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Toward Process Mashups


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Florian Daniel, Agnes Koschmider, Tobias Nestler, Marcus Roy and Abdallah Namoun. …

Florian Daniel, Agnes Koschmider, Tobias Nestler, Marcus Roy and Abdallah Namoun.
Toward Process Mashups: Key Ingredients and Open Research Challenges

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  • 1. Toward Process Mashups: KeyIngredients and Open ResearchChallenges Abdallah Namoun University of Manchester -Daniel Florian, Tobias Nestler, Agnes Koschmider, Marcus Roy-
  • 2. Overview and Strategy Understand and define process mashups Introduce three dimensions:  Multi-user support  Multi-page support  Workflow support Combine these dimensions to define new classes of mashups Investigate existing mashup development tools and classify them according to the mashups they support Highlight some challenges and issues
  • 3. Motivation Mashup development has become very matured recently Types of known Mashups: data mashups, service mashups, user interface mashups A new concept emerged: process mashups? The aim is to  explain process mashups and  identify the dimensions of process mashups In the paper,  we define a set of new mashups based on the dimensions  For each mashup, we discuss suitable application scenario and show tool support
  • 4. Definitions and background Mashup: a web application integrating data, application logic, and user interfaces A business process: a set of activities represented in a visual form Business processes primarily focus on the control flow perspective and technical level of Service to Service interactions A workflow: an executable part of a process consisting of several activities and defining a series of tasks that need to be managed by different resources
  • 5. Background (cont’d) Service composition is a complex, expensive, and error prone process requiring specialist skills and knowledge Thus, the emergence of lightweight composition and mashup platforms Graphical mashup platforms for web development include: Yahoo! Pipes, Open mashup, Marmite Such tools mainly support the development of data-oriented mashups;  no multiple views are supported  no control-flow is supported  only single users are addressed Other tools, e.g. SOA4All PE and Serena Mashup Composer, handle business processes but are considered professional development environments
  • 6. Example – Leave request scenario A business process typically involves multiple user roles and a workflow style composition Might require multiple views and multiple users and a central workflow  Employee enters his request  Manager reviews and decides on the request  Notification is sent to the employee Currently, mashup development approaches do not adequately support the creation of applications supporting the above scenario  Such applications are called Process Mashups
  • 7. Process Mashups Process mashups were first introduced as the next type of mashups that consider the integration of business processes (in addition to data and presentation layers) In our opinion, process mashups are more than simply adding business processes to data and presentation layers Process Mashups should consider multiple users and multiple pages and organise human tasks
  • 8. Ingredients of Process Mashups (1) Support for multiple users: enabling multiple users to concurrently operate on the same instance of a mashup application. This is different from sharing mashups. Motivation: current mashups do not allow multiple users to concurrently work together on the same instance Activities in a process model can be associated to different actors who will be authorised and assigned different tasks Challenges arising:  Concurrent access: How to support concurrent access of many users to the same view of the mashup?  Role-based access: How to support cooperative access of many users to different views of the mashup based on the role of each user?
  • 9. Ingredients of Process Mashups (2) Support for navigation among multiple connected pages: ability to organise mashup components into a hierarchical navigation structure which can be explored via hyperlinks Challenges arising:  Navigation structure: How to structure the components into a set of well-structured and connected pages?  Navigation state: How to keep the state of the navigation in multi-page mashups?
  • 10. Ingredients of Process Mashups (3) Support for workflows: ability to specify a control and data flow over human tasks; thus to define sequences, branches, and conditional executions of work items Data mashups are mainly data flow-based mashups without control flow Challenges arising:  Workflow: how to define a workflow for human actors over mashups or components of mashups?  Dataflow: how to propagate data from one task to another task?  Integration of data, services, UIs, and people: how to coordinate , not only human actors, but also data, web services, and the UIs the human actors need to interact with?
  • 11. The New Perspective Putting the three dimensions together results in a variety of different mashup types with different characteristics
  • 12. Simple Mashups Simple Mashups: address single user , single page, and do not support workflow E.g. employee has an integrated view of his colleague’s leave requests Such mashups serve as informational sources No direct interaction or cooperation with the manager Representative tool: mashArt
  • 13. Simple Mahups – mashArt Enables one to abstract from low-level implementation details Compose simple data feeds, complex web services –round construct- , and UI components (rectangles) by wiring events of 1 component to operations of another component Other examples: Yahoo! Pipes (data mashups), Intel MashMaker(UI mashups)
