Brief history of the armed forces of the


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Brief history of the armed forces of the

  1. 1. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES (AFP) Prepared by: Sgt Mary Grace C Conmigo (Res) PA
  2. 2. Pre-Spanish Period The first recorded organized resistance against foreign aggressor took place in the Visayas during the Battle of Mactan on 27 April 1521 when native chieftain named Lapu-lapu, the acknowledged father of the AFP fought against the Spaniards led by Magellan in the latter’s effort to subdue the former. Lapu-lapu refused to pay homage to the King of Spain. Underestimating the capability of the natives, the foreigners lost in the battle and Magellan was killed.
  3. 3. Spanish Occupation Some islands of the archipelago were successfully occupied by the Spaniards. In 1570, they tried to land in Manila, however, the Muslim leader Raja Soliman resisted their effort. In 1571, Legaspi conquered Manila and made it as the capital of the Philippines. Pockets of rebellion took place. Notable of which was the uprising led by Diego Silang where he displayed his exemplary military leadership style and tactics in defeating the Spaniards.
  4. 4. The Filipino soldiers were also organized to fight for Spain and to support some expeditions. Filipino forces were also sent to reinforce Spanish troops during the Chinese revolt in 1603. General Jose Prim dethroned Queen Isabela II in 1868. the latter espoused liberal principles of democracy. This paved the way for the exposure of the Filipinos in foreign culture leading to the development of strong sense of nationalism among Filipinos.
  5. 5. The works of famous propagandists Marcelo H. del Pilar, Graciano-Lopez Jaena and Dr. Jose P. Rizal further nurtured the national spirit. Andres Bonifacio, who is considered as the Father of the Philippine Army, founded more radical group called “Katipunan” on 07 July 1892. in 23 August 1896, the Cry of Balintawak (Pugad Lawin) signaled the start of the Philippine Revolution against Spain. This was followed by pockets of rebellion which inflicted so much loss to the Spaniards.
  6. 6. The Katipunan was gaining strength, two factions emerged- the Magdalo led by Emilio Aguinaldo and the Magdiwang led by Andres Bonifacio. On 22 March 1897, the Tejeros Convention was called to resolve the conflict between the two factions. As a result, Aguinlado won the presidency. The ocassion also gave birth to the Philippine Army.
  7. 7. American Influence As the war broke out between the United States and Spain on April 23, 1898, the Americans convinced the Filipinos to cooperate with them against Spain with the promise that the US will grant independence to the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared war against Spain. In June 12, 1898, the Philippine Independence from Spain was declared in Kawit, Cavite. Later on, the Philippine Navy was created on 22 June 1898 by the Revolutionary Army.
  8. 8. The occupation of the American forces did not gain much acceptance from the Filipinos because many restrictions imposed to the Filipino forces as to access to some areas. The harsh treatment by the Americans ignited the conflict between them and the Filipinos. The latter were defeated which led to the fall of the Malolos Republic. With Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines to the US. Finding the archipelago as a lucrative place for some economic activities, the US strengthened their presence in the Philippines. This prompted the Filipinos to again unite and fight for the freedom they have just won.
  9. 9. Significant battles followed suit exemplifying the fighting spirit and skills of the Filipino soldiers against formidable opponents. The capture of Gen. Aguinaldo by the Americans in Palanan, Isabela in March 23, 1901 and the laying down of arms of Gen. Miguel Malvar in April 6, 1902 ended the organized resistance against the American forces. To hasten the Philippine campaign to establish peace and order, an insular police force known as the Philippine Constabulary was organized on August 8,1901 followed by the establishment of the Philippine Military Academy (PMA) on February 7, 1905.
  10. 10. On December 21, 1935, the National Defense Act was enacted which officially created the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The Philippine Air Force (PAF) was later established on July 1, 1947.
  11. 11. The Japanese Occupation Consequent to the declaration of war by Japan with the US, the invading Japanese Forces landed in Vigan and Appari in Luzon on December 10, 1941. Unable to withstand the very strong adversary and to save more lives and properties from destruction, the combined military forces of the US and the Filipinos withdrew to Bataan for the implementation of War Plan Orange. Unabated Japanese strikes caused the Fall of Bataan on April 9, 1942 and Corregidor on May 6, 1942. These events ended the organized resistance against the Japanese invasion.
  12. 12. The defeat of the Fil-Am forces did not end the armed sturggle in the Philippines. Those who refused to surrender went underground and waged a guerilla fighting against the Japanese. The activities of the guerilla forces were very instrumental in the successful come back of the liberating US Forces under Gen. Douglas McArthur who landed in Leyte on October 20, 1944.