Ete 605 Project (Najah Ahmed Naaji[1]. Id# 071315056)


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Ete 605 Project (Najah Ahmed Naaji[1]. Id# 071315056)

  1. 1. Individual Assignment VoIP services and business with IMS Name: Najah Ahmed Naaji ID# 071315056 Faculty: Dr. Mashiur Rahman ETE- 605 Sec- 2 Semester: Spring 2008 Date: 15/04/2008 1
  2. 2. Table of contents Page 1. Introduction 3 2. IMS features and capabilities 3 2.1 Multimedia session management 3 2.2 Quality of Service 4 2.3 Mobility management 4 2.4 Service control 4 2.5 Standard interfaces 4 3. Overview of IMS 4 4. Emerging services 5 4.1 Access Independence 5 4.2 Converged Push-To-Talk over Cellular 5 4.3 Presence Server 5 4.4 Unified Messaging 6 4.5 Interactive Voice Response (IVR) 6 4.6 Enhanced Voice Mail 6 4.7 Instant Messaging 6 4.8 Web/Audio/Video Conferencing 6 4.9 Full Duplex Video Telephony 6 5. Resolution of VoIP Protocol Problems 6 6. Residential SIP Telephony 7 6.1 Operator Benefits 8 6.2 User Benefits 8 7. The Business Effects of IMS 8 7.1 Financial and Operational Efficiencies of IMS 8 7.2 OPEX/CAPEX Savings 9 7.3 Speed-to-Market 9 7.4 Branding Value 9 7.5 Billing Models 9 7.6 Market Development 9 8. Conclusion 9 Glossary 11 Sources 13 Key Standards Bodies and Organizations 13 2
  3. 3. VoIP services and business with IMS 1. Introduction: PSTN, mobile and VoIP networks all have one key requirement in common, which is the need for a flexible platform to support application services. IMS started out as a platform for deploying services over next generation networks, but it has become the platform of choice for deploying value-add services over all existing networks. The key advantages of IMS, for network providers, are as follows. ** A broader choice of services: IMS uses an open standard set of protocols between components, and therefore allows network providers to “pick and mix” the components in their IMS network. In particular, network providers can select the most appropriate application services from multiple vendors, based on their own specific requirements. ** Reduced time to market: An IMS-enabled network provider is no longer tied to the timescales and functions of the services available from their primary equipment provider. Adoption of “killer apps” will be faster for those providers that have an IMS infrastructure already in-place. ** Consolidated operations: IMS separates out core functions, such as service billing and management. This means that back-end systems need only be integrated with the IMS infrastructure and not with individual services. New services can be deployed without having to train personnel on the provisioning, billing and management aspects of the new service. ** Fixed-mobile convergence: IMS is independent of the underlying media transport. IMS-based application services can span both fixed- line and mobile networks, as well as VoIP, although the level of end-user function delivered may vary depending on the capabilities of the endpoint. As the telecoms industry becomes more consolidated, there is an increasing need for this application service convergence. Deploying IMS-enabled solutions will result in a broader set of services for the end-user, which in turn frees the network provider from competing on a commodity “bit-pipe” basis. 2. IMS features and capabilities: The IMS architecture specifies a number of common functions and service enablers which can be reused across multiple access networks to enable multimedia services. Some of the key features offered by the IMS architecture are: • Multimedia session management • Quality of Service (QoS) • Mobility management • Service control • Standard interfaces. 2.1 Multimedia session management: Multimedia session control and management in IMS is made possible through the use of SIP as the standard session control protocol. A SIP/IMS session is a connection between two communication endpoints, such as a mobile phone, PDA, soft-phone, or a fixed phone. Once a communication session has been established, IMS enables the media session between to end-points to consist of any type of media 3
  4. 4. content, and IMS also enables a session to be dynamically modified at run-time. This means media types can be added/dropped dynamically, depending the on the nature of the application. The ability to manage multimedia communication sessions in real-time will enable new kinds of interactive, multiparty, and converged media applications to be developed, such as video telephony/chatting, push-to-talk, multimedia telephony/conferencing, among others. 2.2 Quality of Service: With traditional mobile and IP networks, bandwidth availability fluctuations and network congestion have limited a CSP’s ability to offer guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to subscribers and to 3rd party partners, and low quality “real-time” mobile IP services, resulting in poor voice and video transmissions. Network QoS implies the ability for CSPs to measure, adjust, and deliver a certain level of transmission rates, gateway delays, and error rates. By having the ability to manage these QoS variables, CSPs are able to increase customer satisfaction, as well as monetize different levels of QoS, such that subscribers are able to request different QoS levels for different types of services. IMS provides CSPs with a standardized network element, the Policy Decision Function (PDF), which controls and monitors the packet network traffic into an IMS network from a GPRS and UMTS network. Through the PDF, IMS enables CSPs to deliver real-time IP network services at specified QoS levels. 