Introduction of the basic emotional impact of environments

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  • 1. The Basic Emotional Impact of Environments Albert Mehrabian, James A. Russell University of California, Los Angels Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1974, 38, 283 - 3012013年3月14日木曜日
  • 2. Authors • Dr. Albert Mehrabian(1939-) • Best known for the role of non-verbal communication • “7%-38%-55% rule” Total Liking = 7% Verbal Liking + 38% Vocal Liking + 55% Facial Liking2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 3. Authors • Dr. James A. Russell (UCLA) • Research on human emotion • Facial Expression2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 4. Reason for the choice • Their model for emotion evaluation, the PAD model, widely used for an evaluation of places services, events • I’ll use this model in the next evaluation test for motion graphics • To check the development process of PAD model for confirmation its reliability2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 5. Outline of this Paper • Hypothesis : Human various emotional reactions have basic dimensions, Pleasure - Arousal - Dominance • Supporting Evidences: Review of the relevant literature from studies of synesthesia, physiological reactions, and semantic differential • Development of Self-Report Measure: Conducting thrice studies (total subjects are 511) With factor analysis2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 6. Background : Environment Psychology How to assess a environment psychologically? assessment stimulus with all perceptual response environments Cost Lots!! perceptual response2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 7. Background : Environment Psychology How to assess a environment psychologically? ??? stimulus × ???environments perceptual basic dimension verbal response in emotion expression2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 8. Background : Environment Psychology How to assess a environment psychologically? possibility to assess ??? emotional stimulus × quality ??? viaenvironments verbal expression perceptual basic dimension verbal response in emotion expression2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 9. Supporting Evidences from Synesthesia Is there a common core among modalities? • Hazzard(1930) Describing test of 14 different odors : A large percentage of the adjectives used in other modality ex) light, bright, lively, heavy, rough... • Karwoski & Odbett (1938), Karwoski, Odbett & Osgood(1942) Music & adjective: Exiting music - bright forms or sharp and angler figures Slow music - rounder forms All Ss agreed in associating color-name and mood adjective with the music2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 10. Supporting Evidences from Synesthesia Is there a common core among modalities? • Holt-Hansen(1968) Beer taste & tone pitch : 16 Ss were asked to identify the “pitch of fit” while drinking two different kinds of beer. Beer1 - 510 ~ 520cps(Hz) Beer2 - 640 ~ 670cps • Ziet(1931) Tones of various frequencies and afterimage 200cps - darker, warmer, softer and duller colors, and vague contours 550cps - shaper contours, brighter, colder, clearer, harder colors 1100cps - squish forms2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 11. Supporting Evidences from Synesthesia Is there a common core among modalities? • Lundholm(1921) feeling tones of lines: SAD - large, downward-directed curves MERRY - small, upward-directed curves GENTLE - large, horizontal-directed curves • Osgood(1960) Tested “feeling tones of lines” within non english language group including Navojo, Japanese, Mexican- spanish Approximately 90% of the relationships probed to be in the same direction.2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 12. Supporting Evidences from Synesthesia Is there a common core among modalities? • Osgood’s discussion Synesthesia may be either innate to the species or developed by learning under similar condition. example of innate: the common association of the red end of the spectrum with warmth and activity and blue end with coldness and passivity example of learning: the common association of visually large with auditorily loud Expressed in language but are independent of the structure of any particular language2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 13. Supporting Evidences from Physiology physiological mechanism of basic dimensions • Pleasant - Pain centers in the mid-brain Pleasant response : stimulation of area of the hypothalamus and certain mid- brain nuclei Pain response : stimulation of lower parts of the midline system The experience of pleasure - pain and this mechanism is common to all the sensory modalities2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 14. Supporting Evidences from Physiology physiological mechanism of basic dimensions • Arousal Mechanism Lindsley(1951): the concept of arousal as a basic response which is independent of the sense modality stimulated Malmo(1959): arousal of the entire organism as activation of the ascending reticular activating system It can be measured by fast EEG activity with concomitant decrease in alpha waves, respiratory activity, oxygen consumption, pulse rate, muscle tension, thermal properties of the skin2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 15. Supporting Evidences from Physiology physiological mechanism of basic dimensions • Arousal Mechanism Berlyne’s definition of arousal(1960): It is a measure of how wide awake the