Teaching writing in globalized learning communities – from multilingualism to translingualism  22 nd  Penn State Conferenc...
The purposes of this presentation <ul><li>The purpose of this paper is to re-frame the concept of language and literacy de...
Five metaphors  <ul><li>Language and literacy development (unmarked)  </li></ul><ul><li>Language and Literacy defined by i...
Language and literacy development (unmarked)  <ul><li>Language and literacy development </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric and com...
Language and Literacy defined by its context <ul><li>Migrant </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant </li></ul><ul><li>Borderland epis...
Political, Hegemonic and Resistance powers of English <ul><li>English as a Second Language </li></ul><ul><li>English as an...
Beyond monolingual views of language and literacy development   <ul><li>Second Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Bili...
Attempts for more fluid conceptualizations  <ul><li>Transnational education </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridity </li></ul><ul><li>...
Linguistic Landscapes – Multiliteracy dig – Environmental Print <ul><li>Linguistic objects that mark the public space (Ben...
Linguistic Landscape of Harrison, NJ <ul><li>3 schools and 1,783 students </li></ul><ul><li>180 (approx. 10%) are classifi...
Translingualism in Harrison
 
 
 
Trans-language learner? Jonietz (1994) <ul><li>“ If the traditional terms are not really applicable, is there a more appro...
Translingual Writers – Kellman (2003) <ul><li>Translingual authors as “those who write in more than one language or in a l...
Cutter, M. J. (2005) Book (review of Kellman 2003)  <ul><li>Translingualism as a subject is certainly worthy of theorizati...
Proposing a new definition: translingualism/transliteracy  <ul><li>Languages and literacies that develop while interacting...
Transliteracy Education
Concrete Examples for English Teachers <ul><li>Translingual teacher as an orchestrator  </li></ul><ul><li>Translingual lin...
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Rhetoric and Composition 2011

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A presentation given at the 2011 Rhetoric and Composition conference in State College, PA.

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  • This restaurant is an excellent example of linguistic diversity in Harrison and the of the fluidity of translingualism. Initially from the exterior, it appears the restaurant serves (and delivers) Chinese food. The yellow sign includes both Chinese characters and English words.
  • But a closer glance reveals the restaurant, which is Chinese-operated, also serves Peruvian-Chinese fusion food. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, Chinese immigrants in Peru began to use Peruvian ingredients for their cooking and Latin American cooking techniques. As a result, “ chifa ” or “ chaufa ” was born. The two words, “ chifa ” or “ chaufa ” come from a Spanish pronunciation of the Mandarin words, “ chi fan ” or “ chao fan, ” meaning “ to eat rice ” or “ fried rice. ” This sign, therefore, is not only evidence of a Peruvian community In Harrison, but also the mixing of a Chinese-American restaurant with Peruvian-Chinese fusion food. For example, the sign here is in English, Spanish, and a Spanish pronunciation of a Chinese word. “ Seafood ” is English, “ Arroz ” is Spanish for rice, and “ Chaufa, ” meaning the rice is specially prepared.
  • Much like the Chinese/Peruvian restaurant, this Harrison storefront displays a combination of words and phrases from multiple languages. The store offers a variety of services – it is a travel agency and bank, which the owners have signified with English words like “travel” and “money transfer.” The store also advertises access to the internet, with Spanish words and phrases, like “internet café” and “cyber café.” Other phrases like “fax, copias &amp; P.O. Box,” are a fluid mixture of English and Spanish. Most importantly, this sign was purposely created by the store owner in a permanent manner, by affixing adhesive letters to glass and ordering a printed plexi-glass sign. The design was created and assumingly vetted by a number of people, members of the community who approved of the language use inherent in it.
  • In our final example, we compare the efforts of a furniture store, whose owners presumably do not speak Spanish, in their efforts to communicate with the Spanish-speaking community in Harrison. Here, five different signs indicate Paiva’s Furniture store has moved around the corner, in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. The Spanish sign reads “ Vaya a arrinconar y despues a hacer una izquierda, al lado de Elks. ” If you plug this sentence into an online translator, it means “ Go to corner and then make a left next to Elks. ” But in Spanish, the sentence sounds rather clumsy. If the owner was Spanish-speaking, he would most likely write the sign as, “ Ir a la esquina y girar a la izquierda, estamos al lado de Elks. ”
  • Rhetoric and Composition 2011

