MISCONCEPTION INMISCONCEPTION IN
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION:EXTERNAL RESPIRATION:
Breathing mechanismsBreathing mechanisms
DALILA BT AIDIDALILA BT AIDI
MASITAH BT MOHD NOORMASITAH BT MOHD NOOR
NUR FATHIAH BT ABU BAKAR AL BAKRINUR FATHIAH BT ABU BAKAR AL BAKRI
FASLIATIN BT THAZALIFASLIATIN BT THAZALI
SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTSCIENTIFIC CONCEPT
• According to Biology book wriiten by Campbell & Reece (pg: 920)
- breathing is the use of muscle contraction to expand the thoracic
cavity, lowering air pressure in their lungs below that of the air
outside their body. Air rushes through the nostrils & mouth and
down the breathing tube to the alveoli. During exhalation,the muscle
controlling the thoracic cavity relax, and the volume of the cavity is
reduced. Increased air pressure in alveoli forces air up the breathing
tube and flow out of the body. Inhalation is always actives and
requires work, whereas exhalation is usually passive.
• Breathing mechanism involved:
- Inhalation ; external intercoastal muscle contract
; Ribs upwards and inwards
; diaphragm flattened
; Volume of thorax increase
; Pressure decrease
; air enters into the lungs
- Exhalation ; external intercoastal muscle relax
; ribs move downwards and inwards
; Diaphragm upwards
; Volume of thorax decrease
; Pressure increase
; Air forced from the lungs to the
• the pre-test included the question:
‘‘Breathing is the same process as cellular respiration” (True/False)
• the multiple choice question was the following:
‘‘What is true about breathing and cellular respiration?”
(a) breathing is the exchange of gases and cellular respiration
is the formation of chemical energy
(b) they are the same process
(c) they both take place in the mitochondria
(d) none of the above.’’
• A common student misconception in biology is that breathing is the
same process as cellular respiration
TECHNIQUE TO OVERCOME MISCONCEPTION
• Technique used ~ POE(Predict-Observe-Explain)
• Predict~ ask students to predict or to tell anything a.
• Observe~ ask the students to write about the definition of
breathing and the definition of respiration
• Explain~ teacher will explain briefly so that the students will
be well understand about the breathing system.
• Respiration is the breakdown of food inside your body to
release energy for your body to use
Breathing is the gaseous exchange that occurs in the body,
that is by inhaling and exhaling of air
•Survey has been done on a school in Singapore.
• corresponding to students aged 9-12
• primary 3 level- life cycle of plant and animal
•Primary 4 level- the respiratory and circulatory system of human being,
plant parts and their functions
•Primary 5 level- learns about the process of photosynthesis and respiration
•In the syllabus the differentiation is made between respiration and breathing.
•At the primary level, the distinction between breathing as a
physical process and respiration as a chemical process is not made.
•Most of the students think respiration and breathing system
are the same and breathing mechanism only involve O2 and CO2.
•Actually, inhaled air contain about 21% of 02, 0.03 of CO2,
•Exhaled air contain 4% of CO2, 16% of O2
•Misconception occur due to the universal use of the term
‘respiration’ to refer to aspects concerning the breathing system.
Breathing is the process of _________________.
A. converting glucose into oxygen.
B. converting oxygen into glucose.
C. taking in air into our bodies and giving out
D. taking in air into our bodies and giving out
Most of the students answered D.
TECHNIQUE USED TO OVERCOME MISCONCEPTIONTECHNIQUE USED TO OVERCOME MISCONCEPTION
Technique used to overcome this misconception is by
drawing with description.
+Draw in front of students – the diagram of breathing mechanism
- the diagram of respiration
+Label and describe the diagram
+Ask students to do it again by themselves.
+Recorrect the students answer if there any mistake/confusing
• Second misconception.
• - Students think that anything concerned with air, oxygen or carbon
dioxide going in and out of organisms is breathing.
• - Respiration is perceived as synonymous with breathing.
• - While photosynthesis is thought as a plant kind of respiration.
• - An overwhelming number of Grade 4 students believed that ‘making
of food’ and breathing were one and the same.
• - Difference between breathing and photosynthesis: Breathing is only
a physical exchange of gases, where as photosynthesis is as the word
suggests, ‘making food in the presence of light’.
• - Breathing is a physical process while respiration is a chemical
TECHNIQUE USEDTECHNIQUE USED
• By definition:
-teacher give students a piece of paper and ask them to write what
they know about the definition of breathing, respiration and
-notice the misconception. Teacher give handouts to students which
contain the definition of the biology terms.(underline the important
• Breathing is the ventilation of the lungs through alternating
inhalation and exhalation. It is a physical process.
• Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy to chemical
energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds. It is a