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# I pv6 addressing-rg-animated

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• If any 16-bit segment has fewer than four hexadecimal digits, it is assumed that the missing digits are leading zeroes.
• The address is followed by a forward slash and a decimal number indicating how many of the first bits of the address are the prefix bits.
• ### I pv6 addressing-rg-animated

1. 1. 1© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaIPv6 Addressing: Learn ItOr “I was hoping to retire before I had to learn IPv6.”Rick GrazianiJob titleCabrillo College
2. 2. IPv6 Address Notation, Structure andSubnetting
3. 3. 3© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv6 addresses are 128-bit addresses represented in: Eight 16-bit segments or ―hextets‖ (not a formal term) Hexadecimal (non-case sensitive) between 0000 and FFFF Separated by colonsOne Hex digit = 4 bits2001:0DB8:AAAA:1111:0000:0000:0000:0100/642001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 1111 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 010016 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits
5. 5. 5© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Two rules for reducing the size of written IPv6 addresses. The first rule is:Leading zeroes in any 16-bit segment do not have to be written.3ffe : 0404 : 0001 : 1000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0ef0 : bc003ffe : 404 : 1 : 1000 : 0 : 0 : ef0 : bc003ffe : 0000 : 010d : 000a : 00dd : c000 : e000 : 00013ffe : 0 : 10d : a : dd : c000 : e000 : 1ff02 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0500ff02 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 500
6. 6. 6© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada The second rule can reduce this address even further: Any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments consistingof all zeroes can be represented with a double colon.ff02 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0500ff02 : : 500ff02::500Second Rule First Rule
7. 7. 7© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Only a single contiguous string of all-zero segments can berepresented with a double colon. Both of these are correct…2001 : 0d02 : 0000 : 0000 : 0014 : 0000 : 0000 : 00952001 : d02 :: 14 : 0 : 0 : 95OR2001 : d02 : 0 : 0 : 14 :: 95
8. 8. 8© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Using the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address can createambiguity because of the ambiguity in the number of 0’s.2001:d02::14::952001:0d02:0000:0000:0014:0000:0000:00952001:0d02:0000:0000:0000:0014:0000:00952001:0d02:0000:0014:0000:0000:0000:0095
9. 9. 9© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv4, the prefix—the network portion of the address—can be identifiedby a dotted decimal netmask or bitcount.255.255.255.0 or /24 IPv6 prefixes are always identified by bitcount (prefix length). Prefix length notation:3ffe:1944:100:a::/6416 32 48 64 bits
10. 10. IPv6 Address Types
12. 12. 12© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixStructure of a Global Unicast Addressn bits m bits 128-n-m bits001 Range 2000::/3 to 3FFF::/312IANA’s allocation of IPv6 address space in 1/8thsections• Globalunicast addressesare similar to IPv4addresses.• Routable• Unique
13. 13. 13© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal Routing Prefix SizesInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing Prefix/48 /64/32/23*RIR*ISP Prefix*Site PrefixSubnet Prefix* This is a minimum allocation. The prefix-length may be less if it can be justified./56Possible Home Site Prefix
14. 14. 14© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal Unicast Addresses and the 3-1-4 ruleIPv4 Unicast Address32 bitsNetwork portion Host portionSubnet portion/?IPv6 Global Unicast Address128 bitsGlobal Routing Prefix Interface IDFixedSubnet ID/64* 16-bit Subnet ID gives us 65,536 subnets. (Yes, you can use the all 0’s and all 1’s.) * 64-bit Interface ID gives us 18 quintillion (18,446,744,073,709,551,616) devices/subnet.
