HSP Science Year 2


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HSP Science Year 2

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Primary Schools Curriculum Specifications SCIENCE Year 2 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2002
  2. 2. Copyright © 2002 Curriculum Development CentreMinistry of Education MalaysiaPesiaran Duta50604 Kuala LumpurFirst published 2002Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work inany form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the written permission from theDirector of the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS PagePreface xiIntroduction 1Aims and Objectives 1Scientific Skills 2Thinking Skills 3Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 7Teaching and Learning Strategies 7Content Organisation 9Learning about Living Things Learning Area: 1. Living Things and Non-living Things 11 2. Ourselves 12 3. Animals 14 4. Plants 15Learning about the World Around Us Learning Area: 1. Long or Short 17 2. The Magic of Batteries 18 3. Mixing Things 20 4. Push and Pull 21 iii
  4. 4. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; to maintaining ademocratic way of life; to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitablyshared; to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; to building aprogressive society which shall be oriented toward modern science and technology;We, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:BELIEF IN GODLOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRYUPHOLDING THE CONSTITUTIONRULE OF LAWGOOD BEH AVIOUR AND MOR ALITY v
  5. 5. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort toward developing the potential of individuals in a holisticand integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally andphysically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort isdesigned to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess highmoral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level personal well beingas well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and the nationat large. vii
  6. 6. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able tomaster scientific knowledge and technological competency ix
  7. 7. PREFACEThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised In a recent development, the Government has made asociety depends on science and technology. It is decision to introduce English as the medium of instructionenvisaged that success in providing quality science in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics.education to Malaysians from an early age w ill serve to This measure w ill enable students to keep abreast ofspearhead the nation into becoming a know ledge society developments in science and technology in contemporaryand a competitive player in the global arena. Tow ards this society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tapend, the Malaysian education system is giving greater the diverse sources of information on science w ritten in theemphasis to science and mathematics education. English language. At the same time, this move w ould also provide opportunities for students to use the EnglishThe Science curriculum has been designed not only to language and hence, increase their proficiency in theprovide opportunities for students to acquire science language. Thus, in implementing the science curriculum,know ledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking attention is given to developing students’ ability to usestrategies, and to apply this know ledge and skills in English for study and communication, especially in theeveryday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values early years of learning.and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the educationalprocess en route to achieving these aims w ould produce The development of this curriculum and the preparation ofwell-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been theharmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. work of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who have contributed in one w ay or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express myThe Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labourTo this end, students are given ample opportunities to expended.engage in scientific investigations through hands-onactivities and experimentations. The inquiry approach,incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies andthoughtful learning, should be emphasised throughout theteaching-learning process. The content and contexts (Dr. SHARIFAH MA IMUNAH SY ED Z IN)suggested are chosen based on their relevance and Directorappeal to students so that their interest in the subject is Curriculum Development Centreenhanced. Ministry of Education Malaysia xi
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION AIMS The aim of the primary school science curriculum is to developAs articulated in the National Education Policy, education in pupils’ interest and creativity through everyday experiences andMalaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of investigations that promote the acquisition of scientific andindividuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce thinking skills as w ell as the inculcation of scientific attitudes andindividuals w ho are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and values.physically balanced and har monious. The primary and secondaryschool science curriculum is developed w ith the aim of producingsuch individuals. OBJ ECTIVES The Level One Pr imary Science curriculum is designed tostimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest as w ell asenabling pupils to learn more about themselves and the w orld The level one science curriculum aims to: 1. Stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest aboutaround them through activities. the w orld around them. The curriculum is articulated in tw o documents: the 2. Provide pupils w ith opportunities to develop science process skills and thinking skills.syllabus and the curriculum specifications. The syllabus presents 3. Develop pupils’ creativity.the aims, objectives and the outline of the curriculum content for aperiod of 3 years for level one primary science. The curriculum 4. Provide pupils w ith basic science know ledge and concepts. 5. Inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values.specifications provide the details of the curriculum. w hich includes 6. Create an aw areness on the need to love and care for thethe aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions onthinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific skills, scientific environment.attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning strategies, andcurriculum content. The curriculum content provides the learningobjectives, suggested learning activities, the intended learningoutcomes, and vocabulary. 1
