Opportunities and contradictions : The Policy Paradox of entrepreneurial education and university business engagement since 1960 By Mary Rose, (Lancaster University) Sarah Robinson, (Open University) Sarah Jack (Lancaster University) and Nigel Lockett, (University of Leeds) ESRC Symposium University of Loughborough, 30 September 2010
Attitudes to the entrepreneur <ul><li>'the Entrepreneur in the UK has become the god (or goddess) of current UK ideology and a leading actor in the theatre of the new economics.' (quoted Coffield 1991, p. 59) </li></ul>
Entrepreneurship Education and Outreach activity: Attitudes within Universities?
Our Approach Historical Methodology Social Theory University-Industry relationship Attitudes behind government rhetoric Attitudes to outreach and entrepreneurship education in universities
The paper covers Broad Historical Context Institutional History Personal Histories
History Matters : for Policy, Institutions and Individuals Knowledge and Skills Theories linking : Past present and future Path dependency and path creation Communities of Practice Forms of capital Attitudes Networks
History is about continuity Legacies and lock in
History is also about change: innovation and new combinations Legacies and opportunities
Case studies <ul><li>Manchester Metropolitan University </li></ul><ul><li>University of Salford </li></ul><ul><li>Lancaster University </li></ul>
Universities from Wilson to Thatcher : The Wilson era <ul><li>University expansion and ‘White Heat of Technology’ </li></ul>
1960s HEI Expansion <ul><li>Colleges of Advanced Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Plate-glass </li></ul><ul><li>Polytechnics </li></ul>Student numbers 1961-2 113,143 1967-8 200,121
The enterprise culture <ul><li>1980s ideological response to ‘anti –industrial culture’ </li></ul><ul><li>Rising unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship education </li></ul>
Attitudes in HEI : Legacies and opportunities <ul><li>Growth of Entrepreneurship education </li></ul><ul><li>1999 38% British Universities offered courses </li></ul><ul><li>Grants for enterprise education, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li> 'raise[d] fundamental questions about learning and teaching and the nature of the curriculum and about the culture and ethos of higher education' (Training Agency, 1989, quoted Tasker and Packman, 1994:152). </li></ul>
Policy and Knowledge Economy : The triggers to outreach <ul><li>DTI’s Innovation Report (DTI 2003), </li></ul><ul><li>the Lambert Review (Lambert 2003), </li></ul><ul><li>HM Science and Technology Committee reports (House of Commons 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>the Government Science and Innovation Investment Framework 2004-2014 (HM Treasury 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>HM Treasury Report The Race to the Top (Sainsbury 2007). </li></ul>
Institutional Histories <ul><li>Origins of both Manchester Metropolitan University and University of Salford lay in 19 th Century industrial needs </li></ul>
Contradictions … they view universities as being full of long haired weirdos…who don’t understand the real world I think the interaction back to the academics is proving very valuable because they could have been accused of being somewhat insular it is important they do recognise…the needs of the market and not just their research aspirations suppose some people in universities don't want to interact with companies at all. There is a need for bridging the gap between academia and industry
Opportunities ‘ I think [Britain’s] manufacturing base is…almost gone and it is our knowledge base which is our strength and I think we have got to view universities A combination of knowledge transfer and knowledge creation actually in the space between the academic world and the business world or in collaboration perhaps in the overlap rather than the space between ‘ it makes our students more employable because they have already produced a product that is on the market and so that looks good
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Conclusions Role of history in shaping attitudes to outreach and entrepreneurship education Deepening understanding of boundaries and barriers to engagement Importance of engaging students in ‘engagement’ Period of change in role of UK universities
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