toddlerhood

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toddlerhood

  1. 1. Chapter 7 -Journey
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Health Promotion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Characteristics <ul><li>Height and Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Body Proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Face and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Bone Development </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Development </li></ul>
  4. 4. Height and Weight <ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Average of 3 cm / year </li></ul><ul><li>2 years-average height=34” </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Average 4-6 lbs a year </li></ul><ul><li>2 years-average=26lbs </li></ul><ul><li>3 years-average=32 lbs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Body Proportions <ul><li>Extremities grow faster than the trunk </li></ul><ul><li>More proportionate appearance </li></ul><ul><li>2 years-potbellied appearance </li></ul><ul><li>3 year-more tall and slender with stronger abdominals and more erect posture </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of he </li></ul><ul><li>ad slows down </li></ul>
  6. 6. Face and Teeth <ul><li>Face and jaw size increase to allow room for teeth </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 years-20 teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Dental exams </li></ul><ul><li>Self care and oral hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb sucking </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bone development <ul><li>Slow down after the first year </li></ul><ul><li>Bones increase in density and hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage is replace with bone tissue </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ossification ” completed at puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sensory Development <ul><li>Vision 20/20 by the end of toddlerhood </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing has completely developed </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent monitoring for delayed speech, ear infections, nose and throat infections. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Vital Signs <ul><li>T 36.6-37.2 </li></ul><ul><li>P 90-120 </li></ul><ul><li>R 20-30 </li></ul>
  10. 11. Motor Development <ul><li>Increased motor skills because of the child's search for independence </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on growth and maturation of muscles, bones and nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be ready-have time to practice </li></ul><ul><li>Walking alone without assistance, creeping upstairs, walking upstairs, running, kicking balls, jump, hop and tiptoe </li></ul>
  11. 12. Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>Feeding, dressing and playing </li></ul><ul><li>By age 3 the toddler can hold a crayon, draw, hand dominance. </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzles </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Turns knobs and opens lids </li></ul>
  12. 13. Toilet training <ul><li>More important to the parent than the young child </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the maturity of the toddler’ muscles :sphincter control </li></ul><ul><li>Bowel control before bladder control </li></ul><ul><li>Nighttime dryness first </li></ul><ul><li>3.5 years usually bladder trained </li></ul>
  13. 14. Psychosocial Development <ul><li>Autonomy vs Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Independence in toileting, dressing, feeding and taking care of their belongings </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Still need parental guidance </li></ul><ul><li>How the conflicts are resolved will reflect on the child self esteem. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Cognition continues through trial and error. </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperational thought </li></ul><ul><li>Memory begins to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors are imitated </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentric view of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Time frames not understood </li></ul>
  15. 16. Moral Development <ul><li>Learn moral and values from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Parent should set good examples </li></ul><ul><li>Caregivers should work as a team </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable discipline that draws on respect is part of moral development </li></ul><ul><li>Learning socially acceptable behavior </li></ul>
  16. 18. Nutrition <ul><li>Good eating patterns and good eating habits </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by family members </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian food guide </li></ul><ul><li>Milk needs decrease </li></ul><ul><li>1300 cals a day </li></ul><ul><li>Snacks should be nutritious </li></ul><ul><li>Offer a variety </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency and routines </li></ul><ul><li>Meal time promotes socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Simple choices </li></ul>
  17. 20. Sleep <ul><li>Toddler sleeps less- more interested in play </li></ul><ul><li>Short naps during the day </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares are not unusual </li></ul><ul><li>Own bed/family bed </li></ul><ul><li>Set consistent routines </li></ul><ul><li>Not all toddler require the same amount of sleep </li></ul>
  18. 22. Play <ul><li>Play is important to exploring and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Mimicking </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic play (make believe) </li></ul><ul><li>Example…building blocks into a city </li></ul><ul><li>Ego development, cognition and socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel play </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginary playmates </li></ul>
  19. 24. Safety <ul><li>Toddler’s are prone to accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Leading cause of death in children </li></ul><ul><li>Toddlers need constant supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Do not recognize dangers </li></ul><ul><li>Falls,poisoning,burns, choking, and drowning </li></ul><ul><li>MVI </li></ul>
  20. 26. Health Promotion <ul><li>Regular physical exam </li></ul><ul><li>Disease prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Immunizations </li></ul><ul><li>P.115 Signs of child abuse </li></ul>
  21. 27. Summary page 115

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