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Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
Internet for participatory democracy
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Internet for participatory democracy

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Thesis Presentation Yohanes Widodo

Thesis Presentation Yohanes Widodo

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  • 1. Internet for participatory democracy The experience of Indonesian NGOs to develop participatory democracy by the use of the Internet Yohanes Widodo Supervisors: Dr. Rico Lie Dr. Ir. Freerk van Wiersum Communication Strategies Group Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group
  • 2. Structure
    • Introduction
    • Objective and research questions
    • Conceptual Framework
    • Methodology
    • Results
    • Conlusions
    • Recommendations
  • 3. Introduction (1/5)
    • Background of the study
      • Internet: a global system of interconnected computer network (network of network).
      • Internet use: information, communication, interaction (Desember, 1997)
      • A strategic medium for socio-political transformation  informative, interactive, participative, and decentralized medium.
      • Low cost and easy to use
    Promising medium for public participation
  • 4. Introduction (2/5)
    • Indonesian NGOs
      • Ubiquitous
        • Third actor beyond government and private bussiness.
        • Develops and advocates public interest
        • Alternative models of community empowerment
      • The growth of civil society is represented by NGOs
        • 10.000 (1996) to 70.000 (BPS, 2000)
        • Registered NGOs: 3.000 in 1980) and 13.400 in 2001
        • 20.000 (SMERU)
        • 465 (LP3ES, 2000)
      • The role of Indonesian NGOs in social and politics is significant
  • 5. Introduction (3/5)
    • Internet in Indonesia
      • Since 1994
      • Internet users increase 770 % [0,5 m (1998) to 4,5 m (2002)]
      • Cyber activism (socio-political and public participation)
    • Internet and Indonesian NGOs
      • Survey of 268 Indonesian NGOs: 94 % used PC; 87 % had access to the Internet (Nugroho, 2008).
      • They believe that Internet strengthens the achievement of organization goals.
      • The use of internet for advocacy and campaign is not significant.
  • 6. Introduction (4/5)
    • The adoption of Internet (Nugroho, 2008)
      • Internal: to obtain information an improve organizational effectiveness and effeciency
      • External: bring mutual relationship and collaborations among organization instead of competition
    • Internet use for participatory democracy?
      • Workplace participatory democracy (internal organization)
      • Public participatory democracy (external organization)
  • 7. Introduction (5/5)
    • Critical Issues
      • Internet use as a strategic medium to accomplish the vision and the mission of the NGOs.
        • 5 strategic areas (Nugroho, 2008): collaboration, mobilization, empowernment and development, research and publication, advocacy and monitoring
        • Participatory democracy is not strategic use?
      • Correlation between internal and external practice of participatory democracy
      • How the characteristic of the Internet relates to the characteristic of participatory democracy.
      • Constraints and opportunities of developing participatory democracy by the use of the Internet.
  • 8. Objective and research questions
    • Objective:
      • To understand the contribution of Indonesian NGOs to develop participatory democracy by the use of the Internet.
      • Focus especially on environmental NGOs
    • Research Questions:
      • “ How do Indonesian NGOs develop participatory democracy by the use of the Internet?”
    • Sub Research Questions:
      • What are the main strategic uses of the Internet for Indonesian NGOs?
      • What are the main characteristics of the Internet use for internal communication within Indonesian NGOs and the development of workplace participatory democracy?
      • What are the main characteristics of the Internet use to develop public participatory democracy?
      • What is the correlation between internal and external use of the Internet in Indonesian NGOs?
      • What are the constraints and opportunities of developing participatory democracy by the use of the Internet in Indonesia?
  • 9. Conseptual Framework (1/4)
    • Participatory democracy
      • People participation is the most important quality of democracy
      • A capacity of people to deal constructively with its tensions so as to make and carry out decisions (Daubon, 2005)
      • Participatory democracy as a way of life / a form of live (John Dewey)
      • Participation is sharing and (mutual) contribution  can be implemented every where and every time.
  • 10. Conceptual Framework (2/4)
      • Which e-Democracy?
      • Escher, 2008
    Participatory democracy relates to (or consists of) strong democracy ; deliberative democracy , and discursive democracy .
  • 11. Conceptual Framework (3/5)
    • Strong democracy: “A democracy that reflects the careful and prudent judgment of citizens who participate in deliberative , self-governing communities .” (Barber, 1994)
    • Deliberative democracy: “Democracy should be more than just a process for bargaining and aggregation of preferences. True participation requires citizens to engage in direct discussion with other citizens”. (Hindman, 2008)
    • Discursive democracy is “An approach which puts discourses at the centre of democracy. It starts from the assumption that the deepening of democracy requires the intensification of communicative exchanges in several social contexts, encompassing the definition of rules and institutions, processes of decision making and everyday interactions .” (Dryzek, 1990)
    Key Characteristics: Information refers to knowledge and information. Interaction refers to deliberative; direct discussion; communicative exchanges. Participation refers to citizen’s participation. Decentralization refers to self-governing.
  • 12. Conceptual Framework (4/5)
    • Key characteristics of participatory democracy by the use of the Internet
      • Information  informed citizenry
      • Interaction  deliberation
        • Internet is a master medium o the basis of interactivity
        • Internet enables many kind of interactions and communication
      • Participation
