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051 history of_education[1]
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051 history of_education[1]



Published in Education , Spiritual
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  • 1. History of Education by Hj Ahmad Zawawi bin AbdullahHISTORYOF EDUCATIONIN MALAYSIAFOUR STAGES Before the coming of the British During the British colonial government Era before Independence After Independence 1
  • 2. BEFORE THE COMING OFTHE BRITISH Informal education – limited to acquiring skills for survival, like fishing and farming for boys, and cookery and weaving for girls Al-Quran and Islamic Studies at the Suraus, Mosques or Pondok SchoolsDURING BRITISH COLONIZATION No clear policy on education Four types of vernacular schools – English-Medium, Malay-Medium, Chinese-Medium, and Tamil-Medium English-medium schools were run by missionaries and the British government The oldest school in Malaysia is the Penang Free School (1816). Next Malacca High School (1826), Singapore Free School (1834), and Victoria Institution (1893) Most in the urban areas 2
  • 3. MALAY-MEDIUM SCHOOL Malay vernacular schools – Malay as a medium of instruction Emphasis on 3 Rs – Reading, Writing, and aRithmetic Focus on Living Skills, e.g. vegetable gardening, poultry farming, basket making and handicrafts To the Malays the Pondok Schools still form a very important means of educationNUMBER OF MALAY SCHOOLS NUMBER OF MALAY SCHOOLS IN THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, FEDERATED MALAY STATES AND UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES IN 1916 States Nos. of Schools Enrolment Attendance The Straits Settlements 191 12,934 11,034 The Federated Malay States 365 18,034 14,535 The Unfederated Malay States 137 7,923 6,940 TOTAL 693 38,891 32,509(Source: Malaysian Development Experiance, Changes and Challenges,INTAN, Kuala Lumpur, 1994) 3
  • 4. CHINESE-MEDIUM SCHOOLS Mostly run by the Chinese community Chinese is the medium of instruction The School Registration Enactment was passed in 1919 to control political activities in the schoolDURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR Education was used as a tool for propaganda to inculcate loyalty to the Japanese emperor The Japanese language, Nippon-Go, become the official medium of instruction for all subjects in schools, be they Malay, Chinese, or Tamil schools The English and Mandarin languages were banned in schools Secondary schools were used as army operation centres and school hostels as detention camps It is compulsory for students to sing the Japanese national song every morning 4
  • 5. BEFORE INDEPENDENCE1949 THE HOLGATE REPORT A standardized educational system English as the only medium of instruction in all schools The Federal Legislative Council rejected the proposalBEFORE INDEPENDENCE1951 THE BARNES REPORT All primary vernacular schools maintain one single standard national schools Use the same syllabus Bilingual languages, Malay and English Secondary schools was to maintained English as medium of instruction 5
  • 6. BEFORE INDEPENDENCE1952 THE FENN- WU REPORT Support one national educational system Maintained the Chinese-medium schoolsBEFORE INDEPENDENCE1952 THE EDUCATIONAL ORDINANCE Based on the Barnes Report No support from the Chinese and Indians Not fully implemented 6
  • 7. BEFORE INDEPENDENCE1956 THE RAZAK REPORT The Education system should compromise of two types of primary schools – standard primary schools – Malay as a medium of instruction, and standard-type primary schools – Kuo-Yu or Tamil or English as the medium of instructions Use common syllabus Malay as a compulsory subjectBEFORE INDEPENDENCE1956 THE RAZAK REPORT All National Secondary Schools should use a common syllabus and examination And enforce Malay and English as compulsory subjects All teachers should be trained with a common syllabus in teacher’s training colleges 7
  • 8. AFTER INDEPENDENCE 1961 THE RAHMAN TALIB REPORT Emphasize the use of Malay as the medium of instructionTHE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM THE EDUCATION ACT 1961 1961 the Parliament passed the Education Act based on the Razak Report and the Rahman Talib Report After the Education Act was passed, the National Education System was implemented 8
  • 9. THE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM 1957 – Malay was made compulsory in all government-aided primary and secondary schools 1958 – Introduction of Malay-medium classes attached to selected English-medium secondary schools 1963 – First Malay-medium fully-residential secondary, SMK Alam Shah 1968 – First batch of Malay-medium students graduated from UMTHE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM 1968 – Malay-medium classes introduced at secondary vocational schools 1968 – Conversion from English to Malay as the medium of instruction for Standard I to III in national- type (English) primary schools 1973 – All subjects in the Arts stream, Form 1, in national-type secondary schools were taught in Malay 1975 – The conversion programme from English to Malay as a medium of instruction in all national-type (English) primary schools was completed 9
  • 10. THE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM 1980 – University first-year Arts courses were conducted in Malay 1982 – Conversion program from English to Malay as the medium in national-type (English) secondary schools was completed 1983 – All university courses in arts, science, engineering, medicine and etc. were conducted in Malay 1989 – The National Philosophy of Education was released THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION "Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforts towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large" 10