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  • 1. Marta Pietrzak TF II Teacher S. Majzner
  • 2.
    • In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
    • Dietary habits are the habitual decisions an individual or culture makes when choosing what foods to eat.
    • With the word diet, it is often implied the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos, due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthful. Proper nutrition requires the proper ingestion and, equally important, the absorption of vitamins, minerals, and food energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
    • Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in health and mortality, and can also define cultures and play a role in religion.
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • 17 Day Diet
    • Atkins diet
    • Blood Type Diet
    • Cookie diet
    • Detox diet
    • Earth Diet
    • Fit for Life diet
    • Gerson diet
    • Hallelujah diet
    • Inuit diet
    • Juice diet
    • Liquid diet
    • McDougall diet
    • Natural Foods Diet
    • Organic food diet
    • Plant-based diet
    • Raw foodism
    • South Beach diet
    • Vegetarian diet
    • Western pattern diet
    • Zone diet
  • 5.
    • Metabolism confusion is a technique of varying intake in ways that proponents say the body cannot adjust to. It does not require much exercise. A varied diet in both types of foods and portions of foods is the basis for metabolic confusion. By eating different kinds of food and varying food portions, the body's metabolism is forced to react differently. Proponents say that this variety improves weight loss.
    • This diet plan promotes what it calls "clean" eating, which includes avoiding sugars and processed foods. The diet gives some guidelines to follow when choosing what to eat. These include:
    • Eliminating refined sugars
    • Making healthy food choices
    • Eliminating alcoholic beverages
    • Eating breakfast each morning
    • Eliminating processed foods
    • Drinking more water
    • Increasing the amount of "natural" food eaten
  • 6.
    • The diet consists of four phases aimed at "confusing" the dieter's metabolism.
    • Accelerate: This cycle promotes fat burning, cleansing, and quick weight loss without storing fat.
    • Activate: This cycle is said to "reset" the person's metabolism.
    • Achieve: This cycle promotes good eating habits and shows how to eat carbs the right way.
    • Arrive: This cycle combines the first three cycles. This allows weekends for the dieter to indulge in his or her favorite foods and cravings.
  • 7.
    • The blood type diet is a diet advocated by Peter D'Adamo, a naturopathic physician, and outlined in his book Eat Right 4 Your Type. D'Adamo's claim is that ABO blood type is the most important factor in determining a healthy diet, and he promotes distinct diets for people with O, A, B, and AB blood types.
    • D'Adamo groups those thirteen races together by ABO blood group, each type within this group having unique dietary recommendations:
    • Blood group O is believed by D'Adamo to be the hunter , the earliest human blood group. The diet recommends that this blood group eat a higher protein diet. D'Adamo bases this on the belief that O blood type was the first blood type, originating 30,000 years ago.
    • Blood group A is called the cultivator by D'Adamo, who believes it to be a more recently evolved blood type, dating back from the dawn of agriculture, 20,000 years ago. The diet recommends that individuals of blood group A eat a diet emphasizing vegetables and free of red meat, a more vegetarian food intake.
    • Blood group B is, according to D'Adamo, the nomad , associated with a strong immune system and a flexible digestive system. The blood type diet claims that people of blood type B are the only ones who can thrive on dairy products and estimates blood type B arrived 10,000 years ago.
    • Blood group AB , according to D'Adamo, the enigma , the most recently evolved type, arriving less than 1,000 years ago. In terms of dietary needs, his blood type diet treats this group as an intermediate between blood types A and B.
  • 8.
    • The Hallelujah Diet , also known as The Hallelujah Diet and Lifestyle, was created as an attempt to be a biblically-based diet.
    • Then God said, "I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food."
    • "Everything that lives and moves will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.„
    • The diet in its current form focuses on health and nutrition from a biblical standpoint. However, Stephen Barrett, MD, has reviewed the nutritional value of the diet and claims, "Although low-fat, high-fiber diets can be healthful, the Hallelujah Diet is unbalanced and can lead to serious deficiencies."
