Literary frameworks for narrative
   analysis in entrepreneurship
             research
        A tale of two researchers
...
Case presentation

• Brief overview of narrative and entrepreneurship
  theory (our context)

• A tale of two researchers ...
Narrative and entrepreneurship theory:
             brief overview
• Relatively recent appearance in the literature

• Rec...
The tale of two researchers
• Elicited life and career stories through in-depth
  interviews
• How to analyse the empirica...
Two different processes of analysis

                               McAdams’s (1997) framework /
                         ...
Researcher 1

                               McAdams’s (1997) framework /
                                 seven features ...
2
Researcher

McAdams’s (1997) framework /
  seven features of narrative



                           Gergen (1994): prog...
Early Western literary traditions informing post-
          modern research agendas
Narrative                             ...
…and then …
Doing things with
(narrative) empirical material

A Tale of Three Research Approaches


  Eleanor Hamilton e.hamilton@lanc...
Compare 3 forms of empirical material



1. In-depth interview (1:1 interview)
   Ellie Hamilton (EH) with an entrepreneur...
3 kinds of communicative event
Key features of the narrative in the narrative canon emanate from
  the „communicative even...
Interview with Dave Walton
EH   Mmmm.

     Now don‟t forget me wife was me father‟s bosses daughter so
DW
     she‟d come...
Interview with DW contd.
Narrative themes                                    Comments
•   me wife was me father‟s bosses d...
Interview with DW contd.
DW So then we decided we must leave the house because then you could have a
   day off at home an...
Interview with DW contd.
Narrative Themes                                      Comments
•                                 ...
Interview with John & Mrs Draper p.12
•   MD Because I said, “we‟d have to get somebody more in the office”.
    Because I...
Interview with John & Mrs Draper p.13
     Yes it was really. People couldn‟t believe how well we got on
MD
     together,...
Analytic points on the Draper‟s interview
p.12 note how MD cues JD to continue the „plot-line‟ but he declines
   [1st few...
Narratives in interaction: excerpts from an
        Executive MBA classroom
 • key features of the narrative in the narrat...
Narratives in interaction
21. OP:   Contracts entered into by gentlemen will sooner or later be
22.       executed by knav...
Narratives in interaction
          What about the loan which we as students don‟t know
54. MR:
           It‟s in the fig...
Analytical points narratives in interaction
   Lines 21-22 is a sort of story
   It has gendered and classed connotations ...
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Literary Frameworks For Narrative Analysis Fox Hamilton Larty

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Literary Frameworks For Narrative Analysis Fox Hamilton Larty