2.3 Mobility management: As end-users roam between their home networks and other visited networks, while using peer-to-peer, real- time, multimedia services, it becomes critical for the service provider to enable end-users to be able to find each other as they roam between networks, as well as to have their home network services be available in visited networks. IMS provides the HSS and CSCF elements to enable mobility management. The HSS is the data store for subscriber registration and location information, which is supplied to the CSCFs for session set-up and management, and message forwarding to IMS and non-IMS networks. 2.4 Service control: As CSPs increase the number of new applications and services deployed and delivered through their networks, with a large number being supplied by 3rd party service and content providers, CSPs will be challenged to effectively control and manage the invocation of services within their network, as well as manage the interactions between the disparate service components. IMS networks address this need through the HSS and CSCF elements. As an end-user registers into the IMS network, the CSCF downloads the Subscriber Service Profile (SSP) from the HSS, which contains each individual’s services provisioning information. For each subscriber, the SSP enables CSCFs to know which services need to be executed, in which order, address of the appropriate IMS application server(s), and the order in which the application server needs to execute the specified services. IMS enables CSPs to implement a common service control, execution and interaction platform for all services and subscribers accessing their networks. 2.5 Standard interfaces: With IMS, 3GPP has delivered a standardized architecture and interfaces for deploying multimedia IP services across multiple access networks. This facilitates the development of new and innovative SIP/IMS services by 3rd party developers and service providers, independent of the IMS network deployments by CSPs, thereby fostering cross-network service integration, interoperability, and roaming. 3. Overview of IMS: IMS is the control plane of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) architecture for its next- generation telecommunications network which is evolved from traditional VoIP solutions. This architecture has been designed to enable operators to provide a wide range of real-time, packet-based services and to track their use in a way that allows both traditional time-based charging as well as packet and service-based charging. IMS provides a framework for the deployment of both basic calling services and enhanced services, including • Multimedia messaging • Web integration • Presence-based services 4
  5. 5. • Push-to-talk. At the same time, it draws on the traditional telecommunications experience of • Guaranteed QoS • Flexible charging mechanisms (time-based, call-collect, premium rates) • Lawful intercept legislation compliance. Network operators also hope that IMS will cut their CapEx and OpEx through the use of a converged IP backbone and the open IMS architecture. The IMS architecture defines many common components (for example, call control and configuration storage) so less development work is required to create a new service as this existing infrastructure can be reused. The use of standardized interfaces should increase competition between suppliers; preventing operators from being locked into a single supplier’s proprietary interfaces. As a result, IMS should enable new services to be rolled out more quickly and cheaply, compared with the traditional monolithic design of telephony services. 4. Emerging services: New services are emerging at an increasingly rapid pace. For example, advanced messaging services will evolve from SMS, MMS and email/voicemail, to include functions such as real-time chat and messaging functions related to specific business and consumer applications. IMS is the enabler that allows rapid adoption of this kind of new service, as it emerges. 4.1 Access Independence: The principle of convergence offers the opportunity to deliver the best features and benefits from various networks, while providing transparent, contiguous voice and data communication across environments. Access Independence through enables operators to deliver terminal, personal, session, and service mobility across networks —CDMA, GPRS, 802.11, etc.—all based on the commonality of the IP backbone. Operators can design mobility applications tailored to the needs of enterprise customers, offer business users begin a data session at a WiFi hot spot and continue it over the cellular infrastructure, or design highly tailored access-independent services for target consumer groups. Subscribers get the benefit of ubiquitous, network-agnostic mobile communication, while operators reap the revenue benefits. 4.2 Converged Push-To-Talk over Cellular (Converged PoC): Using a telecommunication grade server totally independent of the existing radio and core network, Converged PoC is implemented on the IP backbone, over any of today’s and tomorrow’s radio technologies including CDMA2000 1X, GPRS, UMTS and WLAN. The service readily scales from small installations (in the 1000’s) to very high subscriber configurations of more than 10 million subscribers. Converged PoC offers the subscriber all the benefits of two-way radio, across the country or around the world. Users can self-provision their own call groups, making changes and updates at any time. Converged Presence and Directory Services tell the user which call group members are available for instant PoC contact, and make one-button communication with family members or workgroups fast and easy. For the operator, Converged PoC is a service with high appeal to both business users and consumers. Compliance with all industry PoC standards specifications for PTT and Converged Presence and Directory Services ensure trouble-free installation and operation. 4.3 Presence Server: Presence Server allows users to know when others are willing or able to communicate, as well as where and with which media type they prefer to be in touch. Just by looking up a contact’s name in the handset directory (Presence in Phonebook), a user can quickly see if the contact is available for a voice call or text message. The IMS Presence Server can route calls in the preferred medium not only to individual users, but to services and places, as well. 5