    • The diet follows vegan principles and consists of living (raw) foods, juices, and distilled remineralized water. Specifically, a daily ratio of 85% raw and 15% cooked foods is prescribed. The lifestyle associated with the diet promotes exercise, proper cleansing, adequate rest, spiritual well-being, sufficient amounts of sunshine, and the elimination of stress.
  • 9.
    • Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve or maintain a controlled weight. In most cases dieting is used in combination with physical exercise to lose weight in those who are overweight or obese. Some athletes, however, follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body weight.
    • Diets to promote weight loss are generally divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie. A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between the main diet types (low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat), with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss in all studies. At two years, all calorie-reduced diet types cause equal weight loss irrespective of the macronutrients emphasized.
    • The first popular diet was "Banting", named after William Banting. In his 1863 pamphlet, Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public, he outlined the details of a particular low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet that had led to his own dramatic weight loss.
  • 10.
    • According to the USDA, a low-fat diet – as the name implies – is a diet that consists of little fat, especially saturated fat and cholesterol, which are thought to lead to increased blood cholesterol levels and heart attack. It is important to know that dietary fat is needed for good health, as fats supply energy and fatty acids, in addition to supplying fat-soluble vitamins like A, D, E, and K.
  • 11.
    • Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption usually for weight control or for the treatment of obesity. Foods high in digestible carbohydrates (e.g. bread, pasta) are limited or replaced with foods containing a higher percentage of proteins and fats (e.g., meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, nuts, seeds, peanuts, and soy products) and other foods low in carbohydrates (e.g., most salad vegetables) although other vegetables and fruits (especially berries) are often allowed. The amount of carbohydrate allowed varies with different low-carbohydrate diets.
    Such diets are sometimes ketogenic (i.e. they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis) for example, the induction phase of the Atkins diet. Some sources, though, consider less restrictive variants to be low-carbohydrate as well. Apart from obesity, low-carbohydrate diets are often used as treatments for some other conditions, most notably diabetes and epilepsy, but also for chronic fatigue syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  • 12.
    • Caloric restriction (CR), or calorie restriction, is a dietary regimen that restricts calorie intake, where the baseline for the restriction varies, usually being the previous, unrestricted, intake of the subjects. Calorie restriction without malnutrition has been shown to improve age-related health and to slow the aging process in a wide range of animals and some fungi. CR is one of the few dietary interventions that have been documented to increase both the median and maximum lifespan in a variety of species, among them yeast, fish, rodents and dogs. There are currently ongoing studies to investigate whether CR works in nonhuman primates, and its effects on human health and metabolic parameters associated with CR in other species. The results so far are positive, but the studies are not yet complete, due to the long lifespan of the species.
    • Calorie restriction is a feature of several dietary regimens, including the Okinawa diet and the CRON-diet.
  • 13.  
  • 14.
    • Detox diets are dietary plans that claim to have detoxifying effects. The general idea suggests that most food is contaminated by various ingredients deemed unnecessary for human life, such as flavor enhancers, food colorings, and artificial preservatives. Scientists, dietitians, and doctors, while generally judging 'detox diets' harmless (unless nutritional deficiency results), often dispute the value and need of 'detox diets' due to lack of supporting factual evidence or coherent rationale. Detox diets can involve consuming extremely limited foods (only water or juice, a form of fasting), or eliminating certain foods from the diet (such as fats). Proponents claim that this will cause the body to burn accumulated stored fats, releasing fat-stored "toxins" into the blood, which can then be eliminated through the blood, skin, urine, feces and breath. Proponents claim things like an altered body odor support the notion that detox diets are working; this claim has been criticized for misinterpreting the body undergoing ketosis. Though a brief fast of a single day is unlikely to cause harm, prolonged fasting can be fatal.
  • 15.
    • Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is a diet with very or extremely low calorie consumption per day. It is defined medically as a diet of 800 kilocalories per day or less. VLCDs are formulated, nutritionally complete, liquid meals containing 800 calories or less per day. VLCDs also contain the recommended daily requirements for vitamins, minerals, trace elements, fatty acids and protein. Carbohydrate may be entirely absent, or substituted for a portion of the protein; this choice has important metabolic effects. The VLCD products are usually a powder which is mixed with water or another low calorie liquid. The VLCD is prescribed on a case to case basis for rapid weight loss (about 3 to 5 pounds per week) in patients with Body Mass Index of 30 and above. The health care provider can recommend the diet to a patient with BMI between 27 and 30 if the medical complications the patient has due to overweight present serious health risk.
  • 16. Food Weight (g) Common Measure Calories (kcal) Alcoholic beverage, beer, light 354 12 fl oz 103 Alcoholic beverage, beer, regular 355 12 fl oz 138 Alcoholic beverage, wine, dessert, sweet 103 3.5 fl oz 157 Apple juice, unsweetened 248 1 cup 117 Bananas, raw 118 1 banana 105 Beans, baked, canned, plain or vegetarian 254 1 cup 239 Beets, canned, drained solids 170 1 cup 53 Bread, rye 32 1 slice 83 Bread, wheat 25 1 slice 65 Bread, white 25 1 slice 67 Broccoli, raw 88 1 cup 30 Butter 14.2 tablespoon 102 Cabbage, raw 70 1 cup 17 Cake, chocolate 64 1 piece 235 Carbonated beverage, cola, with caffeine 370 12 fl oz 155 Carrots, raw 72 1 Carrot 30 Cheese, cottage, creamed 210 1 cup 216 Cheese, provolone 28.35 1 oz 100 Chicken, broilers/fryers, breast, meat only 86 1/2 breast 142 Coffee, instant, regular, prep. with water 179 6 fl oz 4 Crustaceans, crab, blue, canned 135 1 cup 134 Crust., lobster, cooked, moist heat 85 3 oz 83 Crustaceans, shrimp, canned 85.05 3 oz 102 Egg, whole, cooked, fried 46 1 large 92 Fast foods, cheeseburger, double patty 155 1 medium 457 Fast foods, hamburger, double patty 215 1 medium 576 Fast foods, hotdog, 98 1 hotdog 242
  • 17. Fish, haddock, cooked, dry heat 150 1 fillet 168 Fish, halibut, cooked, dry heat 159 1/2 fillet 223 Fish, salmon, pink, canned 85 3 oz 118 Fish, tuna salad 205 1 cup 383 Grapefruit juice, pink, raw 247 1 cup 96 Ham, sliced, regular (+/- 11% fat) 56.7 2 slices 92 Honey 21 1 tbsp 64 Ice creams, vanilla 66 1/2 cup 133 Lemon juice, canned or bottled 244 1 cup 51 Lettuce, green leaf, raw 10 1 leaf 2 Margarine, regular, tub, 80% fat, with salt 14.2 1 tbsp 102 Milk shakes, thick chocolate 300 10.6 fl oz 357 Milk, whole, 3.25% milkfat 244 1 cup 146 Nuts, almonds 28.35 24 nuts 164 Oil, olive, salad or cookin 13.5 1 tbsp 119 Onions, raw 110 1 onion 46 Oranges, raw, all commercial varieties 131 1 orange 62 Pears, raw 166 1 pear 96 Potato salad 250 1 cup 358 Potatoes, baked, flesh, without salt 156 1 potato 145 Rice, white, parboiled, enriched, cooked 175 1 cup 200 Tea, herb, chamomile, brewed 178 6 fl oz 2 Food Weight (g) Common Measure Calories (kcal)
  • 18.
    • A healthy diet is one that helps maintain or improve health. It is important for lowering many chronic health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer. A healthy diet involves consuming appropriate amounts of all essential nutrients and an adequate amount of water. Nutrients can be obtained from many different foods, so there are numerous diets that may be considered healthy. A healthy diet needs to have a balance of macronutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), calories to support energy needs, and micronutrients to meet the needs for human nutrition without inducing toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts.
  • 19.
