Good Morning!EQ: What are the causes and results of the RussianRevolution?HW: No HW SPONGE:What might cause people to revolt (rise up against) their governments?
REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA Chapter 1 The Fall & Rise
• Russia had a tradition of oppressive rulers • Organized violence against Jews • Strict censorship (including on private letters) • Absolute authority • Only Russian language was to be spoken, except by the nobility who also spoke French • Only worship the Russian Orthodox Church • Secret Police
CONTINUING AUTOCRATIC RULE…• CENSORSHIP- to examine material in order to suppress or delete anything considered objectionable on moral, political, military, or other grounds• Total censorship- schools, papers, letters• Secret Police watched high schools and college students
• In 1894, the last Russian Czar, Nicholas II came to power.• He was committed to keeping total control over Russia.
• Personality • Uncharismatic, quiet, disliked large crowds • Lives the life of a private wealthy monarch• Politics • The Czar’s usual nickname: the people’s “little father” – Nicholas doesn’t act the part • Left most state affairs to his ministers
• Religion • Strong Eastern (Russian) Orthodox faith• Family • Alexandra (czarina): wife • Alexi: son; heir to the throne, weak and sickly • Anastasia: famous “missing” daughter
RUSSIA INDUSTRIALIZES • Rapid industrialization changed the economy • Factories doubled between 1863-1900 • Fourth leading steel leader due to higher taxes on citizens and foreign investors • Trans-Siberian Railway links western and eastern Russia (longest in the world)
CONDITIONS LEAD TO REVOLUTION • Rapid industrialization stirs up discontent (dissatisfaction) • Bad working conditions, low wages, child labor, and no labor unions led to strikes
CONDITIONS LEAD TO REVOLUTION • Marxism- radical form of socialism where all aspects of industry are owned by the government • Ideas of Karl Marx establish Revolt • Proletariat- working class • Marxist believed proletariat would overthrow czar • …this meant the working class would rule the country
The Two I e a s … d• Socialism: Everyone owns/shares and is equal VOLUNTARILY• Communism: The government owns everything and decides level of equality
CONDITIONS LEAD TO REVOLUTION• Marxists split into two groups over revolutionary tactics QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.• Mensheviks= moderates wanting popular support of revolution• Bolsheviks=radical revolutionaries willing to sacrifice everything for change
• Leader of the Bolsheviks VLADIMIR LENIN• Very organized• Ruthless• Fled to western Europe to QuickTime™ and a decompressor avoid arrest by the czarist are needed to see this picture. regime• Maintained contact with the Bolsheviks Father of the revolution
REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA Chapter 2 Troubles a Brewin’
• Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin pushed for revolution• Lenin continued to build his influence until it was safe to return to Russia• …meanwhile…
• Russo-Japanese defeat looked very bad. -Jan 1905, 200,000 workers and their families protested the czars winter palace -Wanted job reforms -Nicholas ordered soldiers to fire in the crowd -1,000+ wounded several hundred killed -Event provoked riots
• Suffering caused by WWI was the final blow against the czar’s rule • 4 million Russian soldiers were killed, wounded, or captured • Czar lost control of Russia • Soldiers refused to fight • People were starving • Russia had withdrawn from the war…
• 1915 Nicholas moved his headquarters to the war front- hoped to rally troops• His wife, Alexandra was left in charge of the country• Put all her trust and power in Rasputin- a self proclaimed “holy man”• 1916 a group of nobles murdered Rasputin• Neither Nicholas or Alexandra proved capable of tackling these enormous problems.
REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA Chapter 3 Losing Control
• Nicholas soon lost control.• Strikes, revolts and protests led to the March Revolution of 1917.• Czar Nicholas stepped down.
• Women who worked in factories in Petrograd(St. Petersburg) stood in line after a 12 hour shift to purchase insanely priced bread.• 10,000 women marched withthe slogan “Peace and Bread”• The women were joined by other workers creating a general strike.Czar’s solution was to fire upon the crowds but the soldiers joined the movement instead!
• 1917- Czar Nicholas is forced to abdicate his throne• The three century czarist rule of the Romanov’s finally collapsed• Year later revolutionaries executed Nicholas and his family• March Revolution succeeded in bringing down the Czar yet it failed to set up a strong government to replace it
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT• Someone needed to rule…• Provisional government was established, (Provisional= temporary)• headed by Alexander Kerensky. • Continued fighting WWI • BAD idea lost support
• Demanded land• City workers grew more radical• Soviets were formed local city councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers• A political challenge erupted from local “Soviets”• Later, this group became stronger and were labeled as “Bolsheviks.”
REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA Chapter 4 Bolshevik Revolution
German military leaders shipped Lenin to Russia from Switzerland by rail to “create disorder” within Russia.Germany arranged Lenin’s return to Russia after many years in exile • April 1917: Traveled in a sealed railroad boxcar
• Lenin revitalized slogans from the mad mother’s march to influence Russians “Peace, Land, Bread”• Nov. 1917- armed workers took control of government offices.• Kerensky’s reign had ended.
• A COUP WITHOUT BLOODSHED - Lenin takes over the provisional government at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg on November 6, 1917.• Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Communists after Marxist ideas.• Lenin had promised peace so he signed the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk which took Russia out of WWI