  6. 6. To the subscriber, the Presence Server means faster, easier communication, in the medium their contacts prefer, with fewer “no-answers.” For the operator, it means more efficient use of radio resources, since the Presence Server can obtain resence from the IMS core as well as circuit code, HSS, and location servers. 4.4 Unified Messaging: Unified Messaging makes it possible for the subscriber to access messages of various media types (including voicemail, fax or e-mail) from a single mailbox. Unified Messaging allows the user access with a variety of devices, including wireless or wireline phone, or a PDA or PC through a web interface. The convenience of a single mailbox is a major selling point to end-users, and a differentiating service for network operators. 4.5 Interactive Voice Response (IVR): For many applications, no interface can be faster, more efficient or more intuitive than Interactive Voice Response. Users appreciate the easy access to applications, while operators appreciate the easy manipulation of bearer paths made possible by the use of SIP in IMS. Bearer resources can be optimized once the IVR portion of a session has completed, preserving capacity and reducing associated service costs. 4.6 Enhanced Voice Mail: With the support of IMS, operators can enhance the standard voice mail experience with a friendlier web- based interface, allowing easy setup of sophisticated voice mail features, such as personalized greetings, message forwarding, and more. The benefit to the operator is the ability to offer a more tailored experience that is self-customized by the end-user, without operator intervention or maintenance. 4.7 Instant Messaging: Desktop-based Instant Messaging first became popular among teen Internet users, but these quick, text based dialogues are already being embraced by workgroups, enterprises and family/social groups. IMS enables operators to expand the value of a well-known and appreciated service. Instant Messaging is enhanced in IMS so that messages can be associated with existing sessions. 4.8 Web/Audio/Video Conferencing: IMS enables network operators to combine web, audio, and video in sophisticated conferencing solutions. With Web/Audio/Video Conferencing, conference participants can view presentation materials while listening to the audio of a conference, hold simultaneous private text conversations, all while a conference moderator controls addition, deletion and mute status of participants. 4.9 Full Duplex Video Telephony: With the advent of multimedia sessions running over IP, IMS makes it possible to create true, full duplex video telephony sessions on handsets. For businesses and geographically dispersed families, this means there can finally be a videophone solution that does not depend on proprietary networks and equipment… and is mobile. Operators can profit from the ability to offer a cost-effective solution for which demand has never been satisfied effectively by past solutions. 5. Resolution of VoIP Protocol Problems: SBCs can also act as gateways to heterogeneous networks; hiding any differences between the protocols used in the core and access networks. This can include the following. • Hiding access network topology, including the complexity of routing through NATs and firewall and to overlapping address spaces of VPNs or private IP address spaces. • Interworking between devices and networks of different capabilities (such as conversion between SIP and H.323 signaling, or between IPv4 and IPv6, or even different versions of H.323). 6
  7. 7. • Transcoding media flows between incompatible codecs. Putting this function in the SBC, which is close to the access device, simplifies the core network devices by limiting the range of protocol variations that they must support. 6. Residential SIP Telephony: IMS-based SIP telephony is basically a form of IP telephony in which SIP is used as the control protocol for establishing, maintaining, and tearing down telephony services. IMS is based upon SIP, therefore IMS can become a key enabler of SIP telephony services for both residential and commercial markets. In fact, SIP telephony can be seen as yet another IMS-enabled service. SIP telephony can bring many benefits to both users and service providers and has thus motivated the migration from the current conventional telephony networks to the next-generation telephony networks based on IMS technology. Several organizations, including ITU-T, ETSI TISPAN and CableLabs, are currently standardizing Residential SIP telephony services based on the common IMS architecture outlined in Release 7 of the 3GPP specifications. Such telephony services will leverage the IMS capabilities and will build upon the IMS multimedia telephony applications. In parallel, 3GPP has initiated work on IMS multimedia telephony, which aims at providing wireless SIP telephony services to mobile users. An important objective of all these standardization efforts is to ensure interoperability of SIP telephony services in