What does monotheism mean?
(If theism means belief in a god,
what do you think mono-theism
Began in present day Israel
Founded by Abraham (a key figure in ALL 3 of
Moses led Israelites from Egypt out of
King of Israel, the young boy who
defeated Goliath, eventually succeeds Saul as
King of Israel and Judah.
First 5 books that
contain teachings of
IS the first five books
of the Bible
Is accepted as a Holy
Book in Islam as well
Written in Hebrew
▪ Read right to left,
instead of left to right
Found in present-
Are the oldest
surviving copies of
dating back over
Followers are the Hebrews (culturally) and
Jews (religious term)
Hebrew is the language they spoke
They worship in synagogue or temple
Temple – the original
place of worship,
Synagogue – modern
buildings used for
worship. Many referred to
as temples as a tribute to
the original one.
Orthodox (very religious)
Conservative (traditional, but less rigid than
Reform (the most liberal of the three)
10 Commandments given to Moses by God
Kosher—strict dietary laws (“free of
Shabbat (Sabbath)-Holy Day—Sundown on
Friday to Sundown Saturday – Spent in prayer,
resting, family feasting.
Calendar includes five major festivals (including
Passover, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur) and two
minor ones – Hanukkah, Purim
(Pa-celebrates Exodus from Egypt. R.H.-Jewish New Year, YK – Day of
Atonement/pray for forgiveness, H – celebrates religious freedom/victory over
The Beginnings of Christianity
in Bethlehem Present day Israel
Jesus: Son of God, born in Nazareth
Messiah (the anticipated savior)
Disciples: Followers/students of Jesus
Apostles: the “chosen” teachers of Jesus’
Paul: Continued to spread
Christianity and wrote a good
portion of the New Testament
Bible (originally written in Hebrew,
Aramaic/Greek, translated/updated countless
times since) 1382-English
Old Testament: the foundation of the Biblical
story, the history/customs of the Jews, written
hundreds of years before the life of Jesus.
New Testament: written
after the birth of Jesus
Christ, about his life,
Place of WorshipPlace of Worship
church in a diocese)
(Basilica – a church blessed
by the Pope, 33 in the U.S)
Reformation led by Martin Luther in 16th
Century, resulted in formation of many
different “branches” of Christianity: Catholic
- Protestants, Baptists, Orthodox,
Presbyterians, Anglicans, Pentecostals,
“Holy Trinity”: God the Father, Jesus the Son
and the Holy Spirit
Pastor, Priest, Reverend, Preacher
Gospels: First 4 books of New Testament
Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
Tells story of Jesus
Jesus’ message of love/forgiveness
Drew large crowds
Resurrection: Jesus died on the cross, rose 3
days later and ascended to Heaven 40 days
Sunday is Holy Day
Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Birthplace of Muhammad,
most sacred city in Islam.
Muslims around world
face Mecca 5 times daily
Muhammad: Last and greatest prophet
What is a prophet? Someone sent by Allah
(God, to bring people to believe in and
worship Him alone.
The Prophetic Tradition of Islam
6. Mohammad (the last and greatest)
Sunni - believed there was no successor
appointed by Muhammad, recognize 4 post-
Muhammad caliphs, do not recognize any
caliphs alive today; since the 1920s (Most
Muslims are Sunni)
Shi’ite (pronounce She-Ite) – believe there
were 12 Imams (followers of Muhammad),
one in hiding because of sins of Islamic
Communnity, but will return before “the end
Qur’an/Koran: exact words revealed to Muhammad by God.
Recorded by scribes during Muhammad’s lifetime.
The primary source of every Muslim’s
Deals with wisdom, beliefs, worship and the law.
Focuses on the relationship between God and His
Place of Worship:Place of Worship:
Allah (Arabic for “God”)
Central Theme/Belief: Monotheism – belief in
one all-powerful God.
Purpose of humanity is to serve Allah,
worship him alone, and lead a moral life.
1. The Shahada
The declaration of faith:
"There is no God but"There is no God but
Allah andAllah and MuhammadMuhammad
is his Prophet"is his Prophet"
2. The Salat
The mandatory prayers
performed 5 times a day:
* late afternoon
* before going to bed
Wash before praying.
Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.
3. The Zagat
Muslims believe that all things
belong to God.
Zagat means both “purification”
About 2.5% of your income.
4. The Sawm
Fasting during the holy month
Considered a method of self-
No eating or drinking from
sunrise to sunset during
5. The Hajj
The pilgrimage to Mecca.
Must be done at least once in a
Muslim’s lifetime by all that
are physically/financially able.
2-3 million Muslims make the
5. The Hajj
Those who complete the
pilgrimage can add the title
hajji to their name.
Other Islamic Religious
Up to four wives allowed at once.
No alcohol or pork.
Sharia body of Islamic law to
regulate daily living.
Three holiest cities in Islam:
* Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.
Name one thing that all three
religions have in common?