MONOTHEISMJudaism, Christianity, andIslam are major faiths that areexamples of monotheism, orbelief in one supreme god.
I. JUDAISMFirst practiced by a smallgroup of people in SouthwestAsia called the Israelites.Founded by Abraham around2000 BC.Followers today are known asJews and there are about 15million worldwide.Holy book is the Torah.
Jewish Beliefs:Believe that they descended fromAbraham and Sarah, the first peopleto worship Yahweh (God). Abraham lived at least 3,700 years ago in what is now Iraq.
DiasporaOver the centuries, the Jewswould be conquered and forced toleave their homeland many times. Eventually, they spread to countries in many parts of the world. Scattering of the Jews = Diaspora.In many areas, the Jews weretreated cruelly… European Jews were nearly wiped out by Hitler and Nazi Germany
Holy DaysPassover: festival that retells thestory of the Israelites fleeingEgypt.Rosh Hashanah: Jewish NewYear’s Day.Yom Kippur: known as the Dayof Atonement. People fast (gowithout food) and pray on this day.
II. ChristianityArose from Judaism in SouthwestAsia.A Jew named Jesus beganpreaching in what today is Israel,the West Bank, and Jordanaround 30 AD.Some Jews greeted him as themessiah, or savior, who woulddeliver them from Romanpersecution.
ChristianityFollowers of Jesus are calledChristians.The holy book of the Christians isthe Bible; stories about Jesusbecame the New Testament.There are about 2.1 billionfollowers worldwide.
ChristianityBeliefs are based on theteachings of Jesus: love of God and others, a regard for justice, a belief that Jesus is the Son of GodDivided into 3 major groups:Eastern Orthodox, RomanCatholic, & ProtestantPracticed in most parts of theworld today
Holy DaysChristmas: Jesus’ birthday.Good Friday: day Jesus wascrucified.Easter: most important day ofChristian calendar; believed tobe the day that Jesus rosefrom the dead.
III. ISLAMBegan around 610 AD in SouthwestAsia.In Arabic, Islam means “surrender” tothe will of Allah (God).Followers of Islam are called Muslims,and the founder is Muhammad.Believe that Muhammad is the last andgreatest prophet of Islam, whichincluded Abraham & Jesus.
Muhammad’s swords Muhammad’s hat, robe, and staff
A piece of Muhammad’s hair! One of Muhammad’s sandals
The Green Dome in Madinah Muhammad’s grave lies under the Green Dome. (Above is his casket.)
IslamIs the main religion of theMiddle East, North Africa, &AsiaTwo largest groups of Muslimsare the Sunnis and the Shiites The Sunnis account for 90% of the world’s MuslimsNumber of followers is growingat a rapid rate; faster than theother 2 religions 1.3 billion followers worldwide
The KoranThe Muslim holy book is theKoran.Describes the Five Pillars ofFaith (obligations all Muslimsmust fulfill).
Five Pillars of Faith:The main duties of Muslims: Prayer, Giving to charity, Belief in and submission to one God (Allah), Fasting during the month of Ramadan, and a trip to Mecca once in a lifetime.