  1. 1. Literary frameworks for narrative analysis in entrepreneurship research A tale of two researchers Joanne Larty – j.larty@lancaster.ac.uk Eleanor Hamilton – e.hamilton@lancaster.ac.uk
  2. 2. Case presentation • Brief overview of narrative and entrepreneurship theory (our context) • A tale of two researchers adopting frameworks from early Western literary traditions
  3. 3. Narrative and entrepreneurship theory: brief overview • Relatively recent appearance in the literature • Recognised as having the potential to contribute to theory building BUT ALSO • To challenge dominant views of entrepreneurship as individualistic and gender biased
  4. 4. The tale of two researchers • Elicited life and career stories through in-depth interviews • How to analyse the empirical material? – little elaboration of analysis in existing studies – „more of an art than a science‟ (Riessman, 1993) – „near anarchy in the field‟ (Mishler, 1995) • Need for exemplars (Mishler, 1990)
  5. 5. Two different processes of analysis McAdams’s (1997) framework / seven features of narrative Researcher 1 Researcher 2 Ricoeur (1991): time, life and Gergen (1994): progressive and narrative regressive narratives Frye’s (1957) Anatomy of Aristotle’s Poetics Criticism epic tragedy (reversals, romantic comedy recognitions and suffering)
  6. 6. Researcher 1 McAdams’s (1997) framework / seven features of narrative Ricoeur (1991): time, life and narrative Aristotle’s Poetics epic tragedy (reversals, recognitions and suffering)
  7. 7. 2 Researcher McAdams’s (1997) framework / seven features of narrative Gergen (1994): progressive and regressive narratives Frye’s (1957) Anatomy of Criticism romantic comedy
  8. 8. Early Western literary traditions informing post- modern research agendas Narrative • The family and the McAdams Aristotle material business Researcher 1 (Framework 1) (Framework 2) • Masking of the role Empirical of the woman Alluding to Aristotle / material Reversals, • Socially situated Frye and early Western recognitions & nature of learning literary traditions suffering Recorded 7 features of narrative: interviews •Narrative tone •Imagery • The hybrid role of Northrop Frye •Theme Researcher 2 the franchisee Written (Framework 3) •Ideological setting transcripts • Positioning the self •Nuclear episodes as franchisee Cyclical •Imagoes • Resistance to movements in •Generativity/endings narrative franchisor control • Reveal the literariness of the narrative accounts • Uncover myths, metaphors and the role of emplotment
  9. 9. …and then …
  10. 10. Doing things with (narrative) empirical material A Tale of Three Research Approaches Eleanor Hamilton e.hamilton@lancaster.ac.uk Steve Fox s.fox@lancaster.ac.uk
  11. 11. Compare 3 forms of empirical material 1. In-depth interview (1:1 interview) Ellie Hamilton (EH) with an entrepreneur [“Dave Walton” - DW] 2. Narrative-in-interaction (multiparty, 1:2 interview) Ellie Hamilton (EH) with a couple [“John Draper” JD & “Mrs Draper” MD] 3. Narrative in interaction (ethnographic field notes) Naturally occurring talk captured by Steve Fox (SF) with some Executive MBA students
  12. 12. 3 kinds of communicative event Key features of the narrative in the narrative canon emanate from the „communicative event‟ in which it occurs: – The research interview [prototypical interviewer as passive audience, elicitor of the story, assymetrical relations lacking intimacy] – Interview narratives [co-constructed, co-authored, co- draftings] – Naturally occurring narratives in ordinary conversational settings Georgakopolou (2006: 237)
  13. 13. Interview with Dave Walton EH Mmmm. Now don‟t forget me wife was me father‟s bosses daughter so DW she‟d come from a business family, they were business people. Most of her mother‟s brothers and sisters were in business, she had a leaning towards business. I don‟t say she‟s business minded, she isn‟t my wife is a, was a head teacher, she was in the teaching profession, was a teacher at the time but she said why don‟t we buy it. And I went to Mrs Jack and suggested this to her and she talked to me and said yes she would and I‟d got a little bit of equity in the house, we hadn‟t lived there long, but I got married in ‟57, this would be, I went into the business on the first of January 1963 and on first of January 2003 I‟ve actually been there forty years which is in a few months time. I‟ve still got that business and I called it, their surname was Jack, and the people who owned it before them their surname was Jack because it was a brother and sister thing so I called it Jack‟s of Norton
  14. 14. Interview with DW contd. Narrative themes Comments • me wife was me father‟s bosses daughter • Business runs in families • so, she‟d come from a business family • DW‟s wife came from a business family • she had a leaning towards business • This doesn‟t mean she was business • I don‟t say she‟s business minded minded • she was in the teaching profession, • Here‟s why… • but she said why don‟t we buy it. • She seems to have made the decision • And I went to Mrs Jack and suggested • DW put it into action this • More on how business runs in • I‟ve still got that business and I called it, families.. their surname was Jack, and the people who owned it before them their surname was Jack because it was a brother and sister thing so I called it Jack‟s of Norton
