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TINA showcase: Passive RFID
 

TINA showcase: Passive RFID

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This video forms part of the showcase event held by the Intelligent Airport (TINA) project: http://intelligentairport.org.uk....

This video forms part of the showcase event held by the Intelligent Airport (TINA) project: http://intelligentairport.org.uk.

The University of Cambridge Engineering Department developed a passenger tracking system using cheap passive RFID boarding passes.

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    TINA showcase: Passive RFID TINA showcase: Passive RFID Presentation Transcript

    • Multiservice RF Infrastructure with Passive Tag Location Capability
      Richard Penty, S Sabesan, Michael Crisp, Ian White
      Cambridge University Engineering Department
    • In-Building Coverage/Distributed Antenna System
      • Unreliable coverage from outdoor cells
      • Dedicated indoor capacity
      • Fewer RF transceivers needed compared to distributed radios
      • Analogue links may be coax cable (<100 m) or fibre (>100 m)
      • Wideband versions can carry all required baseband and radio services
    • 3 Antennas
      Distributed Antenna Network Performance
    • Adding Sensing to Communications DAS
      Passive UHF RFID allows very low cost tags to be used for object detection at ranges up to 10 m
      Increasing demands for mobile data bandwidth is driving down cell sizes, requiring closer antenna spacing.
      Can RFID be added as an additional service on RoF DAS allowing a shared infrastructure?
      Can RFID leverage similar power requirement reductions to we have shown with communications services?
    • Why RFID over Fibre in Airports?
      RFID is considered cheaper than bar code readers
      But <100% read rate reliability means critical reading for e.g. baggage is compromised
      Only two airports internationally implement RFID for baggage handling
      Within TINA we’ve tried to improve read success rate over a wider area
      Airport applications, particularly if security sensitive, really do need ~ 100% success rate
      Will allow tagging of other items e.g. passengers
      Late passengers contribute to 10% of all delays in UK
      Extremely expensive for airline business models
      Different airlines would use passenger location information in different ways!
      Security
      Tagging of passenger, along with video, would reveal suspicious behaviour
      Monitoring of security areas
    • AU1
      AU3
      AU2
      Improved Tag Detection with DAS
      AU1
      Rx
      Tx
      Zinwave Hub
      RFID Tx
      DAS Processing
      RFID Rx
      Tx
      Rx
      AU1
      Tag
      Tag
      Aim to show improvement in RFID read rate/accuracy and reduction in nulls
      AU1
      Rx
      Tx
    • Demonstration of Error Free Operation Usinga Commercial RFID System
      19 x 2 m area. +31 dBm EIRP output power, UK frequency band
    • Improving Read Rate and Accuracy - Intel R1000
      PC
      Command-Begin Packet
      DAS Settings
      Antenna-Begin Packet
      Inventory-Cycle-Begin Packet
      ARM7
      Micro controller
      Inventory-Round-Begin Packet
      Serial Interface
      Inventory-Response Packet
      DAS Settings
      Inventory-Round-End Packet
      Inventory-Cycle-End Packet
      Intel R1000
      Antenna-End Packet
      USB Interface
      Command-End Packet
      Intel R1000 Firmware
      Intel Transceiver Interface
      (executing on PC)
      (executing on ARM7)
      • Intel R1000 supports host side applications (Intel Transceiver interface). The transceiver interface includes a C/C++ functional interface to talk to the firmware module using USB communication.
      • When an inventory is performed using the transceiver interface, it returns data from the Intel firmware in a sequential of packets.
      • Phase is varied when it returns the inventory-round-begin packet which indicates the beginning of a an inventory round on an antenna.
      SSB Interface
      Intel Transceiver R1000
    • AU3
      Rx
      Tx
      Zinwave Hub
      Intel R1000 Firmware
      DAS Processing
      Intel R1000
      Rx
      AU2
      Intel Transceiver R1000
      AU1
      AU3
      AU2
      Alien Tag
      Tag
      Alien Tag
      Tag
      Alien Tag
      Tag
      Alien Tag
      Tag
      Alien Tag
      Tag
      AU1
      Rx
      Tx
      DAS RFID System
      Tx
    • Enhanced Read Rate/Accuracyusing R1000 Reader System
      AU3
      AU2
      AU1
      • The conventional RFID system takes 1.7s to read 62 tags out of 80 (77.5% accuracy)
      - read rate of 36 tags/sec.
      • The R1000 system takes 1.2s to read all tags (100% accuracy),
      - read rate of 67 tags/sec
      80 Alien Higgs2 tags are placed at a height of 2 m in a 50 cm grid interval over a 10 m x 4 m area.
    • Providing Location in optical DAS RFID system
      • Now we can read a tag (quickly) over a large area, we have lost the location accuracy of an RFID “portal” – can we somehow improve the accuracy
      • Estimating the location of passive UHF RFID tag is a major challenge due to the narrow bandwidth available.
      • The most common techniques are based on RSSI location algorithms.
      - However, multi-path effects, fading and nulls result in the RSSI being only a weak function of range.
      • By using an optical DAS with multiple antennas, we can reduce the degree of fading in the field of view
      - and thus significantly improve the accuracy of RSSI location techniques.
    • Passive UHF RFID RTLS
      Location Algorithm
      • The area is first mapped by recording the combined RSSI from all the AUs and the RSSI of each AU
      • Measurements are repeated five times at each grid point and the AU with the highest number of successful reads is identified.
      • Location is then estimated by finding the closest match of:
      • the three antenna RSSI
      • the RSSI from the mostly likely closest antenna
      • the probability that the antenna is closest to the tag from the mapped data set.
      • A maximum likelihood weighting is applied to the mapped data.
      Pillar
    • Demonstration of Enhanced Location Accuracy
    • Demonstration of Enhanced Location Accuracy
      100% location estimations using the DAS has less than 4.2 m error compared to only 55% and 40% from the commercial RFID reader and the random algorithm respectively.
    • Tracking/Location System GUI
      We intend to use the current system as a test bed to develop new algorithms.
    • Application Software Integration with Hong Kong-TINA Project
      MySQL
      Database
      HK-TINA
      Software
      Intel R1000
      Cambridge
      Software
    • Demonstrator
      Passive RFID over DAS demonstrator exhibiting
      • Large passive RFID field of view
      • 100% read accuracy using DAS to reduce fading
      • Enhanced read rate (67 tags/second)
      • RSSI based location with 1.9 m mean error
      • Integration with HK TINA software demonstrators