multi-vendor and multi-operator environments. IMS is a key element for achieving this objective since it provides a common architecture and service platform for SIP telephony. In order to experience a smooth migration from conventional telephony to SIP telephony, the initial goal of SIP telephony would be to provide the same telephony services currently experienced by the end users, but in a more economically efficient way. For example, voice calling capabilities could be provided initially followed by a number of familiar supplementary services, such as Call Waiting, Call Blocking, Call Forwarding, Caller ID, Multi-Party, etc. In the next step, a richer set of SIP telephony services would be provided that would yield new experiences to the user, such as innovative multimedia services and enhanced collaboration tools with presence and Instant Messaging. 6.1 Operator Benefits: Many telephony operators are currently migrating to IMS-based SIP telephony in order to take advantage of an environment that is much easier to manage and use. The main benefits of residential IMS-based SIP telephony include: ** Decreased long-distance costs. Long-distance costs among branches decrease because the IMS system is IP-based, which allows for better utilization of existing data lines and wide-area network infrastructures. ** Network efficiency. Network resources are more effectively utilized because the users are not given bandwidth when they are not talking. This can be a large savings when you consider that 50 percent of a conversation is silence. Removing the redundancy in certain speech patterns (e.g. with efficient voice compression) can further boost network efficiency. ** Better voice quality. IMS telephone calls can be established with no transcoding functions in the network, e.g. no conversion of voice from one format to another.This can lead to better voice quality. ** Easy expansion to multimedia telephony. IMS inherently manages multimedia sessions so basic SIP telephony services can be easily expanded to IMS multimedia telephony services. It is also easy to modify an ongoing session to another type, e.g. convert a voice call to a video call, share a video in parallel to voice conversation, share a common white board, etc. ** A new communications paradigm. It is easy to enhance telephony services with presence, instant messaging, conferencing and other collaboration tools to provide a new communications paradigm to residential users. 7
  8. 8. 6.2 User Benefits: Devices capable of supporting SIP telephony are “smarter” devices. Web-enabled and SIP-enabled devices (e.g. desktop computers) can provide new experiences to end users, such as e-commerce with integrated telephony services. The user also enjoys enhanced terminal mobility. Essentially a user can log on to any SIP phone in any location and receive phone calls to his residential number. 7. The Business Effects of IMS: IMS, particularly when implemented in conjunction with converged networks, satisfies the growing demand for a ubiquitous, personalized communication experience across all facets of a user’s lifestyle, either at home, at work or on the road. The end user will be able to access telecommunication services in any venue, leading to further changes in the market. And as the market changes, the roles of the various players in the value chain will change. As we are talking about changing the configuration of the industry players, strategic partnering in a beneficial business model is crucial. The degree to which providers of Internet-based communication services and telecommunications service providers will coexist or compete will clearly be business-driven. A number of business model scenarios with varying degrees of cooperation and competition between Internet players and telecom service providers are possible. These include: ** Fixed or mobile operators providing access, transport and services in the current business model. ** Operators leveraging of reusable enablers for interoperability, location information, regulatory services, presence, secure connectivity, payment security, and guaranteed Quality of Service. On top of this, value added services (VAS) would be provided by selected ISPs. ** Operators providing managed Quality of Service, interoperability and awareness of access capabilities of the network and terminal to the ISPs, which then deliver VAS and content services. ** Network operators charging purely for best-effort access and transport (“bit-pipe model”). In reality, some or all of these models will be applicable for fixed and mobile service providers at the same time in the same market. Wire-line and cable operators will seek to gain a competitive advantage through the creation of bundled offerings including interoperability with the mobile community. Both fixed and mobile operators have a huge customer base they can leverage as they expand their offerings to include IP multimedia services. IMS gives all types of operators a set of tools that will enable them to, when necessary; simultaneously support all the business models listed above. Mobile operators face different challenges from those of fixed operators as they have not already opened the broadband access network for unlimited flat-rate use. Wireless mobile access is a scarce and shared resource, but its value can be eroded if not carefully managed. IMS gives operators the necessary tools to protect and enhance the value of this resource. Services are access-aware and are optimized in terms of parameters such as latency and throughput. IMS-based services will add a significant value compared to the services that are delivered via the open, and therefore, un-trusted Internet. Key elements of the mobile operator’s value proposition will be: interoperability between service providers, seamless roaming, secure connectivity, payment security, consolidated billing, compliance with regulatory requirements, and Quality of Service. All these elements provide values that make up the basis of today’s telecommunications business model. 7.1 Financial and Operational Efficiencies of IMS: The transition to an IP network for multimedia voice, video, and data sessions has significant implications for the telecommunications industry. The ability for IMS to leverage UMTS/HSPA and other broadband access networks to deliver high-bandwidth services creates the potential for renewed growth and 8