  9. 9. SCIENTIFIC SKILLSScience emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and Predicting Making a forecast about whatproblem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are will happen in the future basedutilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation on prior know ledge gainedsuch as conducting experiments and carrying out projects. through experiences or collected data. Scientific skills encompass science process skills andmanipulative skills. Comm unicating Using w ords or graphic symbols such as tables, graphs, figuresScience Process Skills or models to describe an action, object or event.Science process skills enable students to formulate theirquestions and find out the answ ers systematically. Using space-time Describing changes in relationship parameter w ith time. ExamplesDescriptions of the science process skills are as follows: of parameters are location, direction, shape, size, volume,Observing Using the sense of hearing, weight and mass. touch, smell, taste and sight to find out about objects or events. Interpreting data Giving rational explanations about an object, event or patternClassifying Using observations to group derived from collected data. objects or events according to similarities or differences. Defining Defining all variables as they are operationally used in an experiment byMeasuring and Making quantitative describing w hat must be doneUsing Num bers observations by comparing to a and w hat should be observed. conventional or non- conventional standard. Controlling Naming the fixed variable, variables manipulated variable, andMaking Using past experiences or responding variable in anInferences previously collected data to draw investigation. conclusions and make explanations of events. 2
  10. 10. THINKING SKILLSMaking Making a general statement Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual toHypotheses about the relationship betw een a integrate know ledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand manipulated variable and a the environment. responding variable to explain an observation or event. The One of the objectives of the national education system is to statement can be tested to enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be determine its validity. achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills isExperim enting Planning and conducting a foundation for thoughtful learning. activities to test a hypothesis. These activities include Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively collecting, analysing and involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be interpreting data and making organised to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking conclusions. skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and decision- making. Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skillsManipulative Skills and creative thinking skills. A person w ho thinks critically alw ays evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. AManipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills person w ho thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, isthat enable students to: able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas and products. Use and handle science apparatus and substances. Handle specimens correctly and carefully. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes Draw specimens and apparatus. that involve various steps. Each step involves various critical and Clean science apparatus. creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies Store science apparatus. is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and learning process. 3
  11. 11. Critical Thinking SkillsA brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: Attributing Identifying criteria such as Analysing Examining information in detail characteristics, features, by breaking it dow n into qualities and elements of a smaller parts to find implicit concept or an object. meaning and relationships. Com paring and Finding similarities and Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions Contrasting differences based on criteria that have the tendency to such as characteristics, support or oppose something features, qualities and in an unfair or misleading w ay. elements of a concept or event. Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or value of something Grouping and Separating and grouping based on valid reasons or Classifying objects or phenomena into evidence. categories based on certain criteria such as common Making Making a statement about the characteristics or features. Conclusions outcome of an investigation that is based on a hypothesis. Sequencing Arranging objects and information in order based on the quality or quantity of common characteristics or features such as size, time, shape or number. Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance or priority. 4