    1. 1. Teaching writing in globalized learning communities – from multilingualism to translingualism 22 nd Penn State Conference on Rhetoric and Composition – Rhetoric and Writing across Language Boundaries 2011 David Schwarzer – Mary Fuchs Montclair State University
    2. 2. The purposes of this presentation <ul><li>The purpose of this paper is to re-frame the concept of language and literacy development in transnational and multilingual glocalized learning communities. </li></ul><ul><li>This talk will have 4 sections: </li></ul><ul><li>Five metaphors that describe this phenomenon in a static way. </li></ul><ul><li>Example – Linguistic landscape – multiliteracy dig – environmental print. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce and define “translingual and transliteracy education” as a new way to frame the phenomenon of study. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide concrete examples for English teachers </li></ul>
    3. 3. Five metaphors <ul><li>Language and literacy development (unmarked) </li></ul><ul><li>Language and Literacy defined by its context </li></ul><ul><li>Political, Hegemonic and resistance powers of English </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond monolingual views of language and literacy development </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts for more fluid conceptualizations </li></ul>
    4. 4. Language and literacy development (unmarked) <ul><li>Language and literacy development </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric and composition </li></ul><ul><li>Language arts </li></ul>
    5. 5. Language and Literacy defined by its context <ul><li>Migrant </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant </li></ul><ul><li>Borderland epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Binational </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational </li></ul>
    6. 6. Political, Hegemonic and Resistance powers of English <ul><li>English as a Second Language </li></ul><ul><li>English as an additional language </li></ul><ul><li>English language learner </li></ul><ul><li>Limited English Proficient </li></ul><ul><li>English as a world language </li></ul>
    7. 7. Beyond monolingual views of language and literacy development <ul><li>Second Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual – emergent bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Trilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingual </li></ul>
    8. 8. Attempts for more fluid conceptualizations <ul><li>Transnational education </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridity </li></ul><ul><li>Third space </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>World minded educator </li></ul><ul><li>Translingual education </li></ul>
    9. 9. Linguistic Landscapes – Multiliteracy dig – Environmental Print <ul><li>Linguistic objects that mark the public space (Ben-Rafael et al., 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>LL reveal social realities as they are evidence of socio-political forces, cultural identities, and linguistic heritage language representations relates to issues of the relative power and status of the different languages in a specific sociolinguistic context (Cenoz & Gorter, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;private&quot; vs. &quot;public&quot; signs - signs issued by public authorities (like government, municipalities or public agencies) and signs issued by individuals, associations, or firms acting more or less autonomously in the limits authorized by official regulations (Ben-Rafael et al., 2006) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Linguistic Landscape of Harrison, NJ <ul><li>3 schools and 1,783 students </li></ul><ul><li>180 (approx. 10%) are classified as LEP </li></ul><ul><li>Student population is: 9% Asian, 1% African-American, 58% Hispanic, 32% Caucasian </li></ul><ul><li>19% of students below poverty level </li></ul><ul><li>The districts spends $400,000 on bilingual education annually </li></ul>
    11. 11. Translingualism in Harrison
    12. 15. Trans-language learner? Jonietz (1994) <ul><li>“ If the traditional terms are not really applicable, is there a more appropriate term? Is it possible that these learners are ‘trans-language learners’ (TLL)? Trans-language learner is a term which describes an individual who moves from a maternal/native language to competence in an additional environmental/instructional language and culture.” (p.43) </li></ul>
    13. 16. Translingual Writers – Kellman (2003) <ul><li>Translingual authors as “those who write in more than one language or in a language other than their primary one.” (p. ix) </li></ul><ul><li>By expressing themselves in multiple verbal systems, [translingual writers] flaunt their freedom from the constrains of the culture into which they happen to be born (ix). Kellman (2003) </li></ul>
    14. 17. Cutter, M. J. (2005) Book (review of Kellman 2003) <ul><li>Translingualism as a subject is certainly worthy of theorization and study… However, the definition of translingualism presented here is very broad and the collection as a whole therefore remains rather diffuse and unfocused. Problematically, Kellman never distinguishes translingualism from bilingualism, multilingualism, or ambibilingualism. (p.199) </li></ul>
    15. 18. Proposing a new definition: translingualism/transliteracy <ul><li>Languages and literacies that develop while interacting with each other in a dynamic and fluid way </li></ul><ul><li>while moving back and forth between real and “imagined” glocalized borders </li></ul><ul><li>and transacting with different cultural identities within a unified self. (Schwarzer, in preparation) </li></ul>
    16. 19. Transliteracy Education
    17. 20. Concrete Examples for English Teachers <ul><li>Translingual teacher as an orchestrator </li></ul><ul><li>Translingual linguistic landscape project </li></ul><ul><li>Visits by community members </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingual word wall </li></ul><ul><li>Written assignments in heritage language </li></ul><ul><li>Family Language Use Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Community Language Use Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Texts </li></ul>

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