    • The World Health Organization (WHO) makes the following 5 recommendations with respect to both populations and individuals:
    • Achieve an energy balance and a healthy weight
    • Limit energy intake from total fats and shift fat consumption away from saturated fats to unsaturated fats and towards the elimination of trans-fatty acids
    • Increase consumption of fruits and vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts
    • Limit the intake of simple sugar. A 2003 report recommends less than 10% simple sugars.
    • Limit salt / sodium consumption from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized
    • Other recommendations include:
    • Sufficient essential amino acids ("complete protein") to provide cellular replenishment and transport proteins. All essential amino acids are present in animals. Some plants (such as soy and hemp) give all the essential acids. A combination of other plants in a diet may also provide all essential amino acids. Fruits such as avocado and pumpkin seeds also have all the essential amino acids.
    • Essential micronutrients such as vitamins and certain minerals.
    • Avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances;
    • Avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs).
  • 20.
    • In addition to dietary recommendations for the general population, there are many specific diets that have primarily been developed to promote better health in specific population groups, such as people with high blood pressure (as in low sodium diets or the more specific DASH diet), or people who are overweight or obese (in weight control diets). However, some of them may have more or less evidence for beneficial effects in normal people as well.
  • 21.
    • A low sodium diet is beneficial for people with high blood pressure. A Cochrane review published in 2008 concluded that a long term (more than 4 weeks) low sodium diet in Caucasians has a useful effect to reduce blood pressure, both in people with hypertension and in people with normal blood pressure.
    • The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a diet promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (part of the NIH, a United States government organization) to control hypertension. A major feature of the plan is limiting intake of sodium, and it also generally encourages the consumption of nuts, whole grains, fish, poultry, fruits and vegetables while lowering the consumption of red meats, sweets, and sugar. It is also "rich in potassium, magnesium, and calcium, as well as protein".
    • Also, evidence shows that the Mediterranean diet improves cardiovascular outcomes.
  • 22.
    • Weight control diets aim to maintain a controlled weight. In most cases dieting is used in combination with physical exercise to lose weight in those who are overweight or obese.
    • Diets to promote weight loss are generally divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie. A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between the main diet types (low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat), with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss in all studies. At two years, all calorie-reduced diet types cause equal weight loss irrespective of the macronutrients emphasized.
  • 23.
    • A comprehensive worldwide report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective, compiled by World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research, reports that there is significant relation between lifestyle (including food consumption) and cancer prevention. The same report recommends eating mostly foods of plant origin and aiming to meet nutritional needs through diet alone, while limiting consumption of energy-dense foods, red meat, alcoholic drinks and salt and avoiding sugary drinks, and processed meat.
  • 24. Against Diets deprive the body of proper nutrition – in proper nutrishment can cause prolonged hunger, depression, fatigue, irritability and weight fluctuation; in extreme cases it can lead to suicide thoughts, diabetes, liver and kidney damage and even cardiac arrest The occurrence of jojo-effect is inherent in the dieting process Diets are not suitable for everyone – due to metabolic factors certain diets will not work for every individual For Proper nutrition is indispensable – a diet provides the body with nutrition which, in turn, keeps it in good shape and prevents certain diseases Observing a well-balanced diet prevents the occurrence of the jojo-effect Diets have a beneficial effect on health – certain diets purify the human body of various toxic substances absorbet from the environment
  • 25. For A diet constitutes a basic and vital necessity Particular diets bring considerable health benefits e.g. vegetarians have a lower risk rate of diabetes and death from heart disease Diets are inspired by diverse cuisines Healthy dieting is popularized by celebrities Against Dieting may lead to eating disorders – psychological and neurological eating disorders such ach anorexia nervosa, bulima and compulsive eating are extermely hard to cure and pose a grave threat to health What accompanies the diet maybe a health hazard – dieting is sometimes accompanied by vomiting, fasting and compulsive exercise to rid the body of redundant calories. Medication designed to strengthen the effect of losing weight may lead to various problems with health Dieting is an industry based on advertising The media advocate weight prejudices
  • 26. One should eat to live, not live to eat. ~Cicero, Rhetoricorum LV