  • 14. Multi Page Mashups Multi page mashups: support a single user, multiple pages, and no workflow E.g. a list of leave requests. Upon selecting one item from the list, the mashup opens a new page and displays additional details about an employee Users of such mashups do not interact or cooperate with other roles Representative tool: EzWeb platform
  • 15. Multi Page Mahups – EzWeb Users combine and wire gadgets (mini applications) Gadgets may consist of multiple screens arranged according to a screenflow Connections between screens are automatically created
  • 16. Guided Mashups Guided mashups: address a single user, a single page, and a workflow  Offer user guidance to the user in order to accomplish her task  React on user’s input and accordingly provide next possible activities E.g. employee invokes a leave request, the mashup guides the user through the process (after selection of name, mashups shows leave entitlement period, employee selects type of leave request) Representative tool: We are not aware of guided mashups tools
  • 17. Page Flow Mashups Page Flow Mashups: address a single user, multiple pages, and a workflow E.g. a mashup supporting the manager to handle a leave request. One page provides a list of incoming leave requests. Another page to request additional information if necessary. A 3rd page provides stats about all leave requests Representative tool: ServFace Builder
  • 18. Page Flow Mahups – ServFace Builder WYSIWYG approach Service composition at the presentation layer Compose web services using their frontends Applications = a set of pages connected to create a navigation flow Connections between services define dataflow Connections between pages define control flow
  • 19. Shared Page Mashups Shared page mashups: address multiple users, a single page, and support no workflow E.g. the shopping together mashup (on enables users to shop together through MSN Messenger. Users browse the catalogue and chat to each other Different employees working simultaneously on a single leave request Representative tool: we are not aware of any mashup tool for this category.
  • 20. Shared Space Mashups Shared space mashups: address multiple users, multiple pages, and do not support workflow Enable multiple users to concurrently share space = collection of mashup pages connected together and have a navigational structure. E.g. employee shares pages with his manager and a temporary replacement. Manager previews previous leave requests of the employee Representative tool: IBM Mashup Centre, a collection of tools to create shared mashup pages.
  • 21. Cooperative Mashups Cooperative mashups: address multiple users, a single page, and support workflow E.g. employees jointly view a conflict on one page and decide which leave request to remove. The interaction between the employees is guided Representative tool: Gravity (within the Google Wave environment)
  • 22. Cooperative Mashups -Gravity- A lightweight collaborative business process modelling tool Targets non-BPM-experts Multiple users can model a business process (model view) and its UI (application- design view) at the same time Users can drag and drop components and draw lines Supports multiple-users control flow, and data flow
  • 23. Process Mashups Process mashups: address multiple users, multiple pages, and support workflow E.g. a mashup providing the employee with a web page allowing him to configure his travel arrangements (flight, hotel) and the manager with a page to decide on the employee’s request. These two pages / tasks can be put into a cycle that terminates one a decision is made. Representative tool: MarcoFlow platform
  • 24. Process Mashups – MarcoFlow Platform Based on the idea of distributed orchestration of UIs Users can bring together UIs, web services, and people in a single orchestration logic, language, and tool Covers: design –visual editor-, deployment –code generators-, and execution (distributed runtime environment) The coordination problem is split into two levels: intra-page UI synchronisation and distributed UI synchronisation and web service orchestration , and to provide runtime environments to both client side and server side environments Other tools: JOpera allows the definition of interaction logic between components and multiple users - no support for UI comp
  • 25. Findings and Issues (1) We were not able to always provide representative platforms for all mashup classes (e.g. guided mashups and shared page mashups) End users –especially non-programmers- are always looking for ease of development, so “easiness to use” and “user- friendliness” are must have criteria for successful mashups tools Mashups tools should focus on the end user in order to accommodate their skills (e.g. inability to program) Sadly, more user friendliness and simplicity often mean less expressiveness and complexity (of resulting applications)
  • 26. Findings and Issues (2) MarcoFlow satisfies alls dimensions of process mashups but is still considered a complex tool for web users, so can we really consider MarcoFlow a mashup platform? Runtime support: coordinating different actors requires software support that is long running and sometimes stateful. The need for adequate identification and authentication mechanisms in case of multiple users in the execution environment Developing process mashups is not a trivial task and requires application planning (defining user roles), design (UI design), composition (workflow, coordination of actors), implementation and execution (runtime configuration).
  • 27. THANK YOU!