Communication• is a technique involving the correct use of language and efficient use of mechanical devices.
Communication• it is a two-way channel for transmitting ideas, plans, commands, and reports or suggestions along all appropriate paths within an organization.
Two-Folds Of Communication• seeks to inform.• to influence or persuade.
Formal Organizational Communication• refers to the written form which occurs through official channels and is authorized and used by the organization.
Informal Organizational Communication• in the form of impromptu discussion of new work procedures among fellow workers, relaying information to co-workers, bull sessions, and “grape vine” and others.
Five (5) Characteristics Of TheBusiness Setting That StronglyInfluence The Communication Process
1. Complex Business takes place in organization be it small or big. Any organization requires a system of communication to accomplish goals.
2. Competitive Learn to select appropriate ways of communication in and outside of the business organization.
3. Group Oriented Communication in business takes place in a group setting. Therefore, when you communicate, consider your behavior.
4. Task Oriented The task of business is to sell either their products or their services.
5. Data Based Modern business communication today takes place with the help of machines and other communication devices.
Ideation • It is the conception of an idea or thought by a person, group or an organization.
Encoding • when an idea or thought is translated into symbols, verbal or non-verbal, that are understood by others.
Transmission• This takes place when the idea or thought which has been places into some transmittable language is passed through one or more available channels (five senses) and through some medium.
Decoding • simply interpretation of the message.
Understanding • mean that the receiver grasps the essentials of the message.
Acceptance and Action• Acceptance implies a willingness on the part of the receiver to comply with message and the action phase entails implementation of the communiqué or message.
Noise • interference in the communication process.
Feedback • returned message from the receiver to the sender.
Scope of Communication• Communication in Managerial Relations• Communication in Employee Relations• Communication in Public Relation
Communication in Managerial Relations• refers to intra- organization and inter-executive communication
Communication in Employee Relations• frequently called industrial relations is the type of communication that generally receives great attention and emphasis.
Communication in Public Relation• relations includes the whole community whose boundaries are unlimited.
Methods of Communication• Verbal Communication• Non-Verbal Communication
Verbal Communication • the use of words in speaking.
Non-Verbal Communication • can be shown in the person’s appearance, body movement, in silence time and sounds.
FORMAL SMALL – GROUP NETWORKSCHAIN WHEEL ALL CHANNELS
FORMAL SMALL – GROUP NETWORKSCRITERIA WHEEL CHAIN ALL CHANNELSpeed Fast Moderate FastAccuracy High High ModerateEmergence of a leader High Moderate NoneMember satisfaction Moderate Moderate High
THE GRAPEVINEAn organization’s informalcommunication network.• 3 CHARACTERS1. It is not controlled by the management.2. It is perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communiqués issued by top management.3. It is largely used to serve the self – interest of the people within it.
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS• Email - uses the Internet to transmit and receive computer generated text and documents. Its growth has been spectacular, and its use is now so pervasive that it’s hard to imagine life without it.
most significant limitations of e – mail• Misinterpreting the message .• Communicating negative messages .• Overuse of e – mail .• E – mail emotions .• Privacy concerns .
Instant Messaging and Text Messaging• IM is usually sent via desktop or laptop computer, whereas TM is transmitted via cell phones or handheld devices.• IM and TM represent fast and inexpensive means for managers to stay in touch with employees and for employees to stay in touch with each other.
Networking Software• Nowhere has communication been transformed more than in the area of networking. You are doubtless familiar with the perhaps a user of social networking Web sites such as Facebook and MySpace.
Web Logs (Blogs)• A Web sites where entries are written, generally displayed in reverse chronological order, about news, events, and personal diary entries.
Video Conferencing• Permits employees in an organization to have meeting with people at different location. Live audio and video images of members allow them to see, hear, and talk with each other.
Knowledge Management• The process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.
CHOICE OF COMMUNICATION CHANNEL Formal Reports, Pre recorded Online Video Discussion Live Speeches Bulletins Speeches Conference groups, groupwareLow Channel Richness High Channel Richness Memos, Electronic Telephone Face – to - Voice Mail Letters Mail Conversation Face Conversation
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION• Filtering - Refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so it will be seen favourably by the receiver.• Selective Perception - The receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION• Information Overload - A condition which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity.• Emotions - How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication influences how he or she interprets it.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION• Language - Even when were communicating in the same language, words mean different things to different people.• Communication Apprehension - People who suffer from it experience undue tension and anxiety in oral communication, written communication or both.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION• Gender differences - are sometimes a barrier to effective communication. Men tend to use talk to emphasize status, whereas women tend to use it to create connections.• Political Correct Communication - there are also situations in which our desire to avoid offense blocks communication (by keeping us from saying what’s really on our mind) or alters our communication in such a way as to make it unclear.
GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS• Cultural Barriers Barriers caused by word connotations. Barriers cause by differences among perceptions. Barrier caused by semantics. Barriers caused by tone differences
GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS• Cultural Context Low – context cultures - They rely heavily on non verbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others. High – context cultures - They rely essentially on words to convey meaning.
GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS• A Cultural GuideAssume differences until similarity is proven.Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation.Practice empathyTreat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.