15. 15. 15© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixGlobal Unicast Addresses and the 3-1-4 rule2001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 1111 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 010016 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits3 1 4/48 /64
16. 16. 16© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada 4 specific subnets to be used inside Company1:• 2340:1111:AAAA:0000::/64• 2340:1111:AAAA:0001::/64• 2340:1111:AAAA:0002::/64• 2340:1111:AAAA:000A::/64 Note: A valid abbreviation is to remove the 3 leading 0’s from the firstshown quartet.• 2340:1111:AAAA:1::/64
17. 17. 17© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixSubnetting into the Interface IDPrefix64 bits48 bits 16bits/48 /1122001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 00002001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0001 : 00002001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0002 : 0000thru2001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : FFFE : 00002001 : 0DB8 : AAAA :FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : 0000Global Routing Prefix Subnet-ID Interface ID
18. 18. 18© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaSubnetting on a nibble boundaryInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixSubnet Prefix/6860 bits48 bits 20 bits/48 /68Subnetting on a nibble (4 bit) boundary makes it easier to list the subnets:/64, /68, /72,etc.2001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0000::/682001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:1000::/682001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:2000::/68 through2001:0DB8:AAAA:FFFF:F000::/68
19. 19. 19© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaSubnetting within a nibbleInterface IDSubnet IDGlobal Routing PrefixSubnet Prefix/7058 bits48 bits 22 bits/48 /702001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0000::/70 00002001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0400::/70 01002001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0800::/70 10002001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0C00::/701100Four Bits: The twoleftmost bits are part ofthe Subnet-ID, whereasthe two rightmost bitsbelong to the InterfaceID.bits
21. 21. 21© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaRick’s CaféNetwork TopologyPC-1PC-2PC-3 PC-4R2R3 ISPR1Ser 0/0/0.1Ser 0/0/0.2Ser 0/0/0.2Ser 0/0/0.2Ser 0/0/1.1Ser 0/0/1.2Ser 0/0/.1Ser 0/0/1.1Fa 0/0 Fa 0/0 Fa 0/0Fa 0/02001:0DB8:CAFE:0002::/64Rick’s Cafe2001:0DB8:CAFE::/482001:0DB8:CAFE:0001::/64 2001:0DB8:CAFE:0003::/642001:0DB8:CAFE:A001::/64 2001:0DB8:CAFE:A002::/642001:0DB8:CAFE:A003::/642001:0DB8:FEED:0001::/64Link to ISP2001:0DB8:FACE:C0DE::/64
23. 23. 23© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada23show running-config command on router R1R1# show running-config<output omitted for brevity>interface FastEthernet0/0no ip addressduplex autospeed autoipv6 address 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1/64!
25. 25. 25© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canadashow ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0 command on R1R1# show ipv6 interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upIPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::203:6BFF:FEE9:D480Global unicastaddress(es):2001:DB8:CAFE:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:CAFE:1::/64Joined group address(es):FF02::1FF02::2FF02::1:FF00:1FF02::1:FFC2:828DMTU is 1500 bytes<output omitted for brevity>R1#
28. 28. 28© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGlobal UnicastDynamicIPv6UnnumberedIPv6 AddressStatelessAutoconfiguration DHCPv6Static EUI-6428Modified EUI-64 Format: Creates a 64-bit Interface ID from a 48-bitaddressManual
29. 29. 29© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0db8:cafe:0001::/64 ?eui-64 Use eui-64 interface identifier<cr><<< All0’s address is okay!R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0db8:cafe:0001::/64 eui-64R1(config-if)#• Router’s global unicastaddress can be configuredwith:• Statically configuredprefix and …• EUI-64 generatedInterface ID2001:0DB8:CAFE:1::/64Fa0/0R1Global Unicast:Prefix: 2001:0DB8:AAAA:1::/64Interface ID: EUI-64
30. 30. 30© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# show interface fastethernet 0/0FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is upHardware is AmdFE, address is 0003.6be9.d480 (bia 0003.6be9.d480)<output omitted for brevity> Ethernet MAC addressR1’s MAC Address for FastEthernet 0/0HexadecimalOUI24 bitsDevice Identifier24 bits00 03 6B E9 D4 80Binary 0000 0000 0000 0011 0110 1011 1110 1001 1101 0100 1000 0000
