Nutrition Cooking Companion Chapter 13

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Nutrition Cooking Companion Chapter 13

  1. 1. Cooking Companion Chapter 13
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>In this chapter we will cover everyday suggestions to meet everyday problems that people face while eating. </li></ul><ul><li>These problems can present with all clients and all types of diets. </li></ul><ul><li>You will become familiar how to observe for changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Always check with your supervisor before implementing changes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Feeding Difficulties <ul><li>Eating and digestion difficulties can occur for a variety of reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems may arise because of physical reasons, medication, chemotherapy or any combination. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding and digestive problems can have a negative impact on nutrition and overall health. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving may include change in meals, timing of meals, timing of medication and types of food. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Loss of Appetite <ul><li>When there is a significant change in appetite it must be noticed and addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes may be related to: </li></ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul><ul><li>Stress(physical, emotional, mental) </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Poor fitting dentures </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty breathing (emphysema) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Change in diet </li></ul><ul><li>Allergies </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy and radiation therapy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bloating / Edema <ul><li>Edema-cause by fluid imbalance. May be due to change in fx of internal organs, protein imbalance, medication or change in chronic disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The bloating feeling can be limited to one part of the body or all over. </li></ul><ul><li>May affect breathing, walking and sleeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be reported immediately </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bloating / Edema <ul><li>When you report: </li></ul><ul><li>Where the edema is located </li></ul><ul><li>The extend of the edema </li></ul><ul><li>What is affected </li></ul><ul><li>How long the condition has existed </li></ul><ul><li>If it occurred before and what may have relieved it. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not assist the client with any change in medication or restrict fluids unless you are told to do so. Make the client comfortable. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gas <ul><li>Gas/ Flatus is a normal part of digestion. Gas is not a problem unless the client is uncomfortable or cannot expel the gas. Change in position or walking may help relieve the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the following foods: </li></ul><ul><li>Apples , broccoli, soda pop, corn, milk products, onions, bananas, cabbages, cauliflower, cucumbers , turnip and high fiber foods. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sore mouth or throat <ul><li>A sore mouth, gums or throat may be due to condition or medication. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe caused by ill fitting teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain foods such as spices and citrus foods can irritate. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold foods are more soothing than hot ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Cook foods until very soft and tender. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease salt and spices. </li></ul><ul><li>*Note foods to avoid pg 98. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nausea <ul><li>Nausea can seriously affect nutritional intake and fluid balance. </li></ul><ul><li>May be related to physical condition, meds, chemo & radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Some foods can ease nausea: </li></ul><ul><li>Serve small meals </li></ul><ul><li>Foods that are dry and crisp </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid fatty and greasy foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid smells that irritate the client </li></ul><ul><li>Explore a change in the medication schedule. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vomiting <ul><li>Vomiting may follow nausea. </li></ul><ul><li>Make client comfortable and safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not offer food or fluid until vomiting is under control. </li></ul><ul><li>Once controlled try small amount of clear fluids. Before advancing to a full liquid diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Report nausea and vomiting as soon as possible to avoid dehydration. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Constipation <ul><li>The inability to expel fecal matter. Causes include physical condition, diet, meds or emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>You should be familiar with the clients regular routine. </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation can lead to pain, < appetite, fluid imbalance and poor med absorption. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Prevention and Treatment of Constipation
  13. 13. Prevention and Treatment of Constipation
  14. 14. Diarrhea <ul><li>Prolong diarrhea can result in dehydration, fluid imbalance, decreases appetite, change in physical activity and abdominal pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes; infection, food sensitivity, medication, chemo, radiation and emotional upset. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Diarrhea <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Change in mental state </li></ul><ul><li>< urine output </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Dry mouth and mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Dry, wrinkled skin (poor turgor) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diarrhea - Solutions <ul><li>Drink plenty of fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat food rich in sodium and potassium. Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>Eat low fiber foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid greasy foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid raw veggies and fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate spices. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit caffeine. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit milk if they have lactose intolerance. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Other sources of nutrition
  18. 18. One for the road…

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