Chapter 17 section 1 (red)


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Chapter 17 section 1 (red)

  1. 1. “Tang and Song China” I. The Tang Dynasty a. timeline (p.513): 618 A.D. Tang Dynasty unites China; 960 A.D. Song Dynasty begins; 1271 Kublai Khan declares the Yuan dynasty; 1368 Ming dynasty is founded by a rebel general A. Tang Rule a. Han dysnasty falls in 220 A.D. b. 626: Tang Gaozu and his sons, all military, reunite China and declare emperorship c. Taizong revived bureaucracy (defined: gov. with many dept. and bureaus led by officials) d. the government remained the core of China until the 1900s e. Wu Zhao was the only ruler to rule China on her own B. A Flourishing Capital a. Chang’an capital had over one million inhabitants in the year 742 A.D. b. largest planned city 5 miles by 6 miles rectangle c. Turks, Indians, Jews, Koreans, and Persians filled the streets and markets d. foreigners were welcome but had their own living sections II. Rise of the Song Dynasty A. Fall of the Tang a. Drought, famine, high taxes, and fighting with neighboring peoples left problems at home b. in 700s, military and local leaders rebelled and took power; however, the bureaucracy survived B. A New Dynasty Rises a. Song Dysnasty: 960-1279 b. huge army used for protection from neighbors III. The Examination System a. civil service examinations were tests required for people to work for the gov. b. Scholar Officials: highly educated men who passed the civil service exam c. Confucius: civil service exams were based off of ideas and few ever passed. Wealth allowed for years of studying d. Merit System (Song Dynasty): people are hired and promoted based on talent and skill, rather than wealth and social status. Schools for the poor were opened. Jobs required that the work be done well. During Ming Dynasty, officials were not allowed to serve in the district they lived because they didn’t want favor. IV. Tang and Song Prosperity A. The Emperors and the Officials a. Emperor was under mandate from heaven, meaning he was all powerful and had heavenly support
  2. 2. b. By giving more power to the scholar-officials, the Song dynasty received loyal supporters and surpassed the nobles and wealthy families in society c. By 1100, China had numerous cities (mostly in south) and were heavily populated which is known as urbanization B. The Song Dynasty Shifts South a. the Song dynasty was being pressured in the north by the Jin dynasty, so they moved their attention to the southern capital of Hangzhou (hahn JOH) which was described as the richest place on earth C. Land Tenure a. the farms went from governmentally owned to wealthy Tang family ownership b. peasants worked the land as tenant farmers D. Advances in Farming a. farming advancement = population growth b. because the north was not as populated, wheat and barley were not in demand, but instead rice which grew well in humid and wet south c. a flooded fields where rice grew was called paddies d. irrigation was developed to keep the paddies wet and so was a strain of rice that allowed for two or three crops a year e. 750-1100 the population doubled from 50 to 100 million V. Trade Fuels Prosperity A. The Grand Canal a. the largest and longest human built canal in the 600s b. connects China’s largest rivers: the Huang in the north and the Chang in the south c. carried barges carrying rice and other goods for thousands of miles B. Currency a. money economy: consumers carry money rather than barter for goods b. Tang dynasty: copper coins, called cash, were the main money. But they were heavy and large to manage in large amounts c. Song Dynasty: paper money (the world’s first) C. Expanding Industries a. Silk: the industry grew because the farmers were using advanced technology and had more food than they needed; therefore, they were able to trade for craft items b. Ceramics: extremely fine quality. Porcelain was a hard with pottery c. Iron: was used for weapons, tools, nails, and religious artifacts D. The Growth of Trade a. 1. farms and factories production increase b. 2. Canals c. 3. Money Economy VI. China’s Golden Age