  15. 15. Interview with DW contd. DW So then we decided we must leave the house because then you could have a day off at home and just at the time then a piece of property came up for sale, it was a farm house, and it was only two and a half miles from the business and it was a farm house, three acre paddock, and farm buildings, not in too bad a condition, it came up for auction. We went and looked at it and the wife and I said yes we can live there and we went to the auction and bought it at auction. We paid £14,500 for it and the trouble, the problem though, we weren‟t selling anything. We weren‟t selling a house to buy a house and it was difficult so me wife got the mortgage, she was a teacher, she was a head by this time and she got the mortgage. And she browbeat the building society because even then they were reluctant to let a woman have a mortgage, but she could as she was in permanent employment, good prospects and it was permanent, you know it was alright and she got the mortgage, so it‟s me wife‟s house and she always says he lives there under sufferance, she always says that. I daren‟t put a foot wrong in case she throws me out. So now that was the making of the business because this farm with three acres of land had outbuildings, we were able then to think of stocking a little bit more stuff for the shop and selling different things.
  16. 16. Interview with DW contd. Narrative Themes Comments • • the wife and I said yes we can live there House purchase as joint decision • she was a teacher, she was a head by • Her economic capital, and social this time and she got the mortgage capital, used to obtain the house • And she browbeat the building society because even then they were reluctant to • Joke about the power that may be let a woman have a mortgage associated with that ownership and control • so it‟s me wife‟s house and she always says he lives there under sufferance, she • Move allows the business to grow always says that. I daren‟t put a foot wrong in case she throws me out • so now that was the making of the business because this farm with three acres of land had outbuildings, we were able then to think of stocking a little bit more stuff for the shop and selling different things
  17. 17. Interview with John & Mrs Draper p.12 • MD Because I said, “we‟d have to get somebody more in the office”. Because I came in one day after going out and getting some lunch for us and John had the telephone in one hand and what were you doing with the other one? • JD I don‟t know. • MD I know, I said, “this is ridiculous we can‟t carry on like this”. I was doing all the ordering wasn‟t I, and everything. Because we ordered the stuff and had it sent to the supplier, er to the manufacturers to make up for us. And we just carried on from there. Then the ……. • EH Did you enjoy that spell? • MD Yes I did really I did. Until he used to shout at me (227) [laugh] • JD You were gone three days weren‟t you? • MD Because I can‟t stand it, you see. [laugh] • JD You wanted to stay at home for three days. • EH Just to keep you on your toes? • JD Yes.
  18. 18. Interview with John & Mrs Draper p.13 Yes it was really. People couldn‟t believe how well we got on MD together, which I couldn‟t really [laugh]. But we did. We got on well together. Just that once I left the office and stamped out. JD I was muttering in me beer [laugh]. I said, “until you say you‟re sorry I‟m not coming back”. [laugh MD EH And the spelling. That‟s what it was. JD MD Yes it was, it was over a letter that I typed three times. His a terrible writer to understand the writing and when I couldn‟t spell you see I couldn‟t do it properly and I was there late on real night, late one night typing out stuff, because he‟d been out all day and come back into the office late at night. But um, it was all right you learnt your lesson [laugh]. JD I think it was one of the most wonderful periods of our lives together. MD Oh yes, yes, it was, it was fabulous. Fabulous.
  19. 19. Analytic points on the Draper‟s interview p.12 note how MD cues JD to continue the „plot-line‟ but he declines [1st few turns-in-talk] Then Ellie (EH) cues her… She (MD) responds and disses him… He seems to justify himself – so there‟s a looming „breach‟ p.13 - Some repair work [1st few turns and closing lines]
  20. 20. Narratives in interaction: excerpts from an Executive MBA classroom • key features of the narrative in the narrative canon emanate from the „communicative event‟ in which it occurs: – The research interview [prototypical interviewer as passive audience, elicitor of the story, assymetrical relations lacking intimacy] – Interview narratives [co-constructed, co-authored, co- draftings] – Naturally occurring narratives in ordinary conversational settings – Georgakopolou (2006: 237)
  21. 21. Narratives in interaction 21. OP: Contracts entered into by gentlemen will sooner or later be 22. executed by knaves 23. Sm: [laughter] But isn‟t this true of all relationships, with great respect? 24. NL: 25. [Laughter] 26. Sm: [Pause] 27. NL: even in marriage! 28. Sm: [laughter] O.K. Nick, just because we didn‟t all go to Cambridge! 29. OP: 30. Sm [laughter] 31. NL: [appealing to the lecturer] I was trying not to be 32. personal. As soon as he says „with great respect‟ you know 33. OP: 34. T: Yes, start ducking when anybody says this.. 35. NL: [pulls a face] From Fox (2008: 747-8) Excerpt 1
  22. 22. Narratives in interaction What about the loan which we as students don‟t know 54. MR: It‟s in the figures as debentures 55. T: 56. [Pause] 57. MR: Ye-es. 58. NL: Everybody else found it Matthew! 59. Sm: [laughter] 60. DM: With great respect! 61. NL: No! With no respect! You‟ll have to excuse Matthew(.) he works for „the Co-op‟ 62. OP: 63. Sm: [laughter] 64. T: Now that (slight pause) was (slight pause) knavish! 65. Sm: [laughter] From Fox (2008: ) Excerpt 2
  23. 23. Analytical points narratives in interaction Lines 21-22 is a sort of story It has gendered and classed connotations & usages It is reprieved throughout both excerpts in locally situated ways Catch-phrases are woven in [e.g. „with great respect‟] These are re-used with comedic effect The interaction itself unfolds as a performative & theatrical event, i.e. in a „storyable‟ way (c.f. Sacks, 1981) These events are „tellable‟ (Georgakopoulou, 2006) cf. „storyable‟ Lines 54-58 refer to a story (i.e. a business case study) they are all supposed to have read So there‟s intertextuality going on between the emergent narrative plot and the case study The case study primes the group as a cast of characters, but their actual plot-lines are quite „emergent‟

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