  12. 12. Creative Thinking SkillsA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a Synthesising Combining separate elements discussion. or parts to form a general picture in various forms such Relating Making connections in a as writing, draw ing or artefact. certain situation to deter mine a structure or pattern of Making Making a general statement relationship. Hypotheses about the relationship betw een a manipulated variable and a Making Using past experiences or responding variable to explain Inferences previously collected data to an observation or event. The draw conclusions and make statement can be tested to explanations of events. determine its validity. Predicting Making a forecast about what Making Analogies Understanding a certain will happen in the future based abstract or complex concept on prior know ledge gained by relating it to a simpler or through experiences or concrete concept with similar collected data. characteristics. Making Making a general conclusion Inventing Producing something new or Generalisations about a group based on adapting something already in observations made on, or existence to overcome some information from, problems in a systematic samples of the group. manner. Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about a particular idea, concept, situation or vision. 5
  13. 13. Relationship between Thinking Skills andScience Process Skills Science Process Skills Thinking SkillsScience process skills are skills that are required in the process of Predicting Relatingfinding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematic Visualisingmanner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative,analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process Using Space-Time Sequencingskills and the possession of suitable attitudes and know ledge Relationship Prioritisingenable students to think effectively. Interpreting data Compar ing and contrasting The mastering of science process skills involves the Analysingmastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are Detecting biasrelated to a particular science process skill are as follow s: Making conclusions Generalising EvaluatingScience Process Skills Thinking Skills Defining operationally Relating Making analogyObserving Attributing Visualising Compar ing and contrasting Analysing Relating Controlling variables AttributingClassifying Attributing Compar ing and contrasting Compar ing and contrasting Relating Grouping and classifying AnalysingMeasuring and Using Relating Making hypothesis AttributingNumbers Compar ing and contrasting Relating Compar ing and contrastingMaking Inferences Relating Generating ideas Compar ing and contrasting Making hypothesis Analysing Predicting Making inferences Synthesising 6
  14. 14. Daring to try.Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Thinking rationally. Being confident and independent.Experimenting All thinking skills The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally occurs through the follow ing stages:Communicating All thinking skills Being aw are of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble values.Science learning experiences can be used as a means toinculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. Theseattitudes and values encompass the follow ing: Inculcating Patriotism Having an interest and curiosity tow ards the environment. The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. development and strengthening of patriotis m among students. For Being diligent and persevering. example, in learning about the earth’s resources, the richness and Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the variety of living things and the development of science and environment. technology in the country, students will appreciate the diversity of Realising that science is a means to understand nature. natural and human resources of the country and deepen their love Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. for the country. Appreciating the balance of nature. Being respectful and w ell-mannered. Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Being thankful to God. Having critical and analytical thinking. Being flexible and open- minded. Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum Being kind-hearted and caring. emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process Being objective. that helps students acquire know ledge and master skills that w ill help them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful Being systematic. learning can occur through various learning approaches such as Being cooperative. inquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning. Being fair and just. Learning activities should therefore be geared tow ards activating 7
  15. 15. students’ critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to The follow ing are brief descriptions of some teaching and learningroutine or rote learning. Students should be made aw are of the methods.thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in theirlearning. They should be challenged w ith higher order questions Experimentand problems and be required to solve problems utilising theircreativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. Inshould enable students to acquire know ledge, master skills and experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations todevelop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting anmanner. experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and manipulative skills. Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning throughexperiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guidingquestion and to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the students to carry out experiments, w here appropriate, teachersenvironment. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. should provide students with the opportunities to design their ow nLearning through discovery occurs when the main concepts and experiments. This involves students draw ing up plans as to how toprinciples of science are investigated and discovered by students conduct experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and howthemselves. Through activities such as experiments, students to present the results of their experiment.investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves.Teachers then lead students to understand the science concepts Discussionthrough the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientificskills are thus developed further during the inquiry process. A discussion is an activity in w hich students exchange questionsHow ever, the inquiry approach may not be suitable for all teaching and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can beand learning situations. Sometimes, it may be more appropriate conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should playfor teachers to present concepts and principles directly to the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questionsstudents. that stimulate thinking and getting students to express themselves. The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods canenhance students’ interest in science. Science lessons that are Simulationnot interesting w ill not motivate students to learn andsubsequently w ill affect their performance. The choice of teaching In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation ismethods should be based on the curriculum content, students’ carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and theabilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and the availability of use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular roleresources and infrastructure. Different teaching and learning based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games requireactivities should be planned to cater for students with different procedures that need to be follow ed. Students play games inlearning styles and intelligences. order to learn a particular principle or to understand the process of 8
  16. 16. decision-making. Models are used to represent objects or actual Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for thesituations so that students can visualise the said objects or teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts.situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be Computer simulation and animation can be presented throughlearned. courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word processors, graphic presentation software and electronicProject spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of data.A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by anindividual or a group of students to achieve a particular learningobjective. A project generally requires several lessons to CONTENT ORGANISATIONcomplete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a report,an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacherand other students. Project w ork promotes the development of The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each themeproblem-solving skills, time management skills, and independent consists of various learning areas, each of w hich consists of alearning. number of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or more learning outcomes.Visits and Use of External Resources Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurableThe learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in the behavioural ter ms. In general, the learning outcomes for aschool compound. Learning of science can be enhanced through particular learning objective are organised in order of complexity.the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, science How ever, in the process of teaching and learning, learningcentres, research institutes, mangrove sw amps, and factories. activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated mannerVisits to these places make the learning of science more that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomesinteresting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning according to needs and context. Teachers should avoid employingopportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may be a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcomeinvolved in the planning process and specific educational tasks separately according to the order stated in the curriculumshould be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is specifications.complete w ithout a post-visit discussion. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information onUse of Technology the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning ActivitiesTechnology is a pow erful tool that has great potential in enhancing are given w ith the intention of providing some guidance as to howthe learning of science. Through the use of technology such as learning outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity maytelevision, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and cover one or more learning outcomes. At the same time, morelearning of science can be made more interesting and effective. than one activity may be suggested for a particular learning 9
  17. 17. outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit theability and style of learning of their students. Teachers areencouraged to design other innovative and effective learningactivities to enhance the learning of science. 10
  18. 18. Learning about Living ThingsLearning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary ActivitiesLiving Things and Non-living ThingsPupils should learn Pupilsto make observations Pupils w alk around the make a list of the things Pupils must be living thingsand use these to school compound and list they see. supervised during the non-living thingsgroup things into living out the things that they walk around the growsthings and non-living see. Pupils group them group w hat they see into school compound. foodthings. into living things and non- living things and non-living water living things. things. Allow pupils to group breathe living and non-living move record the groups in the things according to produce form of a table. their ow n understanding. Pupils give reasons w hy state the characteristics of they say something is a living things, i.e.: Discuss w ith pupils living thing e.g. it needs they need food and why they say food and w ater, it water something is a living breathes, it moves, it they breathe thing. grows and it can produce they can move young. they grow Have them look back they can produce young. at grouping that they Pupils look at the grouping did to see if they still that they did earlier. Pupils agree w ith it. Allow redo their grouping based pupils to redo the on the characteristics of grouping according to living things their new understanding of living things. 11
