Chapter 17 section 4


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Chapter 17 section 4

  1. 1. “Chinese Society” I. Technological Advances A. Shipbuilding and Navigation a. under Ming dynasty, massive ships were built called “junks” that could hold 500 people b. watertight compartments and if a leak occurred, they could seal it c. the magnetic compass: piece of metal that pointed to the north and allowed sailors to travel longer distances and not get lost B. Paper and Printing a. the Chinese wrote on strips of silk or bamboo until paper was invented in 105 b. 800s, Chinese make books using block printing, which was a text carved into a wooden block and ink was spread over mold c. technology in printing = cheap books = more schools = more educated people = common people able to become scholar-official d. historians debate the origin of printing in that some argue it started in Europe in the 1400s C. Gunpowder a. 900s, chemists mix ingredients for fireworks but are later used for bombs, rockets, and other weapons b. gunpowder spreads into Muslim city-states and Europe c. was used by the Turk’s to take over Constantinople D. Inventions Help Trade a. irrigation is designed b. harnesses for animals that pulled wagons or plows c. silk spinning II. Chinese Arts and Culture A. The Three Perfections a. calligraphy: the writing of the Chinese characters (over 40,000) b. poetry and painting B. Ceramics and Porcelain a. still called “China” b. thinner and stronger that other materials made for dishes C. Other Trade Items a. the silk industry became more organized and was able to produce more products with higher demand III. Religion and Thought A. Daoism a. earth, heaven, and people should follow Dao (“the way”) b. emphasizes leaving society to become one with nature B. Buddhism a. founded by an Indian spiritual leader named Siddartha Gautama also know as the Buddha (“the Enlightened One”) b. encourages life without worldly desires to avoid suffering and seek enlightenment through perfect wisdom c. the appeal was end of suffering
  2. 2. C. Decline of Buddhism a. criticisms were foreign culture and religion, withdrawal from society, and lavish monasteries b. in the 9th century, Buddhists were being persecuted by a Daoist emperor destroying thousands of monasteries, temples, and monks and nuns’ lifestyles D. Confucianism a. opposition to Buddhism came from the followers of Confucius b. Confucianism is a system of moral behaviors important to the scholar officials c. Confucius lived during a time of war and corruption so his philosophy was designed to restore peace and stability d. Values: lead by example, gain virtue by education, respect your family, follow social order, citizens should follow rulers, rulers should respect citizens, and by doing all of these, China would maintain order E. Neo-Confucianism a. new religious thoughts arose due to Buddhism becoming popular b. Confucianism changes because of the influence of Buddhism and Daoism and they reinterpreted the Dao (“the way”) as self improvement and education IV. Chinese Influence Spreads A. The Impact of Chinese Thought a. other Asian city-states, like Vietnam, Korea, and Japan, adopted Confucius thought in government b. Buddhism spread the Korea and Japan by A.D. 300s B. Chinese Culture a. Asian lands adopted the Chinese writing methods and capitals b. chopsticks and other cooking systems spread through Asia