Good Morning/Afternoon! 3/5/13 Good Morning! 1/10/12EQ: Who were the Zapatistas and what did theydo?HW: Study guide 1-7. Test on Thursday. Sponge#1. Pick up a handout in the blue tray-complete the “Cuba” side#2. Take out your study guide.
Who are the Zapatistas? a group of Mexicans who support improved rights & living conditions for Mexico’s indigenous people Where does the name “Zapatista” come from?...
Latin America Guerilla Organizations• The Zapatista Movement in Mexico• People from the Chiapas region of Mexico.• Made up primarily of poor farmers and workers of indigenous American ancestry.
THE NAME OF THE ZAPATISTAS• The Zapatistas get their name from one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution, Emiliano Zapata.• Zapata is a Mexican symbol for rising up against a government that oppresses the people.• Emiliano Zapata DID NOT CREATE the Zapatistas, but his lifetime achievements inspired the name of the group.
Why Chiapas?• It’s a resource-rich state in southern Mexico: – produces over half of Mexico’s hydroelectric power – 2nd largest petroleum producing state – Largest coffee exporting state• So what’s the big deal there?
What’s the Big Deal?• Chiapas has the worst rates of poverty in Mexico: – three-fourths of its people are malnourished, half live in dwellings with dirt floors – 19% of the population has no income – 39% earn less than minimum wage ($3/day)• Chiapas is a huge contributor to the global economy (water, oil, etc.), but is getting little in return. – huge division between rich & poor in the state
What are they fighting for?• Zapatistas want to eliminate the division between the social classes in Chiapas (wealthy vs. poor) – They argued that the indigenous people of Mexico needed more help to improve healthcare, housing education, & jobs.• They have tried to peacefully negotiate with Mexico’s government, but the agreements have not solved the peoples’ problems…• .
Subcomandante Marcos "The natural wealth that leaves these lands doesnt travel over just these three roads (leading to Chiapas). Chiapas is bled through thousands of veins: through oil ducts and gas ducts, over electric wires, by railroad cars, through bank accounts, by trucks and vans, by ships and planes...And what tribute does this land continue to pay to various empires? Oil, electric energy, cattle, money, bananas, honey, corn, cocoa, tobacco, sugar, soy...and Chiapan blood flows out through a thousand and one fangs sunk into the neck of southeastern Mexico."
NAFTA & the Zapatistas…• 1994—North American Free Trade Agreement came into effect & allowed free trade between US, Canada, & Mexico• Some people in Mexico did not like this plan: – thought that NAFTA would allow cheap farm goods to come into Mexico from the US – thought NAFTA benefitted the wealthy and hurt the poor Native American farmers by lowering prices of crops like coffee and corn – farmers in Mexico would not be able to compete with the cheaper food
NAFTA & the Zapatistas…• On the day NAFTA took effect, the Zapatistas took over 7 towns in their part of Mexico (state of Chiapas).• The Mexican army was sent to remove the Zapatistas.• fighting lasted for several weeks, & a cease- fire eventually ended the fighting• Zapatistas did not go away
The Revolt of 1994• The revolt was put down by the Mexican National Army, but the Zapatistas received recognition from governments worldwide.• The revolt helped put pressure on the Mexican government to fix the problems in the Chiapas region
Mexico and the Zapatistas Today• Since the Zapatista revolt in 1994, the Mexican government and the EZLN are working constantly to come up with solutions in the Chiapas.• The Zapatistas want more money and assistance from the government in helping to make the Chiapas region prosperous.• It’s taking a long time…
ZAPATISTA WRITING ASSIGNMENTThere are different opinions on exactly what the Zapatistas fight for. Therefore, I want you to take a stand and write either in FAVOR of the Zapatistas or AGAINST them. So do you think of the Zapatistas more as:1) A freedom fighting group that fights for the rights of poor farmers and second class citizens.OR2) A terrorist group who is attempting to overthrow the Mexican government through violence and other illegal activities.
Picture Analysis• What exactly do you see in the photograph?• How are the people dressed?• What are they doing?• Imagine that you are in the picture. What would you hear? What would you smell?• Prediction: What happened right before this image?• Prediction: What happened right after this image?
WHAT IS A GUERILLA? Is This An Example of a Guerilla?
WHAT ARE GUERILLAS?• Usually a small military group• Made up of non-traditional soldiers• Does not represent a country but more a common group or cause• Uses surprise attacks and sabotage to attack larger more formal enemies