SPEECH ORGANS AND ARTICULATIONThere are seven main articulators;1. Pharynx2. Velum/Soft Palate3. Hard Palate4. Alveolar Ridge5. Upper Teeth6. Lower Teeth7. Lips
Manners of Articulation• Plosive / stop air flow momentarily halted, then /p/ /b/ /g/ released forcefully• Fricative friction is caused by a slight /f/ /z/ obstruction in the air stream• Affricate a mixture between plosive and /t / fricative; the air flow is first halted, then released with friction /d3/
Manners of Articulation• Lateral formed by the sides of the tongue /l/ making contact with the upper teeth• Post-alveolar or retroflex /r/ tongue bent upwards and backwards• Nasal /m/ /n/ /y/ air release through the nasal passage• Glides/Frictionless continuant /w/ /r/ /j/ no friction, but lasting sound
Voice production..• organs of speech - in the mouth and throat.• air pushed out from the lungs through thelarynx and epiglottis vibrates the vocal cords-• producing a continuous tone whose pitch canbe changed by varying the shape of the larynx.• Consonants - modified by the tongue and lips,are formed when air is emitted suddenly or whenit is cut off firmly.• Voice production occurs in the larynx.
• During breathing the vocal cords are heldapart, but as speech commences, thecartilages of the larynx are drawn together bythe action of muscles and a "chink" is created.• The tension of the vibrating cords, changedby the tilting of the cartilages, alters the pitchof the spoken sound. High notes are producedby the vibration of tight vocal cords and lownotes are produced by vibrating loose cords.Chink - a small narrow crack or opening
Velum/Soft Palate• Velar consonant.• Often in speech, the velum is raised so that air cannot escape through the nose.• When the /k/ and the /g/ (velar consonants) sound is produced, the tongue is in contact with the lower side of the velum.
HardPalate Hard Palate• Roof of the mouth. • interaction between• TheRoof of the mouth. the tongue and the • The interaction between formation hard palate is essential in thethe tongue ofand the hard palate issound. in the /t/, /d/, /j/, and /ɟ/ essential formation of /t/, /d/ and /j/ sound.
Alveolar Ridge• Alveolar sound.• Between the top front teeth and the hard palate.• It’s surface is covered with little ridge.• The sound produced is called alveolar – /t/ and /d/
Teeth (Upper and Lower)• Most speakers have teeth to the sides of their mouth.• The back is almost to the soft palate.• The tongue is in contact for many speech sounds.• Dental sound; /t/, /d/, /n/, and /l/
Lips• Pressed together (bilabial) /p/• Brought into contact with teeth (labiodentals) /f/, /v/• Rounded /u/
Larynx (Adam’s apple)• A very complex and dependent articulators• The vibration of larynx can be detected while producing the sound /z/
Nose and Nasal Cavity • Nasal consonant /m/ and /n/
Jaws• Being called as articulators because of the movement of the jaws• Jaws not like other articulators – don’t make contact with other articulators.