impact on the scope, time, or quality of the projectFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  15. 15. impossible is just an excuse Managing Triple Constraints The key to understanding the triple constraints is that they are all interrelated. MP must stay on top of each one to ensure they are balanced. In addition to managing the triple constraints, the project manager is also responsible for explaining the need for balance to the stakeholders. All too often, stakeholders favor one constraint over another. Any change to one of the variables will have some effect on one, or both, of the remaining variables. Likewise, a change to any of the three variables has an impact on the overall quality of the project.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  16. 16. impossible is just an excuse Project Management Process Groups Process groups serve to group together processes in a project that represent related tasks and mark a project’s migration toward completion. The five process groups defined by the PMBOK are ➤ Initiating—Defines the project objectives and grants authority to the project manager ➤ Planning—Refines the project objectives and scope and plans the steps necessary to meet the project’s objectives ➤ Executing—Puts the project plan into motion and performs the work of the project ➤ Monitoring and controlling—Measures the performance of the executing activities and compares the results with the project plan ➤ Closing—Documents the formal acceptance of the project’s product and brings all aspects of the project to a closeFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  17. 17. impossible is just an excuse Project Lifecycle and Processes Relationship The PMBOK defines 44 project processes, grouped into five process groups. These processes define the path a project takes through its life cycle. Throughout the life of a project, different processes are needed at different times.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  18. 18. impossible is just an excuse PM Knowledge Areas ˘ (1−5) (1− 1. Integration Management: Processes and activities that pull the various elements of project management together, including developing plans, managing project execution, monitoring work and changes, and closing the project. 2. Scope Management : Processes that ensure the project includes the work required to successfully complete the project, and no more. This includes scope planning, definition, verification, and control. This area also includes the work breakdown structure creation 3. Time Management : Processes that ensure the project completes in a timely manner. Activity sequencing and scheduling activities occur in this area. 4. Cost Management : Processes that ensure the project completes within the approved budget. Basically, any cost management activity goes here. 5. Quality Management: Processes that ensure the project will meet its objectives. This area includes quality planning, assurance, and control.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  19. 19. impossible is just an excuse PM Knowledge Areas ˘ (6−9) (6− 6. Human Resource Management: Processes that organize and manage the project team. 7. Project Communication Management: Processes that specify how and when team members communicate and share information with one another and Management others not on the team. 8. Risk Management: Processes that conduct risk management activities for the project. These activities include risk analysis, response planning, monitoring, and control. 9. Procurement Management: Processes that manage the acquisition of products and services for the project, along with seller and contract management.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  20. 20. impossible is just an excuse Grouping Processes related to Knowledge Area Monitoring and Knowledge Initiating Planning Executing Controlling Closing Area Process Gp Process Gp Process Gp Process Gp Process Gp Project Develop Project Charter Develop Direct and Monitor and Close Management Develop Preliminary Project Manage Control Project Integration Project Scope Management Project Project Work Statement Plan Execution Integrated Change Control Project Scope Planning Scope Verification Scope Scope Definition Scope Control Management Create WBS Project Time Activity Definition Schedule Control Management Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimation Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Project Cost Cost Estimating Cost Control Management Cost Budgeting Project Quality Planning Perform Perform Quality Quality Quality Management Assurance Control Project Human Acquire Manage Human Resource Project Project Resources Planning Team Team Management Develop Project Team Project Communication Information Performance Communications Planning Distribution Reporting Management Manage Stakeholders Project Risk Management Risk Risk Planning Monitoring and Management Risk Identification Control Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Project Plan Purchases Request Contract Contract Procurement and Acquisitions Seller Responses Administration Closure Management Plan Contracting Select SellersFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  21. 21. impossible is just an excuse Initiation Process Group Formally authorizes new project or project phase. The two processes are 1. Develop project charter—Authorizing project or project phase. The project charter defines project’s purpose, identifies objectives, and authorizes the project manager to start the project. 2. Develop preliminary project scope statement— Documents the project and the deliverable requirements, product requirements, project boundaries, methods of acceptance, and high level scope control.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  22. 22. impossible is just an excuse Planning Process Group Defines objectives and plans course of action required to meet objectives and project scope. Facilitates project planning across process groups. The 21 processes are 1. Develop project management plan 12. Quality planning 2. Scope planning 13. Human resource planning 3. Scope definition 14. Communications planning 4. Create WBS 15. Risk management planning 5. Activity definition 16. Risk identification 6. Activity sequencing 17. Qualitative risk analysis 7. Activity resource estimating 18. Quantitative risk analysis 8. Activity duration estimating 19. Risk response planning 9. Schedule development 20. Plan purchases and acquisitions 10. Cost estimating 21. Plan contracting 11. Cost budgetingFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  23. 23. impossible is just an excuse Executing Process Group Integrates resources to carry out project management plan. These seven processes are 1. Direct and manage project execution 2. Perform quality assurance 3. Acquire project team 4. Develop project team 5. Information distribution 6. Request seller responses 7. Select sellersFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  24. 24. impossible is just an excuse Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so corrective action can be taken to meet project objectives. The following 12 processes are included: 1. Monitor and control project work 7. Perform quality control 2. Integrated change control 8. Manage project team 3. Scope verification 9. Performance reporting 4. Scope control 10. Manage stakeholders 5. Schedule control 11. Risk monitoring and control 6. Cost control 12. Contract administrationFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  25. 25. impossible is just an excuse Closing Group Formalizes acceptance of product, service, or result and brings project or project phase to an end. The following two processes are included: 1. Close project—Finalizing all activities across process groups to formally close project or project phase. 2. Contract closure—Completing each contract, including resolution of open items, and closing each contract relevant to project or project phase.Fundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  26. 26. impossible is just an excuse PM General Management Skills Required general management areas of expertise include ➤ Accounting ➤ Health, safety, and regulatory compliance practices ➤ Human resources services ➤ Information technology services and support ➤ Legal issues ➤ Logistics ➤ Manufacturing and distribution ➤ Purchasing and procurementFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar
  27. 27. impossible is just an excuse PM Interpersonal Skills Required interpersonal skills includes ➤ Fostering effective communication ➤ Influencing decisions ➤ Developing and providing leadership ➤ Providing individual and team motivation ➤ Managing conflict ➤ Solving problemsFundamentals of Project Management Mas Jaffar