Coal was formed as massive amounts of vegetation died and fell into the swamp-like surfaces that existed in the heavily vegetated Earth of the Carboniferous Period. Huge mats of waterlogged plant material were formed that resisted decay.
Organic plant matter at various stages of decay form peat, which under certain pressure and heat conditions experiences slow rates of bacterial decay and eventually goes on to form coal. As peat is buried by sediment and becomes compressed, it slowly releases water and other elements contained within it, resulting in an increasingly compact and carbon rich substance. The natural process converting plant matter to peat may go through different stages, first forming lignite, then sub bituminous coal, bituminous coal and eventually anthracite coal.
Oil is formed from the remains of animals and plants (diatoms) that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment before the dinosaurs. Over millions of years, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand and silt.
Oil is used as a fossil fuel to help create motor gasoline and diesel fuel. It is used to make crayons, dish washing , heating houses, and fueling the cars , we use fossil fuel for trucks, make product, and motorcycle and other thing.
Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane. It is found associated with other fossil fuels, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, and landfills. It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas.
What are refineries and why are they important to the production of fossil fuels ?
Refineries is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, and liquefied petroleum gas. Refineries are important to the production of fossil fuels, because the fossil fuels undergo steps to help to purify the substances or something. They are important because oil refinery is a industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products.
What kind of clean and oil catastrophe did the Exxon Valdez cause ?
The Exxon Valdez spilled approximately 10.9 million gallons of its 53 million gallon cargo of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Eight of the eleven tanks on board were damaged. The oil would eventually impact over 1,100 miles of non-continuous coastline in Alaska, making the Exxon Valdez the largest oil spill to date in U.S. waters.
The response to the Exxon Valdez involved more personnel and equipment over a longer period of time than did any other spill in U.S. history. Logistical problems in providing fuel, meals, berthing, response equipment, waste management and other resources were one of the largest challenges to response management. At the height of the response, more than 11,000 personnel, 1,400 vessels and 85 aircraft were involved in the cleanup.
The Exxon Valdez departed from the Trans Alaska Pipeline terminal at 9:12 pm, March 23, 1989. William Murphy, an expert ship's pilot hired to maneuver the 986-foot vessel through the Valdez Narrows, was in control of the wheelhouse. At his side was the captain of the vessel, Joe Hazelwood. Helmsman Harry Claar was steering. After passing through Valdez Narrows, pilot Murphy left the vessel and Captain Hazelwood took over the wheelhouse. The Exxon Valdez encountered icebergs in the shipping lanes and Captain Hazelwood ordered Claar to take the Exxon Valdez out of the shipping lanes to go around the ice. He then handed over control of the wheelhouse to Third Mate Gregory Cousins with precise instructions to turn back into the shipping lanes when the tanker reached a certain point. At that time, Claar was replaced by Helmsman Robert Kagan .
Continue the cause of the Exxon Valdez
Clean-up attempts can be more damaging than the oil itself, with impacts recurring as long as clean-up (including both chemical and physical methods) continues. Because of the pervasiveness of strong biological interactions in rocky intertidal and kelp forest communities, cascades of delayed, indirect impacts (especially of trophic cascades and biogenic habitat loss) expand the scope of injury well beyond the initial direct losses and thereby also delay recoveries.
Oil that penetrates deeply into beaches can remain relatively fresh for years and can later come back to the surface and affect nearby animals. In addition, oil degrades at varying rates depending on environment, with subsurface sediments physically protected from disturbance, oxygenation, and photolysis retaining contamination by only partially weathered oil for years.
Rocky rubble shores should be of high priority for protection and cleanup because oil tends to penetrate deep and weather very slowly in these habitats, prolonging the harmful effects of the oil when it leaches out.
They also effect the sea birds and mammals.
Deep water Horizon oil
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill and Gulf of Mexico oil spill ) is a massive ongoing oil spill from an underwater oil gusher in the Gulf of Mexico that started on April 20, 2010. The spill followed an oil well blowout that caused an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil platform 40 miles (64 km) southeast of the Louisiana coast. Eleven platform workers are missing and presumed dead; the explosion also injured 17 others. The oil spill originates from a deepwater oil well 5,000 feet (1,500 m) below the ocean surface. Numerous estimates have been made for the amount of oil discharging, ranging from 5,000 barrels (210,000 US gallons; 790,000 liters) to 100,000 barrels (4,200,000 US gallons; 16,000,000 liters) of crude oil per day. The exact spill flow rate is uncertain—in part because BP has refused to allow scientists to conduct accurate measurements—and is a matter of some debate. The resulting oil slick covers a surface area of at least 2,500 square miles (6,500 km2) according to estimates reported on May 3, 2010, with the exact size and location of the slick fluctuating from day to day depending on weather conditions. In addition, on May 15, researchers announced the discovery of immense underwater plumes of oil not visible from the surface. The oil well is estimated to hold 50 million barrels of crude.
The oil spill may become one of the worst environmental disaster in the united states history and other countries.
Deepwater Horizon Oil catastrophe deepwater horizon was an ultra- deepwater.
What kind of effect dose it have on the environment of the Gulf of Mexico? And who cleanup
Dispersants are part of the arsenal used in the battle against the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. No one knows what the effect will be on the environment, but there are some clues.
When the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded and sank in April, a small oil leak began. That oil leak has been growing and because it does not stop, it may turn out into an environmental disaster without equal.
According to the scientific journal Nature, several weapons are being used in the battle against the oil, mechanical as well as chemical.
Attempts to stop the oil from spilling by capping the well have been unsuccessful so far, but efforts are ongoing and will have to be successful eventually since the alternative is too hideous to contemplate: waiting until the spill stops on its own. Eight hundred thousand liters of oil (5,000 barrels) are spilling out every day at the moment.
In order to protect the coastline beaches and wetlands, floating booms are used to physically prevent the oil floating on the sea from reaching them. This is at best a temporary measure, for choppy seas or a minor storm is all that is needed to all but annihilate this protection.
Crude petroleum tends to form large globs that are very hard to break down and that have detrimental effects on the environment
The human involve in the clean up, they also contain the spill and they use spray chemicals from the aircraft to disperse the oil.
Pictures Deepwater Horizon OIl The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
At the end
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