organism is, of how ready it is to react. The lower pole - sleep or coma The upper pole - frantic excitement Thayer(1967, 1970): High correlation between physiological arousal and verbal self reports arousal state2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 16. Supporting Evidences from Semantic differential • Osgood, Suci, et. al (1957) Characterize human reaction to stimuli regardless to modality with the semantic differential; The activity factor ( arousal ) The evaluation factor ( pleasure) The potency factor ( dominance)2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 17. Supporting Evidences from Semantic differential • Tucker (1955) artists and non-artists judged various kinds of paintings and rated them on SD scale. Activity ( dynamic - static, active - passive, vibrant - still) Evaluation (smooth - rough, profound - superficial, meaningful - no nsence ) Potency ( hard - soft, strong - weak) • Solomon(1954) SD on sonar signal: Activity (busy - resting, violent - gentle) Evaluation ( pleasant - unpleasant, good - bad, pleasing - annoying) Potency ( large - small, heavy - light)2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 18. Supporting Evidences from Semantic differential • Bush (1973) The three factors in SD with 264 adjectives: Pleasantness - Unpleasantness Level of activation Level of aggression • Osgood (1966), other investigators same three factor in nonverbal cues: facial, vocal expressions, postures, movements2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 19. Assuming evidences suggests existence of a limited set of Synesthesia basic emotional to all stimulus situation independent of the sensory Physiological modality involved. reactions Hypothesis - PAD model Basic dimension 1 : Pleasure Semantic Basic dimension 2 : Arousal Differential Basic dimension 3 : Dominance2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 20. Assuming evidences Freedom of choice, unrestricted or free to act insuggests existence of a limited set of a variety of ways. Synesthesia which are rated more intense,to all stimulus Physical stimuli basic emotional more ordered and powerful independent of the sensory situation Physiological modality involved. are associated with submissive feeling reactions Hypothesis - PAD model Basic dimension 1 : Pleasure Semantic Basic dimension 2 : Arousal Differential Basic dimension 3 : Dominance2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 21. factor scores for an S who rates his emotions in a situation using the scales of Table 4, a simple and satisfactory approach is to average his responses to all six items of each scale. Development of TABLE 4report Measures Self DIFFERENTIAL SEMANTIC MEASURES EMOTIONAL OF RESPONSE E N V I R O ~ E N T S : ~ ~ TO Conducting thrice studies Instructions to Ss • Take about two minutes to really get into the mood of the situation; then rate your feelings the final version of the measures the pairs might seem unusual, in the situation with the adjective pairs below. Some of but youll probably feel more one way than the other. So, for each pair, put a check mark (Example: -----:--J--:-----) to the 6 bipolar adjective measures feelings Each dimension has adjective which closer vou out vour check mark to it. closer you believe to describe your better. The more ao~rooriate chat adiective seems. the Pleasure ----- .----- .----. . ----- .----- ,----- .----. ,----- , . . . .----- Unhappy Happy .----. . . . . . . , , Pleased ----- , . . Annoyed Satisfied ___ _ --.-- .--.-. ,- - , _., _ _ _,_ _ ,_____ .----- .--.-- . - - . . Unsatisfied Contented ----- .----- .----. . . .- _ -._____ ._-___ Melancholic . .----- ._____, _ _ ._____ Hopeful --..- .--.-. .._____._____._____ ..----- .----- . . ,._____ ,. _____ Despairing Relaxed ----- . . . . . . .--.-_ Bored . ,--_-_ . Arousal Stimulated --.-- :--.-- -----: ..----. ..---- Relaxed :--.-- :--.--: .-.--. . Excited .---- . . . . . . . .----- .----- ,---------- .----- .----- .----- .----- Calm . . Frenzied .--.- .---.- .----- .---.- .----- ..----Sluggish .----- . .----- . . .-.-.- . . . . . Jittery ---.-.----- .---.- . ---.- 1-.-._ .-.-._ . . .----- . :_____. ._.___Dull . . Wide awake ---.-:-----:---.-:---.-:-----:-----:-.-.-:---.-: -.--- Sleepy Aroused ---.- . . . .-.--- .-----. -----. .----- Unaroused .-.--- .-.--- .-----: .-----. . Dominance Controlling --.--I --.--: --.-.: --..-: --.-.: .---.: --.--: --.-.: .-.-. Influential ----.. .---.. .----- . . ._____ ._____ Controlled .----- Influenced ..----- .----- In control .-.-- .----. .----- , . ,-_.-. . ,_-_-_ Cared for . . . . . Important ---.-,-----,-----,-----,-----: Awed-----. . _.-___ .-_-___.__-_. Dominant .--.- .----- .----- .----- ..---- . .----- . . . . .-_.__,.______.___ . . . Submissive Autonomous .----: ---.-: ---.-: ---.-: -----: ---.-: ---.