  9. 9. profitability. In addition, the possibility of integrating traditional fixed network services facilitates expansion of business boundaries for mobile service providers. The reciprocal effect is also true. The inherent support for global service transparency and roaming enables fixed line providers to offer mobility services to their current customer base over the same IMS infrastructure. 7.2 OPEX/CAPEX Savings: The previous sections have explained that IMS can provide new multimedia applications such as Push-to- Talk over Cellular, Video Share and others. In this sense, it is acknowledged that there are other technological solutions which can, at least in part, provide services similar in functionality to those enabled through IMS. IMS is preferable to these individual silo vertical solutions. It is very difficult to reuse the silo solution components (e.g. databases, proxies, gateways, etc.) as the service environment expands. This translates into increased CAPEX and OPEX relative to what may be enjoyed when implementing an IMS-based service domain. This problem of increased CAPEX and increased OPEX grows exponentially with the more island solutions the operator deploys. One reason for this is that when deploying multiple silo solutions (e.g. one silo for PoC, one for Presence, one for Conferencing, etc.) the number of interface points that must be implemented and maintained by the operator grows very rapidly. Beyond the increased implementation and maintenance costs, this translates into longer time-to-market and lost revenue for the operator as inter- working between networks and applications is more difficult. 7.3 Speed-to-Market: Faster service integration also means the service provider can react faster to market and user needs. The operator can implement services as the need arises, guarantying faster ROI. The operator can also differentiate from the competition by creating special, attractive service bundles for specific user groups. 7.4 Branding Value: With IMS and Fixed-Mobile Convergence, all user communication and entertainment needs can be integrated into a personalized, seamless user experience, increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty. Services can be personalized easily and mixed and matched by the user. Mass-market customization will lead to more brand value. 7.5 Billing Models: The ability to personalize services, and to offer premium content, high-speed communication services and QoS-enabled real-time services, will facilitate the creation of new billing and charging models. The service provider will have the choice of charging by service, content, or volume (or a mix thereof), prepaid or postpaid. The advantage is the opportunity to create a variety of business models based on the target group and/or end user. 7.6 Market Development: With IMS deployments, the industry structure and nature of competition will change. Traditional communication services (e.g. voice) will become even more price competitive, but this will be offset by increased differentiation possibilities of value-added mobile IMS converged services. Price distinctions of service bundles between mobile and fixed access networks may need to be reevaluated and could vanish. 8. Conclusion: Although originally developed for mobile operators, the main interest in IMS is from fixed line operators, as the existing fixed-line network is older and is due for replacement, whereas much of the mobile infrastructure has only recently been deployed. In particular, the current generation of fixed telephone networks is limited to narrowband voice services and is at great risk of being displaced by mobile and Internet telephony services. An IMS-based network would enable fixed line operators to offer a much wider range of services, to help protect their market. 9
  10. 10. IMS is the next-generation network architectural standard which is becoming the industry standard for the creation and delivery of real-time, multimedia, multiparty communication services. An IP-based network architecture based on IMS will be the core element of future, next-generation networks. 3GPP and 3GPP2 have adopted SIP as the standard session protocol, enabling IMS networks to deliver SIPenabled realtime, multimedia communication applications. Despite the widespread industry support for IMS, many uncertainties remain over its value. The cost of providing such a QoS-enabled managed network is high compared with the Internet’s stateless model. Also, as the success of Vonage and Skype and many other VoIP providers testifies, telephony services are easily provided over the public Internet and the quality is sufficient for many situations. In order to justify the investment in IMS, the resulting service must be significantly better than that available over the Internet and people must be prepared to pay for it. Whether IMS is a commercial success will be determined over the coming years, but competition from Internet-based providers will make this a competitive market. The greater the variety and utility of the services offered, and the higher the quality of the user experience, the greater the demand for more services, faster networks, and more pervasive connectivity. Everyone wins: the end user, the service provider, the network equipment manufacturer and the integrator. 10