31. 31. 31© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaHexadecimalOUI24 bitsDevice Identifier24 bitsBinaryStep 1: Split the MAC addressBinaryStep 2: Insert FFFEBinaryStep 3: Flip the U/L bitBinaryModified EUI-64 Interface ID in Hexadecimal Notation1111 1111 1111 11101111 1111 1111 111002 03 6B E9 D4 80FF FE00 03 6B E9 D4 800000 0000 0000 0011 0110 1011 1110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00001110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00001110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00000000 0000 0000 0011 0110 10110000 0010 0000 0011 0110 1011Modified EUI-64 Format
32. 32. 32© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1’s FastEthernet 0/0 48 bit MAC Address:0003.6be9.d4800 0 0 3 . 6 be 9 . D 4 8 00000 0000 0000 0011 . 0110 1011 1110 1001 . 0111 0100 1000 00000000 0000 0000 0011 . 0110 1011 1110 1001 . 0111 0100 1000 00000000 0000 0000 0011 . 0110 1011 11111111 11111110 1110 1001 . 0111 0100 1000 00000000 0010 0000 0011 . 0110 1011 11111111 11111110 1110 1001 . 0111 0100 1000 00000 2 0 3 . 6 b F F F E e 9 . D 4 8 01Interface ID(EUI-64 format)Subnet Prefix(Manually configured)Global unicast address: 2001:0DB8:AAAA:0001:0203:6BFF:FEE9:D480R1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0db8:aaaa:0001::/64 eui-6423
34. 34. Dynamic Global Unicast Addresses
44. 44. 44© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada44Range:FE80::/10FEBF::/10Interface ID/641111 1110 10xx xxxxFE80::/10Remaining 54 bits10 bits 64 bitsEUI-64, Random or Manual ConfigurationLink-local unicast
48. 48. 48© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaHexadecimalR1’s MAC Address for FastEthernet 0/0OUI (Organization UniqueIdentifier)24 bitsDevice Identifier24 bits00 03 6B E9 D4 80Binary 000000000000 0011 0110 1011 1110 1001 1101 0100 1000 000048Modified EUI-64 Format: Creates a 64-bit Interface ID from a 48-bitaddress
49. 49. 49© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaHexadecimalOUI24 bitsDevice Identifier24 bitsBinaryStep 1: Split the MAC addressBinaryStep 2: Insert FFFEBinaryStep 3: Flip the U/L bitBinaryModified EUI-64 Interface ID in Hexadecimal Notation1111 1111 1111 11101111 1111 1111 111002 03 6B E9 D4 80FF FE00 03 6B E9 D4 800000 0000 0000 0011 0110 1011 1110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00001110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00001110 1001 1101 0100 1000 00000000 0000 0000 0011 0110 10110000 0010 0000 0011 0110 1011Modified EUI-64 Format
53. 53. 53© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaR1# ping fe80::2Output Interface: ser 0/0/0% Invalid interface. Use full interface name without spaces (e.g. Serial0/1)Output Interface: serial0/0/0Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::2, timeout is 2 secs:!!!!!Must include exit-interfaceFa0/0Global Unicast:2001:0DB8:CAFE:1::1/64FE80::1 2001:0DB8:CAFE:A001::/64Ser 0/0/0.1Ser 0/0/0.2R2R1FE80::1 FE80::2Ping Link-local Address
57. 57. 57© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaMymac\$ ifconfigen0: flags=8863<UP,BROADCAST,SMART,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST>mtu 1500ether c4:2c:03:2a:b5:a2inet6 fe80::c62c:3ff:fe2a:b5a2MAC Link-local address• My MAC OS 10.6 uses EUI-64 but you check with your OS flavor andversion.• Many Linux flavors moving to random Interface IDs
59. 59. Multicast Addresses
61. 61. 61© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaGroup IDFlag1111 1111FF00::/88 bits 112bits4 bits 4 bitsScopeFlag0 Permanent, well-known multicast address assigned by IANA1 Non-permanently-assigned, ―dynamically" assigned multicast addressScope (partial list)0 Reserved1 Interface-Local scope2 Link-Local scope5 Site-Local scope8 Organization-Local scope
64. 64. 64© 2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential.Cisco Networking Academy, US/CanadaEnabling IPv6 RoutingR1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing• A router’s interfaces can be enabled (get an IPv6 address) for IPv6like any other device on the network.• For the router to ―act‖ as an IPv6 router it must be enabled with theipv6-unicast routing command.• This enables the router to:• Send Router Advertisement messages• Enable the forwarding of IPv6 packets.• Participate in IPv6 routing protocols (RIPng, EIGRP for IPv6,OSPFv3)