        • Citizens tranform themselves from bystanders to actively involved people.
        • Offers opportunities for participation and even more direct democracy.
      • Decentralization
        • Non-hierarchical communication
        • Self-governance
  • 13. Conceptual Framework (5/5) Figure 1: The level of the characteristics of participatory democracy Figure 1: The mixture of the characteristics of participatory democracy
  • 14.
    • Exploratory research
    • Applies qualitative method using the case studies of three Indonesian NGOs:
      • WWF-Indonesia, WALHI, and Combine Resource Institution (CRI).
    • Selections:
    • (1) different level of the organization.
      • WWF-Indonesia: international/global organization.
      • WALHI: national NGO as a forum in Indonesia.
      • CRI: local NGO (based in Yogyakarta province).
    • (2) different focus/concern of the organization.
      • WWF-Indonesia: environmental NGO focuses on conservation.
      • WALHI : environmental NGO focuses in advocacy and conservation.
      • CRI : intermediary development organization, focuses on the development of media/ICT.
    • Methods
      • Primary: Interviews and Web analysis/online observation
      • Secondary: Literature research and workshop participation
    Methodology (1/2)
  • 15. Web analysis/online observation Observing online media (website, mailing list, etc.) used by the NGOs. Methodology (2/2) http://www.combine.or.id http://merapi.combine.or.id http://suarakomunitas.net http://www.siar.or.id CRI official website Jalin Merapi (Merapi Network) Suara Komunitas (Community Voice) Saluran Informasi Akar Rumput (SIAR) (Information Channel for Grassroots) CRI 3. http://www.wwf.or.id http://www.supporterwwf.org http://groups.yahoo.com/group/supporter-wwf WWF-Indonesia official website WWF Supporter website WWF Supporter mailing list WWF-Indonesia 2. http://www.walhi.or.id http://groups.yahoo.com/group/walhinews WALHI official website WALHI official mailing list WALHI 1. URL Name of the medium NGO No.
  • 16. Results (1/3)
    • The main strategic uses of the Internet by Indonesian NGOs are various.
    • The NGOs have different strategic uses of the Internet, depend on the visions or orientation of the NGOs.
      • WALHI uses the Internet strategically for political movement, shaping public opinion, and collaboration.
      • WWF-Indonesia uses the Internet strategically for communication, knowledge management, and environmental contribution.
      • CRI uses the Internet strategically for developing content management, citizen journalism, and strengthening grassroots.
    • There are similarities regarding to the main characteristics of Internet use in internal NGOs.
      • The main characteristics of internal use of the Internet by the NGOs are for communication and collaboration; workplace participatory democracy; and consumption and production (searching and publishing information).
  • 17. Results (2/3)
    • Information is the main characteristic of the Internet use to develop participatory democracy by three NGOs.
      • CRI is more advance in respect to using Internet as a means for developing participatory democracy than WWF-Indonesia and WALHI.
      • CRI develops participatory democracy by optimizing the different characteristics of the Internet use (Information, Interaction, Participation, and Decentralization).
    • There are mutual relationships between internal and external use of the Internet, as found at WWF-Indonesia and CRI.
      • However, the development of workplace participatory democracy does by itself not correlate to the development of public participatory democracy.
      • There are some factors which influenced this correlation, such as the vision and mission of the NGOs, and the constraints of the development of participatory democracy by the use of the Internet.
  • 18. Results (3/3)
    • The constraints of developing participatory democracy by the use of the Internet in Indonesia are
      • internal constraints ;
      • cultural constraints ;
      • content production ; and
      • human resource competence .
    • The opportunities of developing participatory democracy by the use of the Internet in Indonesia are
      • the raise of the Internet user in Indonesia ;
      • access, hardware, and Internet connection cost getting more affordable ;
      • the emergence of Web 2.0 .;
      • the existence of social networking sites ; and
      • the raise of citizen journalism movement .
  • 19. Conclusions
    • The Internet is as a potential medium for participatory democracy because the Internet contributes toward the main characteristics of participatory democracy: Information, Interaction, Participation, and Decentralization.
      • These characteristics are the ‘cornerstones’ of developing participatory democracy by the use of the Internet.
    • Indonesian NGOs develop participatory democracy by creating websites, mailing list or forum.
      • However, they have different strategic uses of the Internet, so that the implementation and the achievement in respect to stimulating participatory democracy are various.
    • The Internet plays a role as an empowering tool to strengthen community development because it enhances public dialogue, civil society networking, and strengthening the capacity of civil society organizations.
    • Citizen journalism or community-based journalism is the best and the most effective medium to develop participatory democracy.
  • 20. Recommendations
    • The need to raise awareness about the potential use of the Internet to develop participatory democracy by giving room for sharing information, interaction, participation, and decentralization.
    • The need to organize the members and people so that they can develop civil society self governance.
      • The role of the NGOs is a facilitator which invites people to get involved and to encourage people to participate by.
      • The NGOs need to train people and to build their capacity.
    • The need to developing participatory democracy in a strategic way . Developing participatory democracy is not only by creating website or forum or mailing lists.
      • Websites, forum, or mailing list are just a tool or medium. The most important thing is how we can organize and encourage people to participate.
  • 21. Thank you! © Wageningen UR

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