  11. 11. Glossary 1xEV-DO 1x Evolution—Data Only 1xEV-DV 1x Evolution—Data and Voice 3GPP: Third Generation Partnership Project 3GPP2: Third Generation Partnership Project 2 3PCC: 3rd Party Call Control ARPU: Average Revenue Per User B2BUA: Back-to-Back User Agent BGCF: Breakout Gateway Control Function BSS: Business Support System CAMEL: Customized Applications for Mobile Networks Enhanced Logic CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access CSCF: Call Session Control Function CSP: Communications Service Provider DSL: Digital Subscriber Line EDGE: Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute GPRS: General Packet Radio Services GSM: Global System for Mobile communications HSS: Home Subscriber Server I-CSCF: Interrogating-CSCF IDE: Integrated Development Environment IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force IM-SSF: IP Multimedia Service Switching Function IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem INAP: Intelligent Network Application Part IP: Internet Protocol ISC: IMS Service Control J2EE: Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition JAIN: Java APIs for Advanced Intelligent Networks JCP: Java Community Process MGCF: Media Gateway Control Function MMD: Multi-Media Domain MRF: Media Resource Function MRFC: Media Resource Function Controller NEP: Network Equipment Provider OA&M: Operation, Administration & Management OMA: Open Mobile Alliance OSA: Open Service Access OSSL Operation Support System OTA: Over-The-Air P-CSCF: Proxy-CSCF PDF: Policy Decision Function PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network PoC: Push-to-Talk-over-Cellular PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network QoS: Quality of Service RAN: Radio Access Network 11
  12. 12. RFC: Request For Comment S-CSCF: Serving-CSCF SDP: Session Description Protocol SIP: Session Initiation Protocol SIMPLE: SIP for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions SLEE: Service Logic Execution Environment SS7: Signaling System No. 7 SSP: Subscriber Services Profile TCAP: Transaction Capabilities Application Part TDM: Time-Division Multiplexing TISPAN: Telecoms & Internet converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks UE: User Equipment UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System VoIP: Voice over IP WCDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network 12
  13. 13. Sources GSM Association IETF SIP Forum 3rd Generation Partnership Project SIP Working Group SIPPING Working Group ETSI TISPAN 3GPP2 References Ericsson – Mobile multimedia, the next step in richer communication white paper Ericsson – ‘Combinational services – the pragmatic first step toward all-IP’, published in Ericsson Review No.2, 2003 3G Americas – IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) overview and applications white paper Gonzalo Camarillo and Miguel a. Garcia-Martin – The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem, Merging the Internet and the cellular worlds (2004) Key Standards Bodies and Organizations Following are standards bodies and organizations most often referenced in this paper, IMS: Application Enabler and UMTS/HSPA Growth Catalyst, by the authors: 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). A co-operation between ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute - Europe), ARIB/TTC (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses / Telecommunication Technology Committee - Japan), CCSA (China), ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions – North America) and TTA (Telecommunication Technology Association - South Korea). European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) An independent, non-profit, standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ETSI has been successful in standardizing the GSM cell phone system and the TETRA professional mobile radio system. Telecoms & Internet converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks (TISPAN) A standardization body of ETSI, specializing in fixed networks and Internet convergence. ETSI was formed in 2003 from the amalgamation of the ETSI bodies Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (TIPHON) and Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks (SPAN). Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) A United States-based body that is committed to rapidly developing and promoting technical and operations standards for the communications and related information technologies industry worldwide using a pragmatic, flexible and open approach. Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. (CableLabs®). A nonprofit research and development consortium, is dedicated to helping its cable operator members integrate new cable telecommunications technologies into their business objectives. Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) An open alliance of more than 300 companies representing mobile operators, device and network suppliers, information technology companies, and content providers with a mission to facilitate global user adoption of mobile data services by specifying market driven mobile service enablers that ensure service interoperability across devices, geographies, service providers, operators, and networks, while allowing businesses to compete through innovation and differentiation. 13