-: :----- ----. Guided *A numerical scale of $4 to -4 is used for each dimension (e.g., + 4 is assigned for extremely happy, and -4 for extremely unhappy). Ss responses are averaged across the2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 22. Development of Self report Measures Conducting thrice studies • Study 1. Measure : using 28 adjective pairs Subjects : 134 undergraduate Students Stimulus : 8 situations selected from 40 verbally described situations ex) You are water skiing behead a speed boat on a mountain lake. As you go by you watch the sun glinting on the water....2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 23. etc.) the room is almost barren. It is evening and you are sitting at a window looking out over the lights of the city. It is a misty, cold night and everything looks small and far away. In this first study, 134 University of California undergraduates served as Ss. Each of t h e m was presented w i t h a r a n d o m selection of 8 situations a n d was Development of Self report Measures asked to describe h o w h e would feel i n each o n e by using t h e 28 adjective pairs i n T a b l e 1. T h e s e items were randomly ordered; half of t h e m w e r e reversed i n direction; a n d t h e entire set was presented ro Ss i n a format similar to that Conducting thrice studies s h o w n in T a b l e 4. T h e accompanying instructions t o Ss are also given in T a b l e 4. • Study 1. ROTATEDFACTOR OF Emotional Response TABLE 1 MATRIX THE PRELIMINARY OF EMOTIONAL SET RESPONSE Factor 1: SCALES* Factor 2 : Factor 3 : 4 factors were Happy-unhappy Pleasure Arousal Dominance extracted, but fourth Pleased-annoyed Satisfied-unsatisfied Contented-melancholic factor consisted only of Hopeful-despairing Relaxed-bored a single item. Comfortable-uncomfortable Excited-irritated Secure-insecure Stimulated-relaxed Oblique rotation yield Excited-calm Frenzied-sluggish Jittery-dull the loadings for the first Wide awake-sleep *roused-unarousec! three factors Alert-peaceful Excited-soothed Vigilant-uninterested Irritated-depressed Controlling-controlled Correlation: Powerful-overpowered In control-cared for Factor 1 & 2 -0.02 Important-awed Dominant-submissive Autonomous-guided Factor 1 & 3 0.19 Influential-reverent Domineeri ne- hel~less Factor 2 & 3 0.05 ~arin~-cauti%us 0/0 Variance A .29 27 .12 21 .39 12 *The correlations used to compute this factor analysis were based on 1072 observations.2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 24. Development of Self report Measures Conducting thrice studies • Study 2. Measure : using 23 adjective pairs ( 18 from Study1, and 5 additional ) Subjects : new 163 undergraduate Students Stimulus : 20 situations selected from 65 verbally described situations2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 25. of environments. Based on the results of the first study, 18 adjective pairs w selected from Table 1 that best measured the respective emotional dimensio Five additional adjective pairs, designed to measure dominance, were writt This final set of 23 items is presented in Table 2. A new sample of 163 University of California undergraduates each ra Development of Self report Measures approximately 20 situations that were randomly selected from the set of 65 s ations. They used the adjective pairs of Table 2 in a rearranged random or Conducting thrice studies • TABLE 2 Study 2. ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX OF THE SECONDSETOF EMOTIONAL RESPONSESCALE Emotional Response Factor 1: Factor 2 : Factor 3 : Pleasure Arousal Dominance 3 factors were extracted. Oblique rotation yield Stimulated-relaxed Excited-calm the loadings for the Frenzied-sluggish Jittery-dull three factors Wide awake-sleepy Aroused-unaroused Correlation: Factor 1 & 2 0.05 Important-awed Autonomous-guided Factor 1 & 3 0.26 In control-cared for Powerful-overpowered Factor 2 & 3 0.13 Bold-cautious Protecting-protected Free-restrained . Unim~ressed-imaressed % ~kiance ~~ 32 17 12 *The correlations used to compute this factor analysis were based on 3261 observation2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 26. Development of Self report Measures Conducting thrice studies • Study 3. Measure : using best six items for each dimension Subjects : 214 undergraduate Students Stimulus : 6 situations selected from 65 verbally described situations2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 27. study. The best six icems for each dimension, listed in Table 2, were selected the final scales. These 18 icems were randomly ordered and three items wi each of the three scales were inverted to control response bias. Ss were 214 U versity of California undergraduares, each of whom rated a different subset Development of Self report Measures sit~iacionsselected from the list of 65 situations. The resulting 18 X 18 matrix of correlations was factor analyzed and a p Conducting thrice studies cipal component solution was obtained. Once again, there were three factors eigenvalues exceeding unity. Oblique rotation of these factors yielded the l • Study 3. ings that are shown in Table 3. The factorial composition in all respects w TABLE 3 3 factors were MATRIX rn FINALSET OF EMOTIONAL RESPONSE ROTATEDFACTOR OF SCALE extracted. Emotional Response Factor 1: Pleasure Factor 2 : Arousal Factor 3: Dominance Oblique rotation yield Contented-melancholic the loadings for the Hopeful-despairing Relaxed-bored three factors Stimulated-relaxed Excited-calm Frenzied-sluggish Correlation: Jittery-dull Wide awake-sleepy Factor 1 & 2 -0.07 Aroused-unaroused Factor 1 & 3 0.03 Controlling-controlled Dominant-submissive Factor 2 & 3 0.18 Influential-influenced Important-awed Autonomous-guided I n control-cared for .- 96 Variance 27 23 14 * T h c correlations used to compute this factor analysis were based on 1284 observation2013年3月14日木曜日
  • 28. Development of Self report Measures Conducting thrice studies • Discussion The inter correlation among three emotional response dimension ranged from -0.07 ~ 0.26. These low correlations provided support for the hypothesis The final scales can be used to assign exact coefficient to any emotional state. Three emotional factors can also be used to categorize environments.2013年3月14日木曜日