  19. 19. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils w atch videos of recognise humans, animals animals eating, moving, and plants as living things grow ing and producing young. Pupils discuss that plants: a) need food and w ater, b) grow c) can grow new plants.OurselvesPupils should learn Pupilsthat they need to food Pupils talk about w hat will state that they need to eat Discuss w ith pupilsand w ater to stay alive happen if they do not eat and drink to stay alive. what w ill happen to and drink for a few days. them if they do not eat and drink for 1 day, 2 days, 3 days.that they need to eat Pupils list out the foods list some of the differentdifferent kinds of food that they eat for breakfast foods that they eat.to be healthy. or lunch over one w eek. Pupils present the list of present the list of foods they rice foods they eat in a w eek in eat in the form of a fish the form of a pictograph. pictograph and say w hat chicken this shows e.g. the food that eggs Pupils talk about w hat the is eaten most. meat pictogragh show s e.g. the vegetables food that is eaten the most fruits in one w eek healthy 12
  20. 20. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils talk about the recognise that they need to importance of eating eat different foods to stay different foods to stay healthy. healthy. state the kinds of food that: Pupils talk about food that: give energy a) give energy, e.g. rice, help you grow bread help you stay healthy b) help you grow , e.g. fish, chicken c) help you stay healthy e.g. fruits, vegetablesthat w e grow and Pupils look at photographs describe changes in tallerchange as w e grow of themselves since birth themselves since birth. craw lingolder. to the present. Pupils walking suggest w ays in which state that they grow in running they have changed since height, size and w eight. jumping they w ere born. Pupils talk talking about how they might size change as they grow older. height weight Pupils compare clothes and shoes w hich were worn when they were younger to the clothes and shoes they wear now. Pupils compare handprints/footprints among members of their families. 13
  21. 21. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils compare records of heavier their w eight and height bigger from birth to the present.Anim alsPupils should learn Pupilswhat animals need to Pupils bring some pets or state that animals need foodlive. pictures of pets to food, w ater and air to stay water classroom. Pupils talk alive. air about the needs of pets. Pupils discuss the needs of different animals.the different foods that Pupils w atch videos of list the foods eaten by some plantsanimals eat. animals eating. Pupils list animals. grass dow n the names of the leaves animals and the food they state that some animals: seeds eat. eat plants animals eat other animals. meat Pupils visit a zoo at eat plants and other feeding time to observe animals what animals eat.that animals grow Pupils are given a set of state that animals grow in calf pictures of animals from size and w eight. chick baby to adult. Pupils duckling arrange them in order from state that animals change kitten baby to adult. as they grow. 14
  22. 22. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils match picture of identify baby animals that Have pupils release animals to their babies. look like their parents. the frogs in a suitable Pupils listen to stories place. accompanied by pictures identify baby animals that about animals changing as do not look like their they grow e.g. The Ugly parents. Duckling. describe in w hat w ays the Pupils keep tadpoles to baby animals are different observe the changes from from their parents. tadpole to frog. Pupils record the changes. Pupils visit a butterfly farm to observe the different stages of grow th of a butterfly , from egg to butterfly.PlantsPupils should learn Pupilsthat plants need the Pupils grow a plant Measure a specific volume Teachers can guide tallerright amount of w ater from seeds e.g. beans. of water. pupils on how to biggerfor healthy growth Pupils w ater the plants measure a specific more with different volumes observe and measure a volume of w ater, e.g. of water. grow ing plant 1 teaspoon, 2 teaspoons etc 15
  23. 23. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils observe a plant record the observations in a . grow ing and record the chart. height, number of leaves. State that plants need w ater to grow but too much w ater may kill them.that flow ering plants Pupils observe a plant, recognise that flow ering Have pupils collect fruitproduce seeds which with fruit. e.g. balsam plants produce seeds w hich seeds from different seedsgrow into new plants. plant. can grow into new plants. plants. Pupils cut open the fruit to Identify seeds and the look at the seeds. plants. Pupils plant the seeds to grow a new plant. Match seeds to plants , e.g. balsam, papaya, rubber, tomato. 16
  24. 24. Learning about the World Around UsLearning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary ActivitiesLong or ShortPupils should learn Pupilsto observe and Pupils look at tw o objects state w hich object is longer tallercompare lengths to compare their lengths or or taller. longer heights. shorter straw Pupils look at pictures of string objects to compare their lengths or heights. Pupils compare their heights by standing next to each other.to measure length Pupils suggest w ays to describe w ays to measureusing non-standard measure the length or length.tools. height of an object. Pupils measure length or measure the length of an height using non-standard object using a non-standard tools e.g. using a straw , a tool. piece of string etc. record the length or height Pupils record the length or of an object in non-standard height of and object in non- measurement in a table. standard measurement e.g. tw o straws long. 17
  25. 25. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils compare their heights by using non- standard measurement.The Magic of BatteriesPupils should learn Pupilsabout things that use Pupils discuss in groups identify things that use batterybatteries. and make a list of things batteries. toys that use batteries. radio list things that use batteries. torchlight Pupils are given pictures/video and are asked to identify the things in the picture that use batteries.how to use a battery. Pupils are given a battery are able to use batteries Use alar m clocks or and are asked to insert correctly. toys that need only batteries into an alar m one battery. clock or toy. recognise that batteries need to be inserted Ensure that the toy is Pupils observe the change correctly for them to sw itched on. to the alar m clock or toy function. when the battery is Ensure that the alar m inserted. clock is set to ring describe how to insert a when the battery is Pupils observe w hat battery correctly inserted. happens if the battery is reversed. 18
  26. 26. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils are asked to state If pupils have how to correctly insert a inserted the battery battery. wrongly, have them try again.how to make a Pupils are given a battery, describe different ways in Allow pupils to try bulbcomplete circuit. wire and a bulb. which the battery, w ir e and different w ays of wire bulb can be connected. connecting the Pupils draw possible w ays battery, w ire and bulb of connecting the battery, are able to make a until they get the bulb wire and bulb to make the complete circuit using a to light up. bulb light up. battery, w ire and a bulb. Pupils test out their are able to draw their draw ings by building the working circuit and explain circuit. their draw ing. Pupils draw and explain what they did to make the bulb light up. 19
  27. 27. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary ActivitiesMixing thingsPupils should learn Pupilsthat some materials Pupils are given materials are able to recognise that Taste only solutions watercan dissolve in w ater such as sugar, salt, coffee, some mater ials can dissolve of edible materials. saltand some cannot. flour, pepper, sand. in w ater. sugar coffee Pupils are asked to add a record their observations in pepper glass of water to each of a table. curry pow der the materials and to stir it. dissolve Pupils are asked to observe and state their observations. Pupils check their observations by: a) tasting the solutions b) filtering the solutions. 20
  28. 28. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary ActivitiesPush and pullPupils should learn Pupilsthat pushing and Pupils are given a variety describe w hat they did to A tw is t is a pushpulling can change the of materials, e.g. change the shape of combination of a pullshape of objects plasticine, sponge, dough. mater ials. push and a pull tw ist Pupils are asked to change stretch the shape of the mater ials squeeze and describe the action they used to do so, e.g. pull, tw ist, stretch. Pupils say whether each action is a push or a pull, e.g. stretching is a pull, squeezing is a push.that pushing or pulling Pupils are given a toy car describe w hat they did to fastercan make things or a ball and asked to make things speed up, slow slow erspeed up, slow dow n make it move faster, dow n or change direction. directionor change direction slow er or to change faster direction. Pupils say how slow er they made the toy car or ball move faster, move slow er or change direction, e.g. the car moves faster when I push it harder. 21
  29. 29. Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activitiesto make predictions Pupils are given toy cars of predict w hich toy car w illand to test them different sizes and are travel the furthest. asked to predict w hich car will travel the furthest. measure distances in Pupils test their predictions appropriate units. by making the toy cars move and measuring the distance traveled by each suggest and give reasons car in standard or non- whether a comparison w as standard measurement. fair or not. Pupils discuss whether their compar ison w as fair, e.g. I pushed the big toy car harder so the comparison w as unfair. 22
  30. 30. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAdvisors Sharifah Maimunah Syed Zin ( Ph.D) Director Curriculum Development Centre Rohani Abd. Hamid ( Ph.D) Deputy Director Curriculum Development CentreEditorial Ahmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Principal Assistant Director (Science and Mathematics)Advisors Curriculum Development Centre Yeap Chin Heng ( Ph.D) Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre Cheah Eng Joo Assistant Director (Head of Elective Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre S. Sivagnanachelvi Assistant Director (Head of English Unit) Curriculum Development CentreEditor Salina Hanum Osman Mohamed Assistant Director Curriculum Development Centre 26
  31. 31. PANEL OF WRITERSAhmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Curriculum Development Centre Rosli Suleiman Curriculum Development CentreYeap Chin Heng ( Ph.D) Curriculum Development Centre Rusilaw ati Othman Curriculum Development CentreCheah Eng Joo Curriculum Development Centre Salbiah Mohd. Som Curriculum Development CentreSalina Hanum Curriculum Development Centre Salehuddin Mustafa Curriculum Development CentreOsman MohamedAizatul Adzwa Mohd. Basri Curriculum Development Centre Zaidah Mohd. Yusof Curriculum Development CentreJohari Shamsudin Curriculum Development Centre Zaidi Yazid Curriculum Development CentreNorani Abdul Bari Curriculum Development Centre Zainon Abdul Majid Curriculum Development CentreArif Fadzilah Mohd. Said SK Bandar Baru Serting Mohd. Azman Mohd. Ali SK Lui Sealatan (F) JempolMariam Ibrahim SK Pantai, Seremban Tan Man Wai Maktab Perguruan Teknik 